American History 3 Pages, APA format


Module 2 - Literature Review Assignment

The primary purpose of this assignment is to help you understand that the literature review is an integral part of any research project and how it lays the groundwork for the investigation you will do. Quoting from Hart (1998, p 13), Sekaran and Bougie (2013) define a literature review as,  

  • …the selection of available documents (both published and unpublished) on the topic, which contain information, ideas, data and evidence written from a particular standpoint to fulfill certain aims or express certain views on the nature of the topic and how it is to be investigated, and the effective evaluation of these documents in relation to the research being proposed. (p. 49)
  • A literature review is a step-by-step process that involves the identification of published and unpublished work from secondary data sources on the topic of interest, the evaluation of this work in relation to the problem, and the documentation of the work. (Sekaran & Bougie, 2013, p. 50)

The Literature Review Assignment builds on your annotated bibliography assignment. For the topic you chose for your Module 1 Annotated Bibliography Assignment, complete this literature review assignment. A draft of this assignment is due in Module 3. Your instructor will provide you with feedback on your work and you will be able to revise it and turn in the final version in Module 5.

The purpose statement can be described as the goal of your study. In one (1) paragraph (no less the 275 words), state why you chose your research topic, the goal of the study, and what you intend to accomplish with the study. Indicate whether your research will follow qualitative approach.

Hi Ashley,

Please see the file attached




"Understanding Educational Beliefs"  Please respond to the following:

  • Dispute the argument that through hard work in the U.S., one is capable of determining one's place in society. Support or challenge this position based on research, as well as on your own life experiences.
  • Evaluate the extent to which two to three specific experiences in a classroom environment have influenced your educational beliefs about diversity in the classroom. 

PART 2 Please generate an answer for the discussion that I will provide via massage (this discussion is from a only student that I have to reply back no less than 250 words) PLEASE FOCUS ON SOTHING GOOD OF THE DISCUSSION AND ADD SOME ADDITIONAL INFORMATION)(ORIGINAL WORK, NO PLAGIARISM, 1 REFERENCE)


IT homework

Read the incident scenario, and write a response that is at least three pages in length. Your response must include answers to the questions being asked. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced. Paraphrased and/or quoted materials must have accompanying in-text and reference citations in APA format.





You are the Refinery Emergency Response Coordinator for an incident at the SJV Refinery which has been in operation since 1966. The refinery processes 120,000 bbls of crude oil per day, which has a sulfur content of 2.5 percent. The refinery converts crude oil to naptha, light oil, and heavy oils using the Atmospheric/Vacuum Distillation Unit with key equipment such as the following:


       naptha, kerosene, gasoline, and diesel hydrotreaters;

       isomerization unit;

       naptha reformer;

       fluid catalytic cracker;



       polymerization unit (petrochemical section of the refinery polymerizing olefin gases to produce polyethylene); 

       sulfur recovery Claus plant (catalytic reactors); and

       distillate/gasoline blending tanks.


The refinery was initiating work on a major plant turnaround at the time of the incident to complete required maintenance repairs, mechanical integrity inspections, and modifications to existing equipment. Twenty contractor companies (approximately 150 employees) have been contracted to perform this work under the direction of refinery staff. All of the contractor workers completed the refinery orientation training. 


Work for the contractor crews is assigned/scheduled each morning. On the day of the incident, the day-shift (6 am to 6 pm) crew had been tasked with isolating the acid gas feed stream for the Claus unit. Due to other work priorities, the crew did not isolate the line as planned. A shift turnover for the night contractor crew did not happen due to mandatory safety training that delayed their arrival at the worksite. Upon their arrival at the work site, the night crew held a job safety analysis (JSA) review of the scheduled task (line breaking of the acid gas feed line to replace a segment) to be performed and the hazards present. No pressure gauges or monitoring was present to indicate that the acid gas feed line was operational. The crew initiated the line breaking activity (open the line to the atmosphere) at approximately 7:45 pm under self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), which almost immediately resulted in the uncontrolled release of acid gas. A nearby ignition source from a welding operation ignited the flammable gas. The following actions were initially taken:


       The evacuation alarm was sounded and the refinery emergency response team (ERT) was activated. 

       The plant manager and the local fire department were notified of the incident.

       The incident command was established at the refinery office near the main refinery access gate to the south (this is the furthest distance within the refinery boundary from the incident location). 

       The refinery ERT incident commander implemented actions required under the approved refinery emergency response plan. 

       The ERT was not able to immediately isolate the acid gas feed pipeline. 

       The fire department arrived on location and assumed the incident command of the event. 


Additional Relevant Information:


       The refinery encompasses an area measuring 2000 feet by 1400 feet. The Claus unit is located in the most northern part of the refinery, approximately 1350 feet from the main refinery access gate to the south. The polymerization unit is operating directly adjacent to the Claus unit. 

