TOPIC: Relationship between different types of risk and economic capital in banking industry



Hi, please cover the following points  research proposal: 1. why this topic is worth investigating and the importance of it; 2. reason for choosing this topic: 1). integrating different risks which require massive math and actuarial knowledge; 2). exploring this relationship is useful for banking strategy and risk mitigation; 3). this field is a fresh research direction which has not been studied thoroughly in recent years. 3. general steps to approach this topic; Here is the original requirement of proposal from the uni: The research proposal should include: an abstract; the research objectives; the proposed research methodology; a summary review of the relevant literature and current understanding or knowledge; an indication of how the proposed research will contribute to the discipline; Thanks a lot :

 
 
4pages
Need it before midnight

Listed below are the names of some of the world’s top technology-related innovators. They have also been called leaders, entrepreneurs, disrupters, or good old-fashioned trouble-makers. They have gone against the odds, rattling stale industries to build new ones. Recognize their names? Not likely, though you may instantly recognize their product, technology, or scientific inventions, which have made headlines. However, their success would not be possible without the effective management of team members. For this assignment, you are required to choose two people from the list and create a PowerPoint presentation.

First, choose two leaders from the list below:

  • Caleb Chung
  • Cory Booker
  • Craig Venter
  • Dan Olschwang
  • Diane Greene
  • Hjalmar Winbladh
  • Jeremy Stoppelman
  • Mark Gorton
  • Russell Simmons
  • Sunil Shaunak

Now, respond to the following:

  • Utilize your research and identify the methods these innovators or leaders are using to communicate through technology in an effort to remain relevant in their industries.
  • Explain how technology has advanced each of their businesses, leading to growth.
  • Determine if innovative products, such as Google X, iWatch, or the new Cardboard Bike, can be linked to transformational or transactional leadership. Defend your position.
  • Self-managed teams are often used to hide inventions from public view. Utilizing your research, identify ways managers and project leaders working under constraints can accomplish this.

Develop a 4–6-slide presentation in PowerPoint format. Include detailed speaker notes in your presentation.

 

Utilize at least two scholarly sources to complete your research, referencing sources within the text and at the end in a reference list. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

 

 Emery, C. R., & Barker, K. J. (2007). The effect of transactional and transformational leadership styles on the organizational commitment and job satisfaction of customer contact personnel. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 11(1), 77–90. (ProQuest document ID 216597373)

http://www.thecampuscommon.com/library/ezproxy/ticketdemocs.asp?

sch=auo&turl=http://search.proquest.com/docview/216597373

PowerPoint / Prezi Presentation, Due Friday, no more than 12 slides. 



1.    Learning Objective:  Analyze and develop a framework for sustainability using the triple bottom line (people, planet and profit). 

2.    Learning Objective:  Execute a business plan for an identified new business venture 



The Presentation that you will be making to the business or investor group describing and seeking approval. (Like the paper that you wrote for me)

 

All chapters 1-15 of text in preparation for presentation.  - Barringer, B. R., & Ireland, R. D. (2015). Entrepreneurship: successfully launching new ventures(5th ed.). Harlow, Essex: Pearson.

 

 

  1. Apply collaborative leadership models to establish a new venture.
  2. Understand the challenges of operating, growing and ending a business.  
  3. Understand the legal requirements of starting a business.
  4. Execute a business plan for an identified new business venture
  5. Introduction to Entrepreneurship    
    • Recognizing Opportunities and Generating Ideas   
    • Feasibility Analysis   
    • Writing a Business Plan   
    • Industry and Competitor Analysis   
    • Preparing the Proper Ethical and Legal Foundation   
    • Assessing a New Venture’s Financial Strength and Viability   
  6. Getting Financing or Funding   
    • Unique Marketing Issues   
    • The Importance of Intellectual Property   
    • Preparing for and Evaluating the Challenges of Growth   
    • Strategies for Firm Growth   
    • Franchising    

the answers should be from the books and sources that were mentioned in the attached description file.

hello

Assignment: Individual Reflection: Blueprint for Professional and Personal Growth

Reflect on the process of creating goals for the BPPG in the previous courses of this program. Think about how you employed creativity to create this plan: you had to consider your currently existing leadership and professional skills, imagine a future version of yourself who has grown and developed in exciting ways, and generate innovative plans to overcome any challenges you might face in the course of your personal and professional development.

As in previous courses, you will now add to your Blueprint for Professional and Personal Growth. You should develop your BPPG from your learning in this course and design it to help you become a leader who knows how to demonstrate creativity, support creativity within your team, and use foresight to foster creativity and innovation.

Consider the following as you complete this Individual Reflection:

  • What can you do now to integrate the experiences and insights you had in this course with your personal and professional development goals?
  • What are the most important things you are taking from this course that will shape your future and enable you to make a positive difference?

All components of the Individual Reflection should be turned in as one document:

  1. The Executive Summary: Write an Executive Summary of the course to date (2–3 paragraphs) that addresses the following questions:
    • Which content and assignments in this course have had the biggest impact on your ability to foster a culture of innovation within an organization?
    • How have the content and assignments changed the way you think of the role of innovation within the organization and the way you will engage in the creative process?
    • How can the knowledge you gained in this course enable you to make a positive difference?
    • In what ways do you think innovation and creativity can influence positive social change within an organization, community, or more broadly?
    • How have the content and assignments continued to shape your goals?
  2. After considering what you have learned in the course, create a focused and succinct strategy for your personal and professional life that will enable you to be the innovation leader you described in your Week 7 Individual Reflection. As part of your strategy, be sure to include responses to the following:
    • List three areas you could focus on for your innovation strategy relative to your own organization, an organization for which you would aspire to work, or your personal life. Describe the importance of each of the focus areas chosen and provide examples with support from the resources.
    • Describe how you will measure progress toward your success.
    • Describe how being an innovation leader could potentially enable you to foster positive social change. To what extent do you think innovation can contribute to positive social change? Provide an example to support your position.
  3. Your action plan: Write a detailed action plan for one new goal for professional and personal development (you will continue to build on the list of goals you started in your previous course). These action plans should include the following:
    • Your specific goal for professional and personal development with an explanation as to why you selected it. Be sure to provide concrete and specific examples of why the goal is important, the extent to which this goal enables you to be an agent for positive social change, the personal or professional value you expect from achieving the goal, and how the goal relates to the resources you reviewed in the course.
    • Hint: If you want to expand upon a plan or initiative you have already proposed in a previous week, feel free to do so.
    • At least two objectives for the goal you have identified. Provide a rationale that explains how your objectives will help you to achieve your goal.

By Day 5

Submit your Assignment.

Guidance on Assignment Length: Your BPPG, including the Executive Summary (which should be 2–3 paragraphs in length and no more than one page single spaced or two double-spaced pages), strategy for your personal and professional life that will enable you to be an innovation leader, and your action plan should be 3–6 pages total (1.5–3 pages total if single spaced). Refer to the Week 8 Individual Reflection rubric (BPPG Rubric) for grading elements and criteria. Your instructor will use the rubric to assess your work.

 

RUBRIC

Criterion WeightMax PointsExemplaryVery Good Proficient Opportunity for ImprovementUnacceptable
   100.00%93.00%85.00%75.00%0.00%
Element 1a: Content of Executive Summary: Responding to the Questions 10.00%13.00Student presents a thorough and complete Executive Summary with rich, articulate, and well-reasoned responses to all of the questions posed in the assignment and eloquently embeds them into a cohesive and compelling Executive Summary, with direct and relevant references to the Course and Program Outcomes.Student presents an Executive Summary with well-reasoned responses to all of the questions posed in the assignment and embeds them into an Executive Summary with references to the Course and Program Outcomes.Student presents an Executive Summary of the course that addresses the questions posed in the assignment and makes some connections to the Course and Program Outcomes. Some examples and resources support thinking.Student provides cursory coverage of some or all the questions posed as part of the requirements for the Executive Summary or does not address all of the questions, although he/she does provide a summary of one or two.Not submitted or little to no evidence of addressing the criterion.
Element 1b: Content of Executive Summary: Impact of Lessons Learned In Course 10.00%13.00Student provides a comprehensive summary of his/her main lessons from the course and how those support his/her achievement of at least two course outcomes providing a rich assessment of the main ideas or conclusions he/she has taken from the experience in the course including assessing how these will affect his/her practices now and in the future.Student provides a summary of his/her main lessons from the course and how those support his/her achievement of one or two course outcomes providing an assessment of the main ideas or conclusions he/she has taken from the experience in the course including assessing how these will affect his/her practices now and in the future.Student provides a description of the main lessons of the course and how those relate to his/her achievement of course and program outcomes as well as how these will affect his/her practices now and in the future.Student summarizes a few main points from the classroom, but does not create an Executive Summary aligned with the expectations as outlined in the document provided in the classroom.Not submitted or little to no evidence of addressing the criterion.
Element 1c: Format of Executive Summary: Beginning 5.00%6.50Student begins the Executive Summary with a compelling statement of its purpose and presents a succinct and cohesive summary that focuses on the main outcomes he/she ascertained from the course and his/her experience in engaging in the assignments and discussions. Relevant examples and resources support thinking.Student begins the Executive Summary with a statement of its purpose and presents a succinct summary that focuses on the main outcomes he/she ascertained from the course and his/her experience in engaging in the assignments and discussions. Examples and resources support thinking. Student begins the Executive Summary with a clear statement of its purpose and presents a summary that focuses on the main outcomes he/she acquired from the course and his/her experience in engaging in the assignments and discussions. Some examples and resources support thinking.Student summarizes a few main points from the classroom, but does not create an Executive Summary aligned with the expectations as outlined in the document provided in the classroom. Few examples or resources support thinking.Not submitted or little to no evidence of addressing the criterion.
Element 1d: Format of Executive Summary: Middle 5.00%6.50Student provides a thorough and detailed explanation for why he/she chose to highlight the content and topics, providing relevant details and examples, discusses each main point in the order in which it was encountered in the classroom, and organizes his/her thoughts logically and with clarity. Relevant examples and resources support thinking.Student provides an explanation for why he/she chose to highlight the content and topic, providing supporting details and examples, discusses each main point in the order in which it was encountered in the classroom, and organizes his/her thoughts logically. Examples and resources support thinking.Student provides an explanation with some details of each main point in the order in which it was encountered in the classroom, and organizes his/her thoughts logically. Some examples and resources support thinking.Student summarizes a few main points from the classroom, but does not create Executive Summary content aligned with the expectations as outlined in the document provided in the classroom. Few examples or resources support thinking.Not submitted or little to no evidence of addressing the criterion.
Element 1e: Format of Executive Summary: End 5.00%6.50The Executive Summary is clear and organized; concise (no more than 3 paragraphs); and the student writes in non-technical language and defines any language that may not be familiar to his/her audience. Student presents a brief and cogent conclusion at the end of the summary that enables the reader to synthesize the information provided. Relevant examples and resources support thinking.The Executive Summary is clear and organized; concise (no more than 3 paragraphs); and the student mostly writes in non-technical language. Student presents a brief and cogent conclusion at the end of the summary that enables the reader to synthesize the information provided. Examples and resources support thinking.The Executive Summary is clear, concise (no more than 3 paragraphs), and written in non-technical language. Student presents a brief conclusion at the end of the summary that enables the reader to somewhat synthesize the information provided. Some examples and resources support thinking.Student summarizes a few main points from the classroom, but does not create an Executive Summary aligned with the expectations as provided in the classroom and/or student does not present a brief and clear conclusion at the end of the summary that enables the reader to synthesize the information provided. Few examples or resources support thinking.Not submitted or little to no evidence of addressing the criterion.
Element 2a: Strategy for Professional and Personal Life: Strategy To Be Innovative Leader 5.00%6.50Student presents a detailed strategy for his/her personal and professional life and explicitly demonstrates how that strategy will enable him/her to be the innovation leader described in the Week 7 Individual Reflection, providing specific examples and observations to support the strategy, and identifying risks or challenges that potentially exist and suggests ways to address those.Student presents a strategy for his/her personal and professional life and explicitly demonstrates how that strategy will enable him/her to be the innovation leader described in the Week 7 Individual Reflection, providing examples and observations that supports the strategy, and identifies risks or challenges that potentially exist.Student presents a focused and succinct strategy for his/her personal and professional life that will enable him/her to be the innovation leader as described in the Week 7 Individual Reflection.Student briefly describes the innovation leader he/she aspires to be as described in the Week 7 Individual Reflection.Not submitted or little to no evidence of addressing the criterion.
Element 2b: Strategy for Professional and Personal Life: 3 Ways to Focus on Innovative Strategy in Workplace 5.00%6.50Student lists three areas he/she could focus on for his/her innovation strategy relative to his/her own organization, an organization for which he/she would aspire to work, or the student's personal life providing a thorough and detailed description of the importance of each of the focus areas chosen and providing relevant examples with support from the course resources.Student lists three areas he/she could focus on for his/her innovation strategy relative to the his/her own organization, an organization for which he/she would aspire to work, or his/her personal life providing a thorough description of the importance of each of the focus areas chosen and providing examples with support from the course resources.Student lists three areas he/she could focus on for his/her innovation strategy relative to the his/her own organization, an organization for which he/she would aspire to work, or his/her personal life providing a description with some details of the importance of each of the focus areas chosen and providing some examples with support from the course resources.Student provides a cursory review of his/her findings with a few observations.Not submitted or little to no evidence of addressing the criterion.
Element 2c: Strategy for Professional and Personal Life: Measuring Progress Towards Success 5.00%6.50Student provides a thorough and detailed description of how he/she will measure progress toward his or her success. Relevant examples and resources support thinking.Student provides a thorough description of how he/she will measure progress toward his or her success. Examples and resources support thinking.Student provides a description with some details of how he/she will measure progress toward his or her success. Some examples and resources support thinking.Student provides a cursory review of his/her findings with a few observations.Not submitted or little to no evidence of addressing the criterion.
Element 2d: Strategy for Professional and Personal Life: Fostering Positive Social Change 5.00%6.50Student provides a thorough and detailed description of how being an innovation leader could potentially enable him/her to foster positive social change with a detailed assessment of the extent to which he/she thinks innovation can contribute to positive social change and a salient example to support the student's position.Student provides a description of how being an innovation leader could potentially enable him/her to foster positive social change with an assessment of the extent to which he/she thinks innovation can contribute to positive social change and an example to support the student's position.Student provides a description with some details of how being an innovation leader could potentially enable him/her to foster positive social change with an explanation of the extent to which he/she thinks innovation can contribute to positive social change and an example to support the student's position.Student provides a cursory review of his/her findings with a few observations. Not submitted or little to no evidence of addressing the criterion.
Element 3: Action Plan 10.00%13.00Student delineates at least one new specific goal for personal and professional development assessing the importance of the goal(s) by providing concrete and specific examples/observations that support why the goal is important, assesses the personal or professional value expected from achieving the goal(s), and cohesively integrates course resources into his/her definition and assessment of the new goal(s).Student defines at least one new goal for personal and professional development explaining the importance of the goal(s) by providing specific examples/observations that support why the goal is important, explaining the personal or professional value expected from achieving the goal(s, and integrates resources from the course into his/her definition of the new goal(s).Student identifies a new goal for personal and professional development with an explanation as to why the goal was selected, why it is important, the personal or professional value he/she expects from achieving the goal, and how the goal relates to the resources from the course.Student provides a new goal and a cursory description of why it is important.Not submitted or little to no evidence of addressing the criterion.
Element 4: Social Change Impact 10.00%13.00Student evaluates at least three of the most important lessons he/she is taking from this course, explains how those lessons will shape his/her future enabling him/her to make a positive difference, and provides at least three concrete and specific examples illustrating how the learning supports his/her goal(s) for being or becoming an effective agent for positive social change.Student explains at least three of the most important lessons he/she is taking from this course, explains how those lessons will shape his/her future enabling him/her to make a positive difference, and provides at least three examples illustrating how the learning supports his/her goal(s) for being or becoming an effective agent for positive social change.Student describes some lessons he/she is taking from this course, describes how those lessons will shape his/her future and enable him/her to make a positive difference, provides some examples illustrating how the learning supports his or her goal(s) for being or becoming an effective agent for positive social change.Student provides a cursory description with vague or missing details linking his or her knowledge from the course to goal(s) for making a positive change, but does not provide specific or relevant examples of how he/she will use the learning from the course to further his or her efforts to promote positive social change.Not submitted or little to no evidence of addressing the criterion.
Element 5: Critical Thinking, Analysis, and Synthesis 10.00%13.00Student exhibits evidence of thoughtful critical analysis and thinking; careful examination is made of assumptions and possible biases, with detailed supporting rationale. Writing synthesizes the classroom experiences and content; analyzes patterns or connections between theory and practice; and draws logical conclusions based on well-reasoned arguments. New questions may be presented based on synthesis of ideas and input.Student exhibits evidence of thoughtful critical analysis and thinking; examination is made of assumptions and possible biases, with supporting rationale. Writing synthesizes the classroom experiences and content; analyzes patterns or connections between theory and practice; and draws logical conclusions based on well-reasoned arguments. New questions may be presented based on synthesis of ideas and input.Student exhibits some evidence of thoughtful critical analysis and thinking; some examination is made of assumptions and possible biases, with rationale. Writing somewhat synthesizes the classroom experiences and content; analyzes patterns or connections between theory and practice; or draws logical conclusions based on well-reasoned arguments.Student exhibits little or no evidence of thoughtful critical analysis and thinking; minimal examination is made of assumptions and possible biases, with rationale. Writing minimally synthesizes the classroom experiences and content; analyzes patterns or connections between theory and practice; or draws logical conclusions based on well-reasoned arguments.Not submitted or little to no evidence of addressing the criterion.
Element 6: Written Communications5.00%6.50Writing is clear, logical, well-organized and appropriate. Work is free from spelling and grammar/syntax errors.  Tone is professional and free from bias (i.e., sexism, racism). There are no errors.Writing is mostly clear, logical, and organized. Few, if any spelling and grammar/syntax issues are noted.  Overall, a few sections need additional editing, but generally, work appears proofread. Tone is professional and free from bias (i.e., sexism, racism). There are one or two minor errors.The main points are clear and organized. Some spelling, grammar/syntax issues are noted. Tone is professional and free from bias (i.e., sexism, racism). There are key sections that lack organization or logical flow. Many spelling, grammar/syntax issues are noted. Work requires additional proofreading. Not submitted or little to no evidence of addressing the criterion.
Element 7: Relevance5.00%6.50Student effectively and directly integrates discussion/assignment content with relevant and compelling personal experiences, additional research, or current events from credible news sources.  Specifically adds a new and/or different insight or perspective on the subject area(s) being discussed or treated in the assignment.Student offers personal experiences, additional research, or current events from credible news sources, discussing their relevance, but does not specifically add new or different insights or perspectives on the subject areas(s) being discussed or treated in the assignment.Student offers some examples of how the content of the discussion/application applies to real-world scenarios with general discussion of why those examples are relevant. Student offers brief or cursory descriptions of personal experiences, additional research, or current events from credible news sources.Not submitted or little to no evidence of addressing the criterion.
Element 8:  Formal and Appropriate Documentation of Evidence, Attribution of Ideas (APA Citations)5.00%6.50Student demonstrates full adherence to scholarly or credible reference requirements and adheres to APA style with respect to source attribution and references. There are no APA errors.Student demonstrates full adherence to scholarly or credible reference requirements and adheres to APA style with respect to source attribution and references. There are one or two minor errors in APA style or format.Student addresses guidelines for scholarly or credible references and/or APA style with respect to source attribution and references. Some errors in APA format and style are evident.Student demonstrates inconsistent adherence to scholarly reference requirements and/or inconsistent adherence to APA style with respect to source attribution and references. Significant and/or numerous errors in APA format and style are evident.Not submitted or little to no evidence of addressing the criterion.

 

Need this one done soon, COMP SCIENCE

The article it is about is:

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrition and Disease

Bioactives in Blueberries Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Obese, Insulin-Resistant Men and Women1–4

April J. Stull, Katherine C. Cash, William D. Johnson, Catherine M. Champagne, and William T. Cefalu*

Center for the Study of Botanicals and Metabolic Syndrome, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808

Abstract

Dietary supplementation with whole blueberries in a preclinical study resulted in a reduction in glucose concentrations over time. We sought to evaluate the effect of daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from blueberries on whole-body insulin sensitivity in men and women. A double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical study design was used. After screening to resolve study eligibility, baseline (wk 0) insulin sensitivity was measured on 32 obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant subjects using a high-dose hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (insulin infusion of 120 mU(861 pmol)×m22×min21). Serum inflammatory biomarkers and adiposity were measured at baseline. At the end of the study, insulin sensitivity, inflammatory biomarkers, and adiposity were reassessed. Participants were randomized to consume either a smoothie containing 22.5 g blueberry bioactives (blueberry group, n = 15) or a smoothie of equal nutritional value without added blueberry bioactives (placebo group, n = 17) twice daily for 6 wk. Both groups were instructed to maintain their body weight by reducing ad libitum intake by an amount equal to the energy intake of the smoothies. Participants’ body weights were evaluated weekly and 3-d food records were collected at baseline, the middle, and end of the study. The mean change in insulin sensitivity improved more in the blueberry group (1.7 6 0.5 mg×kg FFM21×min21) than in the placebo group (0.4 6 0.4 mg×kg FFM21×min21)(P = 0.04). Insulin sensitivity was enhanced in the blueberry group at the end of the study without significant changes in adiposity, energy intake, and inflammatory biomarkers. In conclusion, daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from whole blueberries improved insulin sensitivity in obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant participants. J. Nutr. 140: 1764–1768, 2010.

Introduction

Increased consumption of berries has been shown to improve cognitive function, risk of cardiovascular disease, and cancer (1,2). Studies have also reported that specific berries, i.e., blueberries, have antidiabetic effects. Specifically, a study performed in mice (3) found that supplementation with

whole blueberries reduced the blood glucose area under the curve (AUC)5 in vivo and cell culture studies (4,5) demonstrated increased glucose uptake in vitro (6). In addition, inflammatory genes have been reduced in mice after consuming blueberry bioactives, which suggests an antiinflammatory response (3). The purported health benefits from blueberries have been attributed to their phenolic bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins, which also have antioxidant properties (6–8). Given the concern regarding the ability to greatly increase and maintain an individual’s fruit and vegetable consumption over a long-term period (9), the role of dietary supplementation with bioactive components in blueberries remains a very attractive and feasible daily dietary intervention. To the best of our knowledge, there is no human research that has reported on the efficacy of increased blueberry bioactive consumption on insulin sensitivity by using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique (10), which is the gold standard for measuring in

1 Supported in part by the NIH training grant T32 AT004094 (supporting A.J.S.), by the United States Highbush Blueberry Council, and P50AT002776-01 from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine and the Office of Dietary Supplements (W.T.C.), which funds the Botanical Research Center of Pennington Biomedical Research Center and The Biotech Center of Rutgers University. This project used facilities that are supported in part by Centers of Biomedical Research Excellence (NIH P20-RR021945) and Clinical Nutrition Research Unit (NIH 1P30-DK072476) center grants from the NIH. 2 Author disclosures: A.J.Stull,K.C. Cash,W. D. Johnson, andC. M.Champagne, no conflicts of interest. W. T. Cefalu received research funds from the United States Highbush Blueberry Council. 3 This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01005420. 4 Supplemental Figure 1 and Table 1 are available with the online posting of this paper at jn.nutrition.org. * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: william.cefalu@pbrc. edu.

5 Abbreviations used: AUC, area under the curve; hsCRP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1; TNFa, tumor necrosis factor-a.

ã 2010 American Society for Nutrition. 1764 Manuscript received April 13, 2010. Initial review completed May 18, 2010. Revision accepted July 12, 2010. First published online August 19, 2010; doi:10.3945/jn.110.125336.

 by guest on January 11, 2014jn.nutrition.orgDownloaded from

6.DC1.html http://jn.nutrition.org/content/suppl/2010/09/20/jn.110.12533 Supplemental Material can be found at:

vivo insulin action. Therefore, this project’s overall objective was to examine the role of dietary supplementation with bioactives in freeze-dried whole blueberry powder on insulin action in vivo with the use of hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in individuals who were obese, nondiabetic, and insulin resistant. We hypothesized that increased daily consumption of blueberry bioactives, based on preclinical data, would be effective in increasing insulin action in vivo and ultimately result in improved insulin sensitivity in a human population at high risk for type 2 diabetes.

Subjects and Methods

Subjects. Participants inthe study were recruited fromthe Greater Baton Rouge area. A total of 32 men and women completed all evaluations (Supplemental Fig. 1). Those included were adults ($20 y old), obese (BMI between 32 and 45 kg/m2), and insulin resistant (nondiabetic). The exclusion criteria included: 1) diabetes; no diabetes status was confirmed by a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test; 2) medications known to affect glucose metabolism; 3) untreated thyroid or chronic liver, renal, or cardiovascular disease; 4) a history of drug and/or alcohol abuse, or psychiatric disease prohibiting adherence to study protocol; 5) history of allergic reactions to blueberries; 6) consuming berries, grapes, and wine .3 times/wk; and 7) fluctuation in body weight . 5% in the preceding 2 mo. The Institutional Review Board for human subjects at Pennington Biomedical Research Center reviewed and approved the study protocol. All participants gave written consent prior to starting the study.

Study design.This study design was double blinded, placebo-controlled, and randomized. All study evaluations and measurementswere performed onparticipantsthat had fasted for 10h. Aweekwasdefined as7 d (6 2 d).

Clinical intervention and source of whole blueberry bioactives. The freeze-dried whole blueberry powder was prepared by the United States Highbush Blueberry Council (USDA oversight). The whole blueberry powder was made from a 50/50 mixture of 2 varieties of highbush blueberries, Tifblue (Vaccinium ashei) and Rubel (Vaccinium corymbosum). The whole blueberries were freeze-dried, milled, and stored in aluminum cans under nitrogen. Based on the compositional analysis, the 45 g of blueberry powder contained 1462 mg of total phenolics, 668 mg of anthocyanins, and 16.02 mmol TE of antioxidants (oxygen radical absorbance capacity). Also, the 45 g of blueberry powder that was provided to the participants equated to an amount of bioactives in ~2 cups of fresh whole blueberries. After the participants were assessed as being insulin resistant (glucose disposal rate # 650 mg/min), they were randomized to receive twice daily a smoothie with blueberry bioactives added or an identical smoothie without blueberry bioactives (i.e., placebo) (Supplemental Table 1). The participants were instructed to consume 1 smoothie at breakfast meals and the other smoothie at dinner meals (at least 6 h apart). The smoothies were prepared in the metabolic kitchen and a week’s supply of frozen smoothies was provided in a cooler for the participants to pick up at each weekly visit. Participants were instructed to keep the smoothies frozen, thaw them in the refrigerator, avoid exposing them to direct heat, and avoid adding any other ingredients to them. For study compliance, the participants verbally reported their smoothie consumption to the dietitian at each visit. A compliance of .75% was mandatory for continued participation in the study.

Physiologic assessments. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (10) were performed to assess insulin sensitivity after a 10-h fast. Participants were admitted into the inpatient research unit the evening prior to their insulin sensitivity testing day and consumed a eucaloric standardized meal (50% carbohydrates, 35% fat, and 15% protein). The next morning, an i.v. catheter was placed in an antecubital vein for infusion of insulin and glucose. A second catheter was inserted in a dorsal vein of the contralateral arm for blood withdrawal. The hand was placed between a

heating pad for arterialization of venous blood sampling. During the 45 min prior to the clamp, bloodsamples were collected every 15 min for glucose and insulin. Then insulin was administered at a primedcontinuous infusion rate of 120 mU(861 pmol)×m22×min21 for 2 h and blood samples were collected every 5 min for glucose and every 15 min for insulin during this period. Serum insulin was measured by a Siemens Immulite 2000 using immunoassay with chemiluminescent. A variable infusionof dextrose (20% solution) was given to maintainserum glucose concentrations at ;5.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL). Arterialized serum glucose was measured using a YSI 2300 Stat Plus glucose analyzer (model no. 2300 STAT Plus D) and Beckman Coulter DXC600. During the steady state (last 30 min of clamp), the mean rate of exogenous glucose infusion was corrected for changes in glycemia and divided by fat-free mass to assess insulin sensitivity.

Body weight/fat distribution. Fat-free mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with CV for measurements assessed at 0.6, 1.1, and 1.1%, respectively. Overall, biologic, instrument, and reader variability was assessed at ~10%.

Serum inflammatory biomarkers and lipids. During the baseline of the clamp, blood was collected for measuring serum inflammatory biomarkers, including high sensitivityC-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNFa), and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). TNFa and MCP-1 were measured on a Luminex system using kits from Millipore. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by automated immunoassay as assessed on a Siemens 2000 instrument. In addition, the serum lipid profile was measured (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol). Triglycerides and total cholesterol were measured by using a Beckman Coulter DXC600 and HDL-cholesterol was measured by using a Trinity DXC600. LDL-cholesterol was based on a calculation [cholesterol 2 (1/ 5 triglycerides) – HDL].

Food records and questionnaires. At the screening visits, a registered dietitian instructed participants to record a detailed 3-d food record (i.e., 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day). Participants were asked to provide labels and/or recipes for accuracy of the food records. The dietitian reviewed the food records for accuracy and completeness. Based on their eating patterns and usual intake, participants were counseled by the dietitian on ways to remove ~2000 kJ/d (500 kcal/d) from their daily intake to compensate for the energy consumed in the blueberry and placebo smoothies. Food records were also administered at the midpoint and end of the study. The food records were analyzed using the Pennington Biomedical Research Center’s Food Diary Program (Pennington Biomedical Research Foundation). Participants were asked to maintain their current body weight and physical activity or they would be eliminated from the study. The participants’ body weights were measured weekly to monitor weight maintenance. A change of $1 kg of body weight was addressed by the dietitian and proper counseling was provided. They also reported adverse events and changes in medication during the study. The smoothie rating and fruit/wine questionnaires were also used in the study. Before starting the study, participants were given the opportunity to taste the smoothie for acceptability. The fruit/wine questionnaire was administered at each visit as a reminder to abstain from berries, grapes, juices that contained berries and grapes, and wine throughout the study. The rationale for these questionnaires was to eliminate consumption of anthocyanin-containing foods and drinks.

Statistical analysis. All analyseswere performedusing SAS version 9.2. Repeated-measures ANOVA with week as the repeated factor was used to compare the blueberry with placebo groups. Differences between the blueberry and placebo baseline characteristics were analyzed by a 2-sample t test (continuous data) and within groups analyzed by a paired t-test. Categorical data were summarized as counts and analyzed by chisquare tests. Nutritional value of food intake was analyzed by mixedmodel ANOVA. P # 0.05 indicated a significant difference between the groups. Data were expressed as means 6 SEM.

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Results

At baseline, the groups did not differ in age, body composition, lipid profile, blood pressure, and inflammatory biomarkers (Table 1).

Energy intake, body composition, and metabolic variables. Throughout the study, the groups did not differ in energy and macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, and fat) consumption (data not shown) or in body weight or adiposity (Table 1). In addition, the inflammatory biomarkers, lipid profile, and blood pressure did not differ between the study groups from the beginning to the end of the study (Table 1). None of these variables changed within each group during the treatment period (Table 1).

Insulin sensitivity. When evaluating the percent change of insulin sensitivity, 67% of the participants (10 of 15) randomized to the blueberry group had at least a 10% or greater favorable change in insulin sensitivity, whereas only 41% of the placebo participants (7 of 17) demonstrated this change (Fig. 1). Themeanchangeininsulin sensitivitywasimprovedsignificantly more in the blueberry group compared to the placebo group (Fig. 2). Also, the percent change in insulin sensitivity was greater in the blueberry group (22.2 65.8%) than in the placebo group (4.9 6 4.5%) (P = 0.02).

Discussion

To our knowledge, this is the first reported human study that evaluated the effect of daily dietary supplementation with bioactives in blueberries on whole-body insulin sensitivity in obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant men and women. The uniqueness of this study relates to the design, which was

randomized, double blinded, and placebo controlled. By design, the blueberry and placebo smoothies were identical in physical appearance and macronutrient content with the exception of adding the blueberry bioactives to the blueberry smoothie. Another strength of the study was the use of the most precise metabolic technique for assessing whole-body insulin sensitivity, i.e.,hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps.The majorfindingwas

TABLE 1 Anthropometrics and serum biochemistry of obese, insulin-resistant participants before (pre) and after (post) the blueberry and placebo treatments1

Variables

Blueberry Placebo Pre Post Pre Post

Race (African American/Caucasian), n/n 8/7 — 8/9 — Gender (male/female), n/n 2/13 — 3/14 — Age, y 54 6 3 — 49 6 3— Body weight, kg 98.7 6 3.1 99.1 6 3.1 102.9 6 3.4 103.4 6 3.5 BMI, kg/m2 36.8 6 0.9 37.0 6 0.9 38.0 6 0.9 38.2 6 1.0 Body fat, % 40.9 6 1.3 40.9 6 1.3 42.5 6 1.4 42.8 6 1.4 Fat mass, kg 40.8 6 2.0 40.8 6 2.0 44.2 6 2.3 44.7 6 2.3 Lean mass, kg 58.7 6 2.1 58.7 6 2.1 59.2 6 2.0 59.4 6 2.1 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg 116.9 6 3.2 115.2 6 3.2 122.6 6 3.7 118.5 6 3.2 Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg 73.5 6 2.3 73.2 6 1.9 75.7 6 1.9 76.6 6 2.1 Serum biochemistry2 Glucose, mmol/L 5.7 6 0.1 5.7 6 0.1 5.9 6 0.1 5.9 6 0.1 Insulin, pmol/L 132 6 15 140 6 17 142 6 15 148 6 16 Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.53 6 0.18 1.66 6 0.17 1.44 6 0.21 1.67 6 0.26 Cholesterol, mmol/L 5.34 6 0.21 4.76 6 0.24 5.18 6 0.19 4.65 6 0.18 LDL cholesterol, mmol/L 3.28 6 0.21 2.88 6 0.19 3.22 6 0.18 2.84 6 0.17 HDL cholesterol, mmol/L 1.35 6 0.08 1.12 6 0.06 1.30 6 0.07 1.05 6 0.06 C-reactive protein, mg/L 5.3 6 1.3 6.9 6 1.8 6.9 6 1.1 8.5 6 1.9 TNFa, ng/L 7.4 6 1.5 6.2 6 1.0 11.5 6 4.3 6.5 6 0.5 MCP-1, ng/L 358 6 37 377 6 44 401 6 58 396 6 38

1 Values are means 6 SEM, n = 15 (blueberry) or 17 (placebo) except TNFa, where n = 11 or 13, respectively. 2 Blood was drawn from participants after a 10-h fast.

FIGURE 1 Percent change in insulin sensitivity in individual obese, insulin-resistant men and women who consumed the blueberry (black bars) or placebo (white bars) smoothies for 6 wk. % D = [(postintervention 2 preintervention)/preintervention] 3 100. Values are means 6 SEM, n = 15 (blueberry) or 17 (placebo).

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that daily consumption of whole blueberry bioactives for 6 wk improved insulin sensitivity in a population at high risk for type 2 diabetes compared with ad libitum dietary intake alone. Consumptionofsmoothies(in the caseofthisstudy, bioactives in blueberries) may be a more attractive and convenient dietary approach for those adults who do not consume the recommended daily amounts of fruits and vegetables. In the current study, we made sure that the energy in the smoothies did not contribute to any body weight gain. Specifically, our study dietitian worked with the participants during the weekly visits to eliminate 2000 kJ/d (1000 kJ/smoothie) from their diets to compensate for the energy provided by the smoothies. As such, the participants were able to maintain a constant body weight throughout the study. The observation that insulin sensitivity increased withouta change inbodyweight suggests thatthe blueberrybioactives had a direct effect on increasing whole-body insulin action. The current study evaluated the synergistic effect of all the bioactive compounds in blueberries. Limited data exist on using whole blueberries as the intervention. In a previous preclinical study, DeFuria et al. (3) used a comparable dose of an identical freeze-dried whole blueberry powder and observed similar health effects to the current clinical trial. The study showed that mice who consumed a high-fat diet with blueberries for 8 wk had a lower plasma glucose AUC during a 90-min intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test compared with the mice fed the highfat diet alone. Plasma insulin concentrations were unchanged. These results suggest that blueberries improved the high-fat diet–induced hyperglycemia. However, Prior et al. (11) found that freeze-dried whole blueberry powder did not affect the plasma glucose AUC during a 120-min intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test in high-fat diet–induced obese mice. Perhaps the null finding was due to the type of freeze-dried blueberry powder usedin the experiment, whichwas different from thecurrent and previous (3) studies or the specific technique used could have potentially lacked the precision to adequately assess carbohydrate metabolism. It is well established that any change in adiposity can greatly alter whole-body insulin sensitivity (12). In the current study, body weight was kept constant throughout the study, so that it would not be a confounding factor that contributed to the improved insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, participants were instructed not to alter their physical activity during the study. Even after controlling for certain variables, as expected for human studies, there was variability in insulin sensitivity values for both treatment groups. However, compared with the placebo

group overall, insulin sensitivity improved significantly more in the blueberry group without any changes in body weight, adiposity, or energy intake. Also, no changes in body composition were observed in diet-induced obese mice fed whole blueberries (3). Another study (11) found the opposite in that whole blueberry supplementation increased body weight and adiposity in mice that were fed a high-fat diet with added blueberries compared with mice fed only a high-fat diet. The increase in the body weight and adiposity of the mice throughout the study could have potentially affected the outcome of unobserved improvements in glucose tolerance with whole blueberry supplementation, as discussed previously. Emerging data have clearly linked inflammation to adiposity with significant reports on the mechanisms by which inflammation at a whole-body level attenuates insulin action (13). Specifically, DeFuria et al. (3) found that supplementing obese mice with blueberries reduced the gene expression for inflammatory biomarkers TNFa and interleukin-10. Unfortunately, significant changes were not observed in all the measured inflammatory biomarkers (MCP-1, interleukin-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase). In the current study, consumption of the daily dose of bioactives in blueberries did not alter the participants’ inflammatory biomarker profile, which consisted of hsCRP, TNFa, and MCP-1. The previous study (3) and current study cannot be compared because of the different research species and evaluations of inflammatory biomarkers [gene expression (3) vs. serum (current study)]. Given the enhanced insulin sensitivity in the group randomized to the blueberry bioactives, a determination of insulindependent or -independent signaling pathways in muscle would provide a cellular basis contributing to the understanding of the clinical effect. However, muscle biopsies were not obtained in the current study and cellular mechanisms were not evaluated. Some may view this as a study limitation, but we did evaluate whole-body insulin sensitivity, which is a critical step before evaluating cellular mechanisms. Furthermore, an in vitro study showed (4) that 21-h incubation of the blueberry extract in muscle cells enhanced glucose uptake only in the presence of insulin. Another study (5) found that 6-h treatment of fermented blueberry juice with and without insulin increased glucose uptake into the muscle and adipocyte cells. However, the nonfermented blueberry juice had no effect on glucose uptake. The fermented blueberry juice also increased the phosphorylation/activation of proteins in the insulin-independent pathway (i.e., AMP-activated protein kinase) and did not phosphorylate/ activate proteins in the insulin-dependent pathway (i.e., AKT and ERK1/2). These results suggest that the addition of fermented blueberry bioactives increased glucose uptake into the cells in an insulin-independent mechanism. More cellular mechanistic studies are warranted to elucidate the specific cellular pathway involved in the improvement of insulin sensitivity that was observed when blueberries were consumed in our study. In conclusion, our double-blinded and placebo-controlled study showed that daily dietary supplementation of bioactives in freeze-dried whole blueberry powder improved insulin sensitivity over 6 wk in obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant participants. The bioactives in blueberries enhanced insulin sensitivity independent of any changes in inflammatory biomarkers or adiposity. This study is not conclusive, but it strongly suggests a need to further explore the cellular mechanism for the effect. In addition, our study suggests the need for studies of longer duration that will evaluate blueberries and their potential role in improving insulin sensitivity in an insulin-resistant human population.

FIGURE 2 Mean change in insulin sensitivity in the obese, insulinresistant men and women who consumed either the blueberry or placebo smoothies for 6 wk. D = postintervention 2 preintervention. Values are means 6 SEM, n = 15 (blueberry) or 17 (placebo).

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Acknowledgments A.J.S. designed research, conducted research, collected and analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript; C.M.C. and K.C.C. designed dietary research, conducted dietary research, and collected and analyzed dietary data; W.D.J. performed statistical analysis; and W.T.C. was the principal investigator who designed research and had primary responsibility for final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Literature Cited

1. Bagchi D, Sen CK, Bagchi M, Atalay M. Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, and anti-carcinogenic properties of a novel anthocyanin-rich berry extract formula. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2004;69:75–80, 1 p preceding 75. 2. Papandreou MA, Dimakopoulou A, Linardaki ZI, Cordopatis P, KlimisZacas D, Margarity M, Lamari FN. Effect of a polyphenol-rich wild blueberry extract on cognitive performance of mice, brain antioxidant markersandacetylcholinesteraseactivity.BehavBrainRes.2009;198:352–8. 3. DeFuria J, Bennett G, Strissel KJ, Perfield JW II, Milbury PE, Greenberg AS, Obin MS. Dietary blueberry attenuates whole-body insulin resistance in high fat-fed mice by reducing adipocyte death and its inflammatory sequelae. J Nutr. 2009;139:1510–6. 4. Martineau LC, Couture A, Spoor D, Benhaddou-Andaloussi A, Harris C, Meddah B, Leduc C, Burt A, Vuong T, et al. Anti-diabetic properties of the Canadian lowbush blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Phytomedicine. 2006;13:612–23.

5. Vuong T, Martineau LC, Ramassamy C, Matar C, Haddad PS. Fermented Canadian lowbush blueberry juice stimulates glucose uptake and AMP-activated protein kinase in insulin-sensitive cultured muscle cells and adipocytes. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;85: 956–65. 6. Youdim KA, Shukitt-Hale B, MacKinnon S, Kalt W, Joseph JA. Polyphenolics enhance red blood cell resistance to oxidative stress: in vitro and in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1523:117–22. 7. Hosseinian FS, Beta T. Saskatoon and wild blueberries have higher anthocyanin contents than other Manitoba berries. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:10832–8. 8. Faria A, Oliveira J, Neves P, Gameiro P, Santos-Buelga C, de Freitas V, Mateus N. Antioxidant properties of prepared blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) extracts. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:6896–902. 9. Blanck HM, Gillespie C, Kimmons JE, Seymour JD, Serdula MK. Trends in fruit and vegetable consumption among U.S. men and women, 1994–2005. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5:A35. 10. DeFronzo RA, Tobin JD, Andres R. Glucose clamp technique: a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. Am J Physiol. 1979; 237:E214–23. 11. Prior RL, Wu X, Gu L, Hager TJ, Hager A, Howard LR. Whole berries versus berry anthocyanins: interactions with dietary fat levels in the C57BL/6J mouse model of obesity. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56: 647–53. 12. Reaven GM. Insulin resistance: the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2008;37:581–601. 13. Shoelson SE, Lee J, Goldfine AB. Inflammation and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1793–801.The Journal of Nutrition Nutrition and Disease

Bioactives in Blueberries Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Obese, Insulin-Resistant Men and Women1–4

April J. Stull, Katherine C. Cash, William D. Johnson, Catherine M. Champagne, and William T. Cefalu*

Center for the Study of Botanicals and Metabolic Syndrome, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808

Abstract

Dietary supplementation with whole blueberries in a preclinical study resulted in a reduction in glucose concentrations over time. We sought to evaluate the effect of daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from blueberries on whole-body insulin sensitivity in men and women. A double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical study design was used. After screening to resolve study eligibility, baseline (wk 0) insulin sensitivity was measured on 32 obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant subjects using a high-dose hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (insulin infusion of 120 mU(861 pmol)×m22×min21). Serum inflammatory biomarkers and adiposity were measured at baseline. At the end of the study, insulin sensitivity, inflammatory biomarkers, and adiposity were reassessed. Participants were randomized to consume either a smoothie containing 22.5 g blueberry bioactives (blueberry group, n = 15) or a smoothie of equal nutritional value without added blueberry bioactives (placebo group, n = 17) twice daily for 6 wk. Both groups were instructed to maintain their body weight by reducing ad libitum intake by an amount equal to the energy intake of the smoothies. Participants’ body weights were evaluated weekly and 3-d food records were collected at baseline, the middle, and end of the study. The mean change in insulin sensitivity improved more in the blueberry group (1.7 6 0.5 mg×kg FFM21×min21) than in the placebo group (0.4 6 0.4 mg×kg FFM21×min21)(P = 0.04). Insulin sensitivity was enhanced in the blueberry group at the end of the study without significant changes in adiposity, energy intake, and inflammatory biomarkers. In conclusion, daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from whole blueberries improved insulin sensitivity in obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant participants. J. Nutr. 140: 1764–1768, 2010.

Introduction

Increased consumption of berries has been shown to improve cognitive function, risk of cardiovascular disease, and cancer (1,2). Studies have also reported that specific berries, i.e., blueberries, have antidiabetic effects. Specifically, a study performed in mice (3) found that supplementation with

whole blueberries reduced the blood glucose area under the curve (AUC)5 in vivo and cell culture studies (4,5) demonstrated increased glucose uptake in vitro (6). In addition, inflammatory genes have been reduced in mice after consuming blueberry bioactives, which suggests an antiinflammatory response (3). The purported health benefits from blueberries have been attributed to their phenolic bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins, which also have antioxidant properties (6–8). Given the concern regarding the ability to greatly increase and maintain an individual’s fruit and vegetable consumption over a long-term period (9), the role of dietary supplementation with bioactive components in blueberries remains a very attractive and feasible daily dietary intervention. To the best of our knowledge, there is no human research that has reported on the efficacy of increased blueberry bioactive consumption on insulin sensitivity by using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique (10), which is the gold standard for measuring in

1 Supported in part by the NIH training grant T32 AT004094 (supporting A.J.S.), by the United States Highbush Blueberry Council, and P50AT002776-01 from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine and the Office of Dietary Supplements (W.T.C.), which funds the Botanical Research Center of Pennington Biomedical Research Center and The Biotech Center of Rutgers University. This project used facilities that are supported in part by Centers of Biomedical Research Excellence (NIH P20-RR021945) and Clinical Nutrition Research Unit (NIH 1P30-DK072476) center grants from the NIH. 2 Author disclosures: A.J.Stull,K.C. Cash,W. D. Johnson, andC. M.Champagne, no conflicts of interest. W. T. Cefalu received research funds from the United States Highbush Blueberry Council. 3 This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01005420. 4 Supplemental Figure 1 and Table 1 are available with the online posting of this paper at jn.nutrition.org. * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: william.cefalu@pbrc. edu.

5 Abbreviations used: AUC, area under the curve; hsCRP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1; TNFa, tumor necrosis factor-a.

ã 2010 American Society for Nutrition. 1764 Manuscript received April 13, 2010. Initial review completed May 18, 2010. Revision accepted July 12, 2010. First published online August 19, 2010; doi:10.3945/jn.110.125336.

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6.DC1.html http://jn.nutrition.org/content/suppl/2010/09/20/jn.110.12533 Supplemental Material can be found at:

vivo insulin action. Therefore, this project’s overall objective was to examine the role of dietary supplementation with bioactives in freeze-dried whole blueberry powder on insulin action in vivo with the use of hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in individuals who were obese, nondiabetic, and insulin resistant. We hypothesized that increased daily consumption of blueberry bioactives, based on preclinical data, would be effective in increasing insulin action in vivo and ultimately result in improved insulin sensitivity in a human population at high risk for type 2 diabetes.

Subjects and Methods

Subjects. Participants inthe study were recruited fromthe Greater Baton Rouge area. A total of 32 men and women completed all evaluations (Supplemental Fig. 1). Those included were adults ($20 y old), obese (BMI between 32 and 45 kg/m2), and insulin resistant (nondiabetic). The exclusion criteria included: 1) diabetes; no diabetes status was confirmed by a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test; 2) medications known to affect glucose metabolism; 3) untreated thyroid or chronic liver, renal, or cardiovascular disease; 4) a history of drug and/or alcohol abuse, or psychiatric disease prohibiting adherence to study protocol; 5) history of allergic reactions to blueberries; 6) consuming berries, grapes, and wine .3 times/wk; and 7) fluctuation in body weight . 5% in the preceding 2 mo. The Institutional Review Board for human subjects at Pennington Biomedical Research Center reviewed and approved the study protocol. All participants gave written consent prior to starting the study.

Study design.This study design was double blinded, placebo-controlled, and randomized. All study evaluations and measurementswere performed onparticipantsthat had fasted for 10h. Aweekwasdefined as7 d (6 2 d).

Clinical intervention and source of whole blueberry bioactives. The freeze-dried whole blueberry powder was prepared by the United States Highbush Blueberry Council (USDA oversight). The whole blueberry powder was made from a 50/50 mixture of 2 varieties of highbush blueberries, Tifblue (Vaccinium ashei) and Rubel (Vaccinium corymbosum). The whole blueberries were freeze-dried, milled, and stored in aluminum cans under nitrogen. Based on the compositional analysis, the 45 g of blueberry powder contained 1462 mg of total phenolics, 668 mg of anthocyanins, and 16.02 mmol TE of antioxidants (oxygen radical absorbance capacity). Also, the 45 g of blueberry powder that was provided to the participants equated to an amount of bioactives in ~2 cups of fresh whole blueberries. After the participants were assessed as being insulin resistant (glucose disposal rate # 650 mg/min), they were randomized to receive twice daily a smoothie with blueberry bioactives added or an identical smoothie without blueberry bioactives (i.e., placebo) (Supplemental Table 1). The participants were instructed to consume 1 smoothie at breakfast meals and the other smoothie at dinner meals (at least 6 h apart). The smoothies were prepared in the metabolic kitchen and a week’s supply of frozen smoothies was provided in a cooler for the participants to pick up at each weekly visit. Participants were instructed to keep the smoothies frozen, thaw them in the refrigerator, avoid exposing them to direct heat, and avoid adding any other ingredients to them. For study compliance, the participants verbally reported their smoothie consumption to the dietitian at each visit. A compliance of .75% was mandatory for continued participation in the study.

Physiologic assessments. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (10) were performed to assess insulin sensitivity after a 10-h fast. Participants were admitted into the inpatient research unit the evening prior to their insulin sensitivity testing day and consumed a eucaloric standardized meal (50% carbohydrates, 35% fat, and 15% protein). The next morning, an i.v. catheter was placed in an antecubital vein for infusion of insulin and glucose. A second catheter was inserted in a dorsal vein of the contralateral arm for blood withdrawal. The hand was placed between a

heating pad for arterialization of venous blood sampling. During the 45 min prior to the clamp, bloodsamples were collected every 15 min for glucose and insulin. Then insulin was administered at a primedcontinuous infusion rate of 120 mU(861 pmol)×m22×min21 for 2 h and blood samples were collected every 5 min for glucose and every 15 min for insulin during this period. Serum insulin was measured by a Siemens Immulite 2000 using immunoassay with chemiluminescent. A variable infusionof dextrose (20% solution) was given to maintainserum glucose concentrations at ;5.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL). Arterialized serum glucose was measured using a YSI 2300 Stat Plus glucose analyzer (model no. 2300 STAT Plus D) and Beckman Coulter DXC600. During the steady state (last 30 min of clamp), the mean rate of exogenous glucose infusion was corrected for changes in glycemia and divided by fat-free mass to assess insulin sensitivity.

Body weight/fat distribution. Fat-free mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with CV for measurements assessed at 0.6, 1.1, and 1.1%, respectively. Overall, biologic, instrument, and reader variability was assessed at ~10%.

Serum inflammatory biomarkers and lipids. During the baseline of the clamp, blood was collected for measuring serum inflammatory biomarkers, including high sensitivityC-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNFa), and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). TNFa and MCP-1 were measured on a Luminex system using kits from Millipore. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by automated immunoassay as assessed on a Siemens 2000 instrument. In addition, the serum lipid profile was measured (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol). Triglycerides and total cholesterol were measured by using a Beckman Coulter DXC600 and HDL-cholesterol was measured by using a Trinity DXC600. LDL-cholesterol was based on a calculation [cholesterol 2 (1/ 5 triglycerides) – HDL].

Food records and questionnaires. At the screening visits, a registered dietitian instructed participants to record a detailed 3-d food record (i.e., 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day). Participants were asked to provide labels and/or recipes for accuracy of the food records. The dietitian reviewed the food records for accuracy and completeness. Based on their eating patterns and usual intake, participants were counseled by the dietitian on ways to remove ~2000 kJ/d (500 kcal/d) from their daily intake to compensate for the energy consumed in the blueberry and placebo smoothies. Food records were also administered at the midpoint and end of the study. The food records were analyzed using the Pennington Biomedical Research Center’s Food Diary Program (Pennington Biomedical Research Foundation). Participants were asked to maintain their current body weight and physical activity or they would be eliminated from the study. The participants’ body weights were measured weekly to monitor weight maintenance. A change of $1 kg of body weight was addressed by the dietitian and proper counseling was provided. They also reported adverse events and changes in medication during the study. The smoothie rating and fruit/wine questionnaires were also used in the study. Before starting the study, participants were given the opportunity to taste the smoothie for acceptability. The fruit/wine questionnaire was administered at each visit as a reminder to abstain from berries, grapes, juices that contained berries and grapes, and wine throughout the study. The rationale for these questionnaires was to eliminate consumption of anthocyanin-containing foods and drinks.

Statistical analysis. All analyseswere performedusing SAS version 9.2. Repeated-measures ANOVA with week as the repeated factor was used to compare the blueberry with placebo groups. Differences between the blueberry and placebo baseline characteristics were analyzed by a 2-sample t test (continuous data) and within groups analyzed by a paired t-test. Categorical data were summarized as counts and analyzed by chisquare tests. Nutritional value of food intake was analyzed by mixedmodel ANOVA. P # 0.05 indicated a significant difference between the groups. Data were expressed as means 6 SEM.

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Results

At baseline, the groups did not differ in age, body composition, lipid profile, blood pressure, and inflammatory biomarkers (Table 1).

Energy intake, body composition, and metabolic variables. Throughout the study, the groups did not differ in energy and macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, and fat) consumption (data not shown) or in body weight or adiposity (Table 1). In addition, the inflammatory biomarkers, lipid profile, and blood pressure did not differ between the study groups from the beginning to the end of the study (Table 1). None of these variables changed within each group during the treatment period (Table 1).

Insulin sensitivity. When evaluating the percent change of insulin sensitivity, 67% of the participants (10 of 15) randomized to the blueberry group had at least a 10% or greater favorable change in insulin sensitivity, whereas only 41% of the placebo participants (7 of 17) demonstrated this change (Fig. 1). Themeanchangeininsulin sensitivitywasimprovedsignificantly more in the blueberry group compared to the placebo group (Fig. 2). Also, the percent change in insulin sensitivity was greater in the blueberry group (22.2 65.8%) than in the placebo group (4.9 6 4.5%) (P = 0.02).

Discussion

To our knowledge, this is the first reported human study that evaluated the effect of daily dietary supplementation with bioactives in blueberries on whole-body insulin sensitivity in obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant men and women. The uniqueness of this study relates to the design, which was

randomized, double blinded, and placebo controlled. By design, the blueberry and placebo smoothies were identical in physical appearance and macronutrient content with the exception of adding the blueberry bioactives to the blueberry smoothie. Another strength of the study was the use of the most precise metabolic technique for assessing whole-body insulin sensitivity, i.e.,hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps.The majorfindingwas

TABLE 1 Anthropometrics and serum biochemistry of obese, insulin-resistant participants before (pre) and after (post) the blueberry and placebo treatments1

Variables

Blueberry Placebo Pre Post Pre Post

Race (African American/Caucasian), n/n 8/7 — 8/9 — Gender (male/female), n/n 2/13 — 3/14 — Age, y 54 6 3 — 49 6 3— Body weight, kg 98.7 6 3.1 99.1 6 3.1 102.9 6 3.4 103.4 6 3.5 BMI, kg/m2 36.8 6 0.9 37.0 6 0.9 38.0 6 0.9 38.2 6 1.0 Body fat, % 40.9 6 1.3 40.9 6 1.3 42.5 6 1.4 42.8 6 1.4 Fat mass, kg 40.8 6 2.0 40.8 6 2.0 44.2 6 2.3 44.7 6 2.3 Lean mass, kg 58.7 6 2.1 58.7 6 2.1 59.2 6 2.0 59.4 6 2.1 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg 116.9 6 3.2 115.2 6 3.2 122.6 6 3.7 118.5 6 3.2 Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg 73.5 6 2.3 73.2 6 1.9 75.7 6 1.9 76.6 6 2.1 Serum biochemistry2 Glucose, mmol/L 5.7 6 0.1 5.7 6 0.1 5.9 6 0.1 5.9 6 0.1 Insulin, pmol/L 132 6 15 140 6 17 142 6 15 148 6 16 Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.53 6 0.18 1.66 6 0.17 1.44 6 0.21 1.67 6 0.26 Cholesterol, mmol/L 5.34 6 0.21 4.76 6 0.24 5.18 6 0.19 4.65 6 0.18 LDL cholesterol, mmol/L 3.28 6 0.21 2.88 6 0.19 3.22 6 0.18 2.84 6 0.17 HDL cholesterol, mmol/L 1.35 6 0.08 1.12 6 0.06 1.30 6 0.07 1.05 6 0.06 C-reactive protein, mg/L 5.3 6 1.3 6.9 6 1.8 6.9 6 1.1 8.5 6 1.9 TNFa, ng/L 7.4 6 1.5 6.2 6 1.0 11.5 6 4.3 6.5 6 0.5 MCP-1, ng/L 358 6 37 377 6 44 401 6 58 396 6 38

1 Values are means 6 SEM, n = 15 (blueberry) or 17 (placebo) except TNFa, where n = 11 or 13, respectively. 2 Blood was drawn from participants after a 10-h fast.

FIGURE 1 Percent change in insulin sensitivity in individual obese, insulin-resistant men and women who consumed the blueberry (black bars) or placebo (white bars) smoothies for 6 wk. % D = [(postintervention 2 preintervention)/preintervention] 3 100. Values are means 6 SEM, n = 15 (blueberry) or 17 (placebo).

1766 Stull et al.

 by guest on January 11, 2014jn.nutrition.orgDownloaded from

that daily consumption of whole blueberry bioactives for 6 wk improved insulin sensitivity in a population at high risk for type 2 diabetes compared with ad libitum dietary intake alone. Consumptionofsmoothies(in the caseofthisstudy, bioactives in blueberries) may be a more attractive and convenient dietary approach for those adults who do not consume the recommended daily amounts of fruits and vegetables. In the current study, we made sure that the energy in the smoothies did not contribute to any body weight gain. Specifically, our study dietitian worked with the participants during the weekly visits to eliminate 2000 kJ/d (1000 kJ/smoothie) from their diets to compensate for the energy provided by the smoothies. As such, the participants were able to maintain a constant body weight throughout the study. The observation that insulin sensitivity increased withouta change inbodyweight suggests thatthe blueberrybioactives had a direct effect on increasing whole-body insulin action. The current study evaluated the synergistic effect of all the bioactive compounds in blueberries. Limited data exist on using whole blueberries as the intervention. In a previous preclinical study, DeFuria et al. (3) used a comparable dose of an identical freeze-dried whole blueberry powder and observed similar health effects to the current clinical trial. The study showed that mice who consumed a high-fat diet with blueberries for 8 wk had a lower plasma glucose AUC during a 90-min intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test compared with the mice fed the highfat diet alone. Plasma insulin concentrations were unchanged. These results suggest that blueberries improved the high-fat diet–induced hyperglycemia. However, Prior et al. (11) found that freeze-dried whole blueberry powder did not affect the plasma glucose AUC during a 120-min intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test in high-fat diet–induced obese mice. Perhaps the null finding was due to the type of freeze-dried blueberry powder usedin the experiment, whichwas different from thecurrent and previous (3) studies or the specific technique used could have potentially lacked the precision to adequately assess carbohydrate metabolism. It is well established that any change in adiposity can greatly alter whole-body insulin sensitivity (12). In the current study, body weight was kept constant throughout the study, so that it would not be a confounding factor that contributed to the improved insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, participants were instructed not to alter their physical activity during the study. Even after controlling for certain variables, as expected for human studies, there was variability in insulin sensitivity values for both treatment groups. However, compared with the placebo

group overall, insulin sensitivity improved significantly more in the blueberry group without any changes in body weight, adiposity, or energy intake. Also, no changes in body composition were observed in diet-induced obese mice fed whole blueberries (3). Another study (11) found the opposite in that whole blueberry supplementation increased body weight and adiposity in mice that were fed a high-fat diet with added blueberries compared with mice fed only a high-fat diet. The increase in the body weight and adiposity of the mice throughout the study could have potentially affected the outcome of unobserved improvements in glucose tolerance with whole blueberry supplementation, as discussed previously. Emerging data have clearly linked inflammation to adiposity with significant reports on the mechanisms by which inflammation at a whole-body level attenuates insulin action (13). Specifically, DeFuria et al. (3) found that supplementing obese mice with blueberries reduced the gene expression for inflammatory biomarkers TNFa and interleukin-10. Unfortunately, significant changes were not observed in all the measured inflammatory biomarkers (MCP-1, interleukin-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase). In the current study, consumption of the daily dose of bioactives in blueberries did not alter the participants’ inflammatory biomarker profile, which consisted of hsCRP, TNFa, and MCP-1. The previous study (3) and current study cannot be compared because of the different research species and evaluations of inflammatory biomarkers [gene expression (3) vs. serum (current study)]. Given the enhanced insulin sensitivity in the group randomized to the blueberry bioactives, a determination of insulindependent or -independent signaling pathways in muscle would provide a cellular basis contributing to the understanding of the clinical effect. However, muscle biopsies were not obtained in the current study and cellular mechanisms were not evaluated. Some may view this as a study limitation, but we did evaluate whole-body insulin sensitivity, which is a critical step before evaluating cellular mechanisms. Furthermore, an in vitro study showed (4) that 21-h incubation of the blueberry extract in muscle cells enhanced glucose uptake only in the presence of insulin. Another study (5) found that 6-h treatment of fermented blueberry juice with and without insulin increased glucose uptake into the muscle and adipocyte cells. However, the nonfermented blueberry juice had no effect on glucose uptake. The fermented blueberry juice also increased the phosphorylation/activation of proteins in the insulin-independent pathway (i.e., AMP-activated protein kinase) and did not phosphorylate/ activate proteins in the insulin-dependent pathway (i.e., AKT and ERK1/2). These results suggest that the addition of fermented blueberry bioactives increased glucose uptake into the cells in an insulin-independent mechanism. More cellular mechanistic studies are warranted to elucidate the specific cellular pathway involved in the improvement of insulin sensitivity that was observed when blueberries were consumed in our study. In conclusion, our double-blinded and placebo-controlled study showed that daily dietary supplementation of bioactives in freeze-dried whole blueberry powder improved insulin sensitivity over 6 wk in obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant participants. The bioactives in blueberries enhanced insulin sensitivity independent of any changes in inflammatory biomarkers or adiposity. This study is not conclusive, but it strongly suggests a need to further explore the cellular mechanism for the effect. In addition, our study suggests the need for studies of longer duration that will evaluate blueberries and their potential role in improving insulin sensitivity in an insulin-resistant human population.

FIGURE 2 Mean change in insulin sensitivity in the obese, insulinresistant men and women who consumed either the blueberry or placebo smoothies for 6 wk. D = postintervention 2 preintervention. Values are means 6 SEM, n = 15 (blueberry) or 17 (placebo).

Effect of blueberries on insulin sensitivity 1767

 by guest on January 11, 2014jn.nutrition.orgDownloaded from

Acknowledgments A.J.S. designed research, conducted research, collected and analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript; C.M.C. and K.C.C. designed dietary research, conducted dietary research, and collected and analyzed dietary data; W.D.J. performed statistical analysis; and W.T.C. was the principal investigator who designed research and had primary responsibility for final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Literature Cited

1. Bagchi D, Sen CK, Bagchi M, Atalay M. Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, and anti-carcinogenic properties of a novel anthocyanin-rich berry extract formula. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2004;69:75–80, 1 p preceding 75. 2. Papandreou MA, Dimakopoulou A, Linardaki ZI, Cordopatis P, KlimisZacas D, Margarity M, Lamari FN. Effect of a polyphenol-rich wild blueberry extract on cognitive performance of mice, brain antioxidant markersandacetylcholinesteraseactivity.BehavBrainRes.2009;198:352–8. 3. DeFuria J, Bennett G, Strissel KJ, Perfield JW II, Milbury PE, Greenberg AS, Obin MS. Dietary blueberry attenuates whole-body insulin resistance in high fat-fed mice by reducing adipocyte death and its inflammatory sequelae. J Nutr. 2009;139:1510–6. 4. Martineau LC, Couture A, Spoor D, Benhaddou-Andaloussi A, Harris C, Meddah B, Leduc C, Burt A, Vuong T, et al. Anti-diabetic properties of the Canadian lowbush blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Phytomedicine. 2006;13:612–23.

5. Vuong T, Martineau LC, Ramassamy C, Matar C, Haddad PS. Fermented Canadian lowbush blueberry juice stimulates glucose uptake and AMP-activated protein kinase in insulin-sensitive cultured muscle cells and adipocytes. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;85: 956–65. 6. Youdim KA, Shukitt-Hale B, MacKinnon S, Kalt W, Joseph JA. Polyphenolics enhance red blood cell resistance to oxidative stress: in vitro and in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1523:117–22. 7. Hosseinian FS, Beta T. Saskatoon and wild blueberries have higher anthocyanin contents than other Manitoba berries. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:10832–8. 8. Faria A, Oliveira J, Neves P, Gameiro P, Santos-Buelga C, de Freitas V, Mateus N. Antioxidant properties of prepared blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) extracts. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:6896–902. 9. Blanck HM, Gillespie C, Kimmons JE, Seymour JD, Serdula MK. Trends in fruit and vegetable consumption among U.S. men and women, 1994–2005. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5:A35. 10. DeFronzo RA, Tobin JD, Andres R. Glucose clamp technique: a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. Am J Physiol. 1979; 237:E214–23. 11. Prior RL, Wu X, Gu L, Hager TJ, Hager A, Howard LR. Whole berries versus berry anthocyanins: interactions with dietary fat levels in the C57BL/6J mouse model of obesity. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56: 647–53. 12. Reaven GM. Insulin resistance: the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2008;37:581–601. 13. Shoelson SE, Lee J, Goldfine AB. Inflammation and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1793–801.

 

 

The requirements are:

 

BIO 119 – Biology for Health Professionals

Journal Assignment

The assignment is worth 60 points (39 drafts/21 final)

 

This is an INDIVIDUAL assignment!

 

The objective of this assignment is to provide you with experience in evaluating scientific research papers.  The abilities to understand and critically analyze the results of a scientific journal article are critical in the healthcare field.  For this assignment, you will evaluate how the scientific method has been applied in a peer-reviewed journal article.

 

You will complete this assignment in four sections (39 points) and then submit a final revised paper (21 points).  Due dates for all components are listed on your syllabus – do not forget!!  Every section is graded and details are explained below and in the rubric. 

 

For this assignment, you are required to provide a summary of the scientific method as it was presented by the journal authors.  Refer to the following information when completing your paper.

 

Format: 

  • The paper shall be about 2-4 pages in length, double-spaced, and 12-font type. 
  • Include your name at the top right hand corner of the first page. 
  • Title:  The title should be centered at the top of the first page of your paper, single-spaced, in 12-font type.  Choose a title that concisely explains the topic of your paper.
  • A title page is not required.

 

Grammar and spelling: 

The paper shall be written with proper grammar and free of spelling errors.  Use spell check, and carefully read your paper prior to turning it in.  ½ point will be deducted for each spelling or grammatical error.

 

Evaluation of Scientific Method and Research:

Identify and describe the following components of the scientific method in the body of your paper:

 

Section 1:  Definitions and Observations (8 points)

  • Definition of Terms and Concepts:  Define any important terms and concepts so that the reader understands the topic of the journal article.  You will likely need to reference additional sources of information. Make sure you properly cite the source(s) of your information.
  • Observations and Previous Studies:  Describe the observations that led the authors to conduct this study.  This information can usually be found in the background information and discussion sections of the article.  Describe at least one previous study that led the authors to investigate the current topic.
  • Question:  In your own words, state the question that the authors are trying to answer in their experiment.  The question should be specific enough that it leads to the framing of a good hypothesis.  This should be written in the form of a question.

 

Section 2:  Hypothesis and Experimental Design (10 points)

  • Hypothesis:  State the hypothesis provided by the authors of the article.  Make sure that you identify the statement as the hypothesis (i.e., “The hypothesis is…”).  The hypothesis should be written in your own words.  It should be specific and written in the proper format.
  • Experiment:  Describe the experiment as it is outlined in the journal article.  The following components must be included:
    • Independent variable:  State the independent variable.
    • Dependent variable:  State the dependent variable.
    • Controlled (constant) variables:  List the controlled variables used by the authors during the experiment.
    • Control and experimental groups:  Identify the control and experimental groups.
    • Description of experiment and data collection:  Describe the steps of the experiment.  Include a description of how data and results were collected. You will need to cite the journal article as the source for the details.

Section 3:  Summary and Interpretation of Results(12 points)

This section requires that you read the article, summarize the results with specific details from graphics in the paper, and explain the results of the study.  This section will be 1 – 3 paragraphs long, depending on the paper.  This section must contain the following:

  • Summary of results:  Describe the results of the authors’ experiment for each dependent variable.  Be specific and include examples of the qualitative and/or quantitative results.  Compare and contrast the results of the control and experimental groups.
  • Reference to graphic:  Choose one results table, graph, or diagram from the paper and refer to it during your summary of results.  The graphic must describe results, NOT the experimental design nor the demographics of the subjects.
    • Explain what information is being presented in the graphic.  This information is often found in the title of the graphic and/or the caption.
    • Describe the results presented in the graphic.  Give SPECIFIC examples of quantitative and/or qualitative data presented in the graphic.  Cite your journal article as the source of this data.
    • Explain what the results presented in the graphic mean in detail.
    • Explanation of results:  Explain the results as if you were explaining them to a patient or family member. Interpret and summarize them in lay person’s language.  What is the significance and health/medical application of this study? Write this as if you are actually explaining to the patient.
    • Analysis of hypothesis:  Discuss whether the hypothesis was supported or refuted.  Why or why not?

 

Section 4:  Discussion (9 points)

Discuss the validity and future implications of the research.  You should discuss at least two of the following points.  You must cite outside sources to support your statements. 

  • Was the experiment designed and conducted according to proper scientific method?  Give specific examples of how it did or did not follow the scientific method.
  • Are the authors’ results supported by or in opposition to research conducted by other scientists? 
  • What additional research or experimentation is needed?  What would you recommend to further investigate this topic?
  • What are the implications of this research (i.e., what is its use in the “real world?”)?  How does this research add to the basic field of study or to the disease process specifically?

 

Additional Resources

Additional resources are required in this paper.  They may be helpful in understanding the observations (background) and analyzing the results of the experiments.  An additional source is required for both of your discussion points.  Additional resources must be cited in the paper and reference page.

 

Citations within paper (in-text or parenthetical citations):

You must provide proper citation of all references (including your article) throughout the paper.  In-text citations tell the reader where paraphrased or quoted information came from. 

 

Paraphrasing is putting the ideas from a resource in your own words.  When paraphrasing, it is not sufficient to change only one word of a sentence!  See me if you are unclear on how to paraphrase.  If you copy word-for-word from a resource, you must put the quoted (word-for-word) material in quotation marks.  The majority of the paper should be in your own words or paraphrasing, not direct quotations from resources.

 

Follow APA style for in-text citations.  Refer to the APA Citation Guide and the following HCC webpage for more information on how to cite sources within the body of your paper:  http://www.harford.edu/library/citation_resources/style_guides/apaintext.pdf

 

Failure to appropriately cite resources within the body of your paper or to include quotation marks around any word-for-word quotations will be considered plagiarism.  Plagiarism may result in loss of points and possibly a zero for the assignment.

 

http://www.harford.edu/library/tutorials/captivate_tutorials/apa.htm provides a tutorial on how to create a reference page and how to cite sources within your paper.  You should complete this tutorial as part of your preparations for this assignment.  Additional APA citation information can be found at http://www.harford.edu/library/citation_resources/ and at http://www.apastyle.org/learn/tutorials/basics-tutorial.aspx

 

Reference Page:

This reference page will include the citation for the source of the article and for all sources consulted.  Follow APA style for the citations.  Use the APA Citation Guide on Blackboard to complete your reference page and in-text citatio

 

 

Name:                                                            

 

Draft Section 1:  Definitions of Terms and Concepts, Observations, Previous Studies, Question (8 points):

 

3 Points

2 Points

1 Points

0 Points

Points Earned

Definition of Terms and Concepts

The paper defines terms and concepts necessary for understanding the experiment.

The paper defines few key terms and concepts.

The paper defines few key terms and concepts and/or the information is inaccurate.

The paper fails to define key terms and concepts.

 

Observations and Previous Studies

The paper describes the observations and previous studies that led the authors to conduct this study.

The paper does not completely describe both the observations and previous studies.

The description of the observation and previous studies is incomplete or inaccurate.

The paper fails to describe any observations or previous studies.

 

Question

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The paper states the question that the authors are trying to answer.

The paper fails to state the question that the authors are trying to answer.

 

In-text Citations

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

All information is appropriately cited in APA format.

In-text citations are absent or cited incorrectly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Draft Section 2:  Hypothesis and Experiment (10 points)           Name:  ____________________________

 

3 Points

2 Points

1 Points

0 Points

Points Earned

Hypothesis

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The hypothesis is stated in the correct format.

The hypothesis is missing or is not stated in the correct format.

 

Independent Variable

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The independent variable is described.

The independent variable is missing or is incorrect.

 

Dependent Variable

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The dependent variable is stated.

The dependent variable is missing or is incorrect.

 

Controlled (Constant) Variables

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Controlled variables are stated.

Controlled variables are missing, incorrect, or incomplete.

 

Control and Experimental Groups

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The paper identifies the control and experimental groups.

The paper does not identify the control and experimental groups.

 

Description of Experiment

The paper thoroughly describes the steps of the experiment.  It describes how the control and experimental groups were treated.

The description of the steps of the experiment and how the control and experimental groups were treated is incomplete.

The paper fails to describe either the steps of the experiment OR how control and experimental groups were treated.

Description of experiment and how control and experimental groups were treated is missing.

 

Experiment:  Data Collection

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The paper describes how data was collected.

The paper does not describe how data was collected.

 

In-text Citations

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

All information is appropriately cited in APA format.

In-text citations are absent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Draft Section 3:  Interpretation and Summary of Results (12 points)

 

Name:  _________________________________________________________________________________

 

3 Points

2 Points

1 Points

0 Points

Points Earned

Summary of Results

Results are completely described for each dependent variable.  Differences between the control and experimental groups are described.

Description of results is mostly complete.  Some differences between the control and experimental groups are described.

Description of results for each dependent variable and between the control and experimental groups is incomplete or inaccurate.

Description of results is missing.

 

Graphic Explanation

As part of the summary, the paper refers to a graphic and:  1) describes what type of information is presented in the graphic; 2) provides and explains example data; 3) explains the overall meaning of information in the graphic.

The paper fails to thoroughly address one of the required points.

The paper fails to thoroughly address two of the required points.

The paper fails to describe a graphic.

 

Explanation of Results

The results are explained in a manner that could be easily understood by a patient. Description demonstrates an excellent understanding of the results and their application in health care.

The results are explained in a manner that could be understood by a patient. Description demonstrates an adequate understanding of the results and their application in health care.

The results are not explained in a manner that could be easily understood by a patient. Description demonstrates poor or inaccurate knowledge of the results and/or does not address their application in health care.

The explanation is missing.

 

Analysis of Hypothesis

 

The paper states if the hypothesis is supported or refuted by the data and why. 

The paper states whether the hypothesis is supported or refuted by the data but does not explain why.

The paper does not analyze if the hypothesis is supported or refuted.

 

In-text Citations

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

All information is appropriately cited in APA format.

In-text citations are absent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Draft Section 4:  Discussion and References (9 points)  Name:  _________________________________

 

3 Points

2 Points

1 Points

0 Points

Points Earned

Discussion:

The paper includes a discussion of the validity and future implications of the research.  Two of the following points are thoroughly and accurately discussed: 

1) Was the experiment designed and conducted according to proper scientific method? 

2)  Are the authors’ results supported by or in opposition to research conducted by other scientists? 

3)  What additional research or experimentation is needed? 

4)  What are the implications of the research (i.e., what is its use in the “real world”)?

N/A

The discussion of the first point demonstrates careful consideration and thoughtful analysis of the topic with use of additional resources as necessary.

The discussion of the first point demonstrates an average analysis of the topic with use of additional resources as necessary.

Appears discussion was written with little thought or purpose. Minimal effort put into addressing required components.

Discussion of first point is inaccurate or missing.

 

The discussion of the second point demonstrates careful consideration and thoughtful analysis of the topic with use of additional resources as necessary.

The discussion of the second point demonstrates an average analysis of the topic with use of minimal additional resources as necessary.

Appears discussion was written with little thought or purpose. Minimal effort put into addressing required components.

Discussion of second point is inaccurate or missing.

 

Additional Resources

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

At least one additional resource is used for the paper.

No additional resources were used in the paper.

 

In-text Citations

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

All information is appropriately cited.

In-text citations are absent or incorrectly cited.

 

Reference Page

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

All sources are cited in the reference page using the correct APA format.

The reference page is absent or incorrectly cited.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Final Paper:  Submit revisions from all drafts (21 points)           Name:  ____________________________

 

2 Points

1.5 Points

1 Points

0.5 Points

0 Points

Points Earned

Format

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The paper is formatted according to instructions.

The paper is not formatted according to instructions.

 

Grammar and Spelling

(½ point deduction for each error)

The work is written in proper English and uses proper grammatical structure and correct spelling.  Work effectively communicates ideas.  There are no spelling or grammatical errors.

The work is written in mostly proper English.  Some grammatical and/or spelling errors are present.  Work effectively communicates ideas.  (One error.)

The work is written in proper English and uses proper grammatical structure and correct spelling.  Work effectively communicates ideas. (2 errors.)

The work is written in mostly proper English.  Some grammatical and/or spelling errors are present.  Work effectively communicates ideas.  (3 errors.)

The work is written in poor English and poor grammatical structure.  Spelling errors may be present.  Work does not effectively communicate ideas.  (4 or more errors.)

 

Definitions of Terms and Concepts

Not applicable.

The paper defines terms and concepts necessary for understanding the experiment.

The paper defines few key terms and concepts.

The paper defines few key terms and concepts and/or the information is inaccurate.

The paper fails to define key terms and concepts.

 

Observations and Previous Studies

Not applicable.

The paper describes the observations and previous studies that led the authors to conduct this study.

The paper does not completely describe both the observations and previous studies.

The description of the observation and previous studies is incomplete or inaccurate.

The paper fails to describe any observations or previous studies.

 

Question

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The paper states the question that the authors are trying to answer.

The paper fails to state the question that the authors are trying to answer.

 

Hypothesis

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The hypothesis is stated in correct format.

The hypothesis is missing or is not stated in correct format.

 

Independent Variable

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The independent variable is described.

The independent variable is missing or is incorrect.

 

Dependent Variable

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The dependent variable is stated.

The dependent variable is missing or is incorrect.

 

Controlled (Constant) Variables

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Controlled variables are stated.

Controlled variables are missing, incorrect, or incomplete.

 

Control and Experimental Groups

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The paper identifies the control and experimental groups.

The paper does not identify the control and experimental groups.

 

Description of Experiment

Not applicable.

The paper thoroughly describes the steps of the experiment.  It describes how the control and experimental groups were treated.

The description of the steps of the experiment and how the control and experimental groups were treated is incomplete.

The paper fails to describe either the steps of the experiment OR how control and experimental groups were treated.

Description of experiment and how control and experimental groups were treated is missing.

 

 

2 Points

1.5 Points

1 Points

0.5 Points

0 Points

Points Earned

Experiment:  Data Collection

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The paper describes how data was collected.

The paper does not describe how data was collected.

 

Summary of Results

Not applicable.

Results are completely described for each dependent variable.  Differences between the control and experimental groups are described.

 

Description of results is mostly complete.  Some differences between the control and experimental groups are described.

Description of results for each dependent variable and between the control and experimental groups is incomplete or inaccurate.

Description of results is missing.

 

Graphic Explanation

Not applicable.

As part of the summary, the paper refers to a graphic and:  1) describes what type of information is presented in the graphic; 2) provides and explains example data; 3) explains the overall meaning of information in the graphic.

 

The paper fails to thoroughly address one of the required points.

The paper fails to thoroughly address two of the required points.

The paper fails to describe a graphic.

 

Result Explanation

Not applicable.

The results are explained in a manner that could be easily understood by a patient. Description demonstrates an excellent understanding of the results and their application in health care.

 

The results are explained in a manner that could be understood by a patient. Description demonstrates an adequate understanding of the results and their application in health care.

The results are not explained in a manner that could be easily understood by a patient. Description demonstrates poor or inaccurate knowledge of the results and/or does not address their application in health care.

The explanation is missing.

 

Analysis of Hypothesis

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The paper states if the hypothesis is supported or refuted by the data and why. 

The paper states whether the hypothesis is supported or refuted by the data but does not explain why.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The paper does not analyze if the hypothesis is supported or refuted.

 

 

2 Points

1.5 Points

1 Points

0.5 Points

0 Points

Points Earned

Discussion:

The paper includes a discussion of the validity and future implications of the research.  Two of the following points are discussed: 

1) Was the experiment designed and conducted according to proper scientific method? 

2)  Are the authors’ results supported by or in opposition to research conducted by other scientists? 

3)  What additional research or experimentation is needed? 

4)  What are the implications of the research (i.e., what is its use in the “real world”)?

 

 

 

Point 1

The discussion of the first point demonstrates careful consideration and thoughtful analysis of the topic with use of additional resources as necessary.

The discussion of the first point demonstrates an average analysis of the topic with use of additional resources as necessary.

Appears discussion was written with little thought or purpose. Minimal effort put into addressing required components.

Discussion of first point is inaccurate or missing.

 

Point 2

The discussion of the second point demonstrates careful consideration and thoughtful analysis of the topic with use of additional resources as necessary.

The discussion of the second point demonstrates an average analysis of the topic with use of minimal additional resources as necessary.

Appears discussion was written with little thought or purpose. Minimal effort put into addressing required components.

Discussion of second point is inaccurate or missing.

 

Additional Resources

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

At least one additional resource is used for the paper.

No additional resources are used.

 

In-Text Citations

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

All sources are cited in the text using the correct APA format.

In-text citations are absent or are formatted incorrectly.

 

Reference Page

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

All sources are cited in the reference page using the correct APA format.

Some sources are missing from the reference page or the incorrect format is used for citations.

Reference page is absent.

 

BIO 119 – Biology for Health Professionals

 

Journal Assignment

 

The assignment is worth 60 points (39 drafts/21 final)

 

 

 

This is an INDIVIDUAL assignment!

 

 

 

The objective of this assignment is to provide you with experience in evaluating scientific research papers.  The abilities to understand and critically analyze the results of a scientific journal article are critical in the healthcare field.  For this assignment, you will evaluate how the scientific method has been applied in a peer-reviewed journal article.

 

 

 

You will complete this assignment in four sections (39 points) and then submit a final revised paper (21 points).  Due dates for all components are listed on your syllabus – do not forget!!  Every section is graded and details are explained below and in the rubric. 

 

 

 

For this assignment, you are required to provide a summary of the scientific method as it was presented by the journal authors.  Refer to the following information when completing your paper.

 

 

 

Format: 

 

  • The paper shall be about 2-4 pages in length, double-spaced, and 12-font type. 

 

  • Include your name at the top right hand corner of the first page. 

 

  • Title:  The title should be centered at the top of the first page of your paper, single-spaced, in 12-font type.  Choose a title that concisely explains the topic of your paper.

 

  • A title page is not required.

 

 

 

Grammar and spelling: 

The paper shall be written with proper grammar and free of spelling errors.  Use spell check, and carefully read your paper prior to turning it in.  ½ point will be deducted for each spelling or grammatical error.

 

 

 

Evaluation of Scientific Method and Research:

 

Identify and describe the following components of the scientific method in the body of your paper:

 

 

 

Section 1:  Definitions and Observations (8 points)

 

  • Definition of Terms and Concepts:  Define any important terms and concepts so that the reader understands the topic of the journal article.  You will likely need to reference additional sources of information. Make sure you properly cite the source(s) of your information.

 

  • Observations and Previous Studies:  Describe the observations that led the authors to conduct this study.  This information can usually be found in the background information and discussion sections of the article.  Describe at least one previous study that led the authors to investigate the current topic.

 

  • Question:  In your own words, state the question that the authors are trying to answer in their experiment.  The question should be specific enough that it leads to the framing of a good hypothesis.  This should be written in the form of a question.

 

 

 

Section 2:  Hypothesis and Experimental Design (10 points)

 

  • Hypothesis:  State the hypothesis provided by the authors of the article.  Make sure that you identify the statement as the hypothesis (i.e., “The hypothesis is…”).  The hypothesis should be written in your own words.  It should be specific and written in the proper format.

 

  • Experiment:  Describe the experiment as it is outlined in the journal article.  The following components must be included:

 

  • Independent variable:  State the independent variable.

 

  • Dependent variable:  State the dependent variable.

 

  • Controlled (constant) variables:  List the controlled variables used by the authors during the experiment.

 

  • Control and experimental groups:  Identify the control and experimental groups.

 

  • Description of experiment and data collection:  Describe the steps of the experiment.  Include a description of how data and results were collected. You will need to cite the journal article as the source for the details.

 

Section 3:  Summary and Interpretation of Results(12 points)

This section requires that you read the article, summarize the results with specific details from graphics in the paper, and explain the results of the study.  This section will be 1 – 3 paragraphs long, depending on the paper.  This section must contain the following:

 

  • Summary of results:  Describe the results of the authors’ experiment for each dependent variable.  Be specific and include examples of the qualitative and/or quantitative results.  Compare and contrast the results of the control and experimental groups.

 

  • Reference to graphic:  Choose one results table, graph, or diagram from the paper and refer to it during your summary of results.  The graphic must describe results, NOT the experimental design nor the demographics of the subjects.

 

  • Explain what information is being presented in the graphic.  This information is often found in the title of the graphic and/or the caption.

 

  • Describe the results presented in the graphic.  Give SPECIFIC examples of quantitative and/or qualitative data presented in the graphic.  Cite your journal article as the source of this data.

 

  • Explain what the results presented in the graphic mean in detail.

 

  • Explanation of results:  Explain the results as if you were explaining them to a patient or family member. Interpret and summarize them in lay person’s language.  What is the significance and health/medical application of this study? Write this as if you are actually explaining to the patient.

 

  • Analysis of hypothesis:  Discuss whether the hypothesis was supported or refuted.  Why or why not?

 

 

 

Section 4:  Discussion (9 points)

 

Discuss the validity and future implications of the research.  You should discuss at least two of the following points.  You must cite outside sources to support your statements. 

 

  • Was the experiment designed and conducted according to proper scientific method?  Give specific examples of how it did or did not follow the scientific method.

 

  • Are the authors’ results supported by or in opposition to research conducted by other scientists? 

 

  • What additional research or experimentation is needed?  What would you recommend to further investigate this topic?

 

  • What are the implications of this research (i.e., what is its use in the “real world?”)?  How does this research add to the basic field of study or to the disease process specifically?

 

 

 

Additional Resources

 

Additional resources are required in this paper.  They may be helpful in understanding the observations (background) and analyzing the results of the experiments.  An additional source is required for both of your discussion points.  Additional resources must be cited in the paper and reference page.

 

 

 

Citations within paper (in-text or parenthetical citations):

 

You must provide proper citation of all references (including your article) throughout the paper.  In-text citations tell the reader where paraphrased or quoted information came from. 

 

 

 

Paraphrasing is putting the ideas from a resource in your own words.  When paraphrasing, it is not sufficient to change only one word of a sentence!  See me if you are unclear on how to paraphrase.  If you copy word-for-word from a resource, you must put the quoted (word-for-word) material in quotation marks.  The majority of the paper should be in your own words or paraphrasing, not direct quotations from resources.

 

 

 

Follow APA style for in-text citations.  Refer to the APA Citation Guide and the following HCC webpage for more information on how to cite sources within the body of your paper:  http://www.harford.edu/library/citation_resources/style_guides/apaintext.pdf

 

 

 

Failure to appropriately cite resources within the body of your paper or to include quotation marks around any word-for-word quotations will be considered plagiarism.  Plagiarism may result in loss of points and possibly a zero for the assignment.

 

 

 

http://www.harford.edu/library/tutorials/captivate_tutorials/apa.htm provides a tutorial on how to create a reference page and how to cite sources within your paper.  You should complete this tutorial as part of your preparations for this assignment.  Additional APA citation information can be found at http://www.harford.edu/library/citation_resources/ and at http://www.apastyle.org/learn/tutorials/basics-tutorial.aspx

 

 

 

Reference Page:

 

This reference page will include the citation for the source of the article and for all sources consulted.  Follow APA style for the citations.  Use the APA Citation Guide on Blackboard to complete your reference page and in-text citatio

 

 

 

 

 

Name:                                                            

 

 

 

Draft Section 1:  Definitions of Terms and Concepts, Observations, Previous Studies, Question (8 points):

 

 

3 Points

2 Points

1 Points

0 Points

Points Earned

Definition of Terms and Concepts

The paper defines terms and concepts necessary for understanding the experiment.

The paper defines few key terms and concepts.

The paper defines few key terms and concepts and/or the information is inaccurate.

The paper fails to define key terms and concepts.

 

Observations and Previous Studies

The paper describes the observations and previous studies that led the authors to conduct this study.

The paper does not completely describe both the observations and previous studies.

The description of the observation and previous studies is incomplete or inaccurate.

The paper fails to describe any observations or previous studies.

 

Question

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The paper states the question that the authors are trying to answer.

The paper fails to state the question that the authors are trying to answer.

 

In-text Citations

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

All information is appropriately cited in APA format.

In-text citations are absent or cited incorrectly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Draft Section 2:  Hypothesis and Experiment (10 points)           Name:  ____________________________

 

 

3 Points

2 Points

1 Points

0 Points

Points Earned

Hypothesis

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The hypothesis is stated in the correct format.

The hypothesis is missing or is not stated in the correct format.

 

Independent Variable

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The independent variable is described.

The independent variable is missing or is incorrect.

 

Dependent Variable

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The dependent variable is stated.

The dependent variable is missing or is incorrect.

 

Controlled (Constant) Variables

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Controlled variables are stated.

Controlled variables are missing, incorrect, or incomplete.

 

Control and Experimental Groups

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The paper identifies the control and experimental groups.

The paper does not identify the control and experimental groups.

 

Description of Experiment

The paper thoroughly describes the steps of the experiment.  It describes how the control and experimental groups were treated.

The description of the steps of the experiment and how the control and experimental groups were treated is incomplete.

The paper fails to describe either the steps of the experiment OR how control and experimental groups were treated.

Description of experiment and how control and experimental groups were treated is missing.

 

Experiment:  Data Collection

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The paper describes how data was collected.

The paper does not describe how data was collected.

 

In-text Citations

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

All information is appropriately cited in APA format.

In-text citations are absent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Draft Section 3:  Interpretation and Summary of Results (12 points)

 

 

 

Name:  _________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

3 Points

2 Points

1 Points

0 Points

Points Earned

Summary of Results

Results are completely described for each dependent variable.  Differences between the control and experimental groups are described.

Description of results is mostly complete.  Some differences between the control and experimental groups are described.

Description of results for each dependent variable and between the control and experimental groups is incomplete or inaccurate.

Description of results is missing.

 

Graphic Explanation

As part of the summary, the paper refers to a graphic and:  1) describes what type of information is presented in the graphic; 2) provides and explains example data; 3) explains the overall meaning of information in the graphic.

The paper fails to thoroughly address one of the required points.

The paper fails to thoroughly address two of the required points.

The paper fails to describe a graphic.

 

Explanation of Results

The results are explained in a manner that could be easily understood by a patient. Description demonstrates an excellent understanding of the results and their application in health care.

The results are explained in a manner that could be understood by a patient. Description demonstrates an adequate understanding of the results and their application in health care.

The results are not explained in a manner that could be easily understood by a patient. Description demonstrates poor or inaccurate knowledge of the results and/or does not address their application in health care.

The explanation is missing.

 

Analysis of Hypothesis

 

The paper states if the hypothesis is supported or refuted by the data and why. 

The paper states whether the hypothesis is supported or refuted by the data but does not explain why.

The paper does not analyze if the hypothesis is supported or refuted.

 

In-text Citations

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

All information is appropriately cited in APA format.

In-text citations are absent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Draft Section 4:  Discussion and References (9 points)  Name:  _________________________________

 

 

3 Points

2 Points

1 Points

0 Points

Points Earned

Discussion:

The paper includes a discussion of the validity and future implications of the research.  Two of the following points are thoroughly and accurately discussed: 

1) Was the experiment designed and conducted according to proper scientific method? 

2)  Are the authors’ results supported by or in opposition to research conducted by other scientists? 

3)  What additional research or experimentation is needed? 

4)  What are the implications of the research (i.e., what is its use in the “real world”)?

N/A

The discussion of the first point demonstrates careful consideration and thoughtful analysis of the topic with use of additional resources as necessary.

The discussion of the first point demonstrates an average analysis of the topic with use of additional resources as necessary.

Appears discussion was written with little thought or purpose. Minimal effort put into addressing required components.

Discussion of first point is inaccurate or missing.

 

The discussion of the second point demonstrates careful consideration and thoughtful analysis of the topic with use of additional resources as necessary.

The discussion of the second point demonstrates an average analysis of the topic with use of minimal additional resources as necessary.

Appears discussion was written with little thought or purpose. Minimal effort put into addressing required components.

Discussion of second point is inaccurate or missing.

 

Additional Resources

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

At least one additional resource is used for the paper.

No additional resources were used in the paper.

 

In-text Citations

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

All information is appropriately cited.

In-text citations are absent or incorrectly cited.

 

Reference Page

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

All sources are cited in the reference page using the correct APA format.

The reference page is absent or incorrectly cited.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Final Paper:  Submit revisions from all drafts (21 points)           Name:  ____________________________

 

 

2 Points

1.5 Points

1 Points

0.5 Points

0 Points

Points Earned

Format

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The paper is formatted according to instructions.

The paper is not formatted according to instructions.

 

Grammar and Spelling

(½ point deduction for each error)

The work is written in proper English and uses proper grammatical structure and correct spelling.  Work effectively communicates ideas.  There are no spelling or grammatical errors.

The work is written in mostly proper English.  Some grammatical and/or spelling errors are present.  Work effectively communicates ideas.  (One error.)

The work is written in proper English and uses proper grammatical structure and correct spelling.  Work effectively communicates ideas. (2 errors.)

The work is written in mostly proper English.  Some grammatical and/or spelling errors are present.  Work effectively communicates ideas.  (3 errors.)

The work is written in poor English and poor grammatical structure.  Spelling errors may be present.  Work does not effectively communicate ideas.  (4 or more errors.)

 

Definitions of Terms and Concepts

Not applicable.

The paper defines terms and concepts necessary for understanding the experiment.

The paper defines few key terms and concepts.

The paper defines few key terms and concepts and/or the information is inaccurate.

The paper fails to define key terms and concepts.

 

Observations and Previous Studies

Not applicable.

The paper describes the observations and previous studies that led the authors to conduct this study.

The paper does not completely describe both the observations and previous studies.

The description of the observation and previous studies is incomplete or inaccurate.

The paper fails to describe any observations or previous studies.

 

Question

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The paper states the question that the authors are trying to answer.

The paper fails to state the question that the authors are trying to answer.

 

Hypothesis

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The hypothesis is stated in correct format.

The hypothesis is missing or is not stated in correct format.

 

Independent Variable

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The independent variable is described.

The independent variable is missing or is incorrect.

 

Dependent Variable

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The dependent variable is stated.

The dependent variable is missing or is incorrect.

 

Controlled (Constant) Variables

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Controlled variables are stated.

Controlled variables are missing, incorrect, or incomplete.

 

Control and Experimental Groups

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The paper identifies the control and experimental groups.

The paper does not identify the control and experimental groups.

 

Description of Experiment

Not applicable.

The paper thoroughly describes the steps of the experiment.  It describes how the control and experimental groups were treated.

The description of the steps of the experiment and how the control and experimental groups were treated is incomplete.

The paper fails to describe either the steps of the experiment OR how control and experimental groups were treated.

Description of experiment and how control and experimental groups were treated is missing.

 

 

2 Points

1.5 Points

1 Points

0.5 Points

0 Points

Points Earned

Experiment:  Data Collection

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The paper describes how data was collected.

The paper does not describe how data was collected.

 

Summary of Results

Not applicable.

Results are completely described for each dependent variable.  Differences between the control and experimental groups are described.

 

Description of results is mostly complete.  Some differences between the control and experimental groups are described.

Description of results for each dependent variable and between the control and experimental groups is incomplete or inaccurate.

Description of results is missing.

 

Graphic Explanation

Not applicable.

As part of the summary, the paper