       The nearest residential community is located approximately 1000 feet to the northeast of the refinery.

       A plastic recycling plant is located along the south fence boundary of the refinery. 

       A major interstate highway runs directly parallel to the plant, approximately 1/4 of a mile directly north of the refinery. 

       The ambient temperature on the day of the incident was 85° F and the wind was blowing at 7 mph from the southwest to the northeast.

       Work crews were scheduled to work 12-hour shifts, 24-hours a day, to complete the refinery turnaround. 

       Due to the age of the refinery, SJV has implemented a robust mechanical integrity program. 

       The refinery has a trained ERT that can respond to incidents. 

       Fixed water monitors are present throughout the refinery to extinguish refinery equipment fires. The refinery ERT does not fight fires past the incipient stage.

       The refinery has received notices of violation (NOVs) from the local air district in the past several years due to gas and liquid leaks from piping components, such as valves, compressor/pump seals, and for excess sodium dioxide (SO2) emissions related with their sulfur plant. 

       Due to historical discharges of organic compounds, groundwater monitoring wells are present down gradient of the facility. Groundwater underlying the plant has historically been encountered at 30 feet below ground surface. 

       Hydrogen sulfide is present in the acid gas feed to the Claus plant. The H2S concentration of the acid gas feed is approximately 70 percent by volume. H2S  and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have the following physical properties:


Physical Property 



Specific Gravity at 68oF (20oC)



Vapor Density (Air=1)




-116oF (-82.4oC)

Not Applicable 

Autoignition Point

500oF (260oC)

Not Applicable

Lower Explosive Limit


Not Applicable

Upper Explosive Limit


Not Applicable


100 ppm

100 ppm




1.    Discuss the hazards posed by the interaction of the hazardous materials present at the refinery and adjacent facilities, including the resulting by-products of the incident fire and acid gas release. 

2.    As the lead refinery representative on the unified incident command (UIC), what actions should be taken by the UIC to respond to this incident (please consider all receptors).

3.    If the polymerization unit is engulfed in the fire, how will this affect your response?

4.    All emergency responders participated in the post-incident critique. What corrective actions should be implemented by the refinery to prevent the reoccurrence of this incident?





Assignment 2: Required Assignment—Balancing Company Interests vs. the Public Interest

Select a topic and work on the relevant tasks for this assignment.

Topic A:

The United States has still not recovered from the recent wave of mortgage defaults and foreclosures. Experts predict that the housing market will take years to recover in some locations due to a variety of factors. There are numerous publications that detail how the problem developed. Many of the reasons for the collapse of the housing market have ethical implications.


  • Using the Argosy University online library resources or the Internet, research the financial collapse of the housing market.
  • Create a 10- to 12-page report discussing your findings. Explore the evidence from an ethical point of view.

Topic B:


  • Select three or four essays from your textbook relating to your area of experience and expertise (for example, finance, accounting, or technology).
  • Create a 10- to 12-page report critiquing your chosen readings.
    • Include a literature review of your chosen essays, starting with a synopsis of the major ideas and themes in each essay.
  • Conduct an in-depth critique of the essays by comparing and contrasting the essential points discussed in each work.
  • Include a reflective assessment of what lessons one can learn from the points brought up in the essays and how they can effectively be implemented in a typical business setting.

The following is a checklist that you can use in analyzing or critiquing your chosen essays:

Each piece of writing is different; but, in most cases, the majority of these questions are applicable. Use these questions as a point of reference for your critique. You may also cover other relevant aspects of an essay not addressed by the critique question list below:

  • Is the essay's title a clear depiction of its content? Why or why not?
  • Is the author qualified to write about the subject matter?
  • What is the purpose of the essay? Is it stated clearly?
  • Identify the problem statement in the essay. Does the introduction and conclusion focus clearly on the problem statement?
  • Is the statement of facts (beyond commonly known facts) supported by appropriate citations in the text and/or references?
  • Which ideas in the essay need further development?
  • What ideas in the essay are practical enough to be implemented in a business setting and which ideas are rather impractical? Why?
  • Does the essay contain discursive or irrelevant sections? If yes, what are they?
  • Is the work biased in any way? Examine the author's biases.
  • Is there an idea that is common to all the essays?
  • How is the essay different from the other essay(s) you are also critiquing?

Complete the tasks pertaining to the chosen topic.



hey can you help me with this assignment, its 3 discussion questions (1-2 paragraph a piece) Assignment (3-4 pages) for $20


its due sunday morning 1/22/16 at 8:00 am est


Week 3 Discussion

"Preferred Stock Bailouts and Personal Holding Company"  Please respond to the following:

  • From your analysis of Section 306 in the e-Activity, differentiate between the tax treatment of earnings and profit on the distributing corporation of both a sale of Section 306 stock and redemption of Section 306 stock. Suggest the most important reasons for this differentiation in tax treatment.

  • Per the text, the personal holding company (PHC) tax penalizes taxpayers who enter into tax-motivated transactions designed to shelter passive income of closely held corporations from higher individual tax rates. Suppose you represent a professional athlete who is the majority owner of a corporation. The corporation has several personal service contracts with advertising agencies and endorsements for your client in addition to passive income. Propose a plan in which you eliminate the potential for the PHC tax on the client’s corporation.


Week 4 Discussion

"Corporate Liquidations, Taxable Acquisition Transactions, and Nontaxable Reorganizations"  Please respond to the following:

  • From the e-Activity, evaluate the appropriateness of the techniques used and the common issues pursued by the IRS in corporate liquidations and dissolutions. Create an argument to defend the client if the IRS pursues the assignment of income doctrine or the clear reflection of income doctrine on a cash-basis corporation, as reflected in the Examining Officers Guide (EOG).

  • IRC Section 338 allows a deemed sale election generating immediate taxation to the target corporation and a stepped-up or stepped-down basis to the price paid by the acquiring corporation for the target corporation stock plus liabilities on the deemed sale. Examine at least one (1) benefit of a Section IRC 338 liquidation election for a target corporation. Create a situation which demonstrates a favorable IRC Section 338 liquidation election for a target corporation.

Week 5 Discussion

"Consolidated Net Operating Losses and Consolidated Tax Returns"  Based on the lecture, address the following:

  • Imagine that a client is pursuing the acquisition of Corporation A that has a substantial net operating loss. Corporation B is a member of the controlled group and is currently included in the consolidated tax return that also has a net operating loss. Analyze the potential advantages and disadvantages of Corporation B’s acquisition of Corporation A and Corporation A’s subsequent inclusion in Corporation B’s consolidated tax return. Suggest the key tax issues the client should consider in determining the deductibility of the net operating losses.

  • Imagine that corporations P, S, and C are members of a parent-subsidiary controlled group filing a consolidated tax return. Corporations A and B are members of a brother-sister controlled group that cannot file a consolidated tax return. Design a strategy geared toward creating an affiliated group which makes Corporations A, B, P, S, and C all eligible to file a consolidated tax return.


Assignment 2: Constructive Dividends, Redemptions, and Related Party Losses

Suppose you are a CPA hired to represent a client that is currently under examination by the IRS. The client is the president and 95% shareholder of a building supply sales and warehousing business. He also owns 50% of the stock of a construction company. The client’s son owns the remaining 50% of the stock of the construction company. The client has received a Notice of Proposed Adjustments (NPA) on three (3) significant issues related to the building supply business for the years under examination. The issues identified in the NPA are unreasonable compensation, stock redemptions, and a rental loss. Additional facts regarding the issues are reflected below:

  • Unreasonable compensation: The taxpayer receives a salary of $10 million composed of a $5 million base salary plus 5% of gross receipts not to exceed $5 million. The total gross receipts of the building supply business are $300 million. The NPA by the IRS disallows the salary based on 5% of gross receipts as a constructive dividend.

  • Stock redemptions: During the audit period, the construction company redeemed 50% of the outstanding stock owned by the client and 50% of the stock owned by the client’s son, leaving each with the same ownership percentage of 50%. The IRS treated the redemption as a distribution under Section 301 of the IRC.

  • Rental loss: The rental loss results from a building leased to the construction company owned by the client and his son.

Use the Internet and Strayer databases to research the rules and income tax laws regarding unreasonable compensation, stock redemptions treated as dividends and related party losses. Be sure to use the six (6) step tax research process in Chapter 1 and demonstrated in Appendix A of your textbook as a guide for your written response.

Write a three to four (3-4) page paper in which you:

  • Based on your research and the facts stated in the scenario, prepare a recommendation for the client in which you advise either acceptance of the proposed adjustments or further appeal of the issue based on the potential for prevailing on appeal.

  • Create a tax plan for the future redemption of the client’s stock owned in the construction company that will not be taxed according to Section 301 of the IRC.

  • Propose a strategy for the client to receive similar amounts in compensation in the future and avoid the taxation as a constructive dividend.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.

  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:


  • Analyze tax issues regarding corporate formations, capital structures, income tax, non-liquidating distributions, or other corporate levies.

  • Prepare client, internal, and administrative documents that appropriately convey the results of tax research and planning.

  • Create an approach to tax research that results in credible and current resources.

  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in organizational tax research and planning.

  • Write clearly and concisely about organizational tax research and planning using proper writing mechanics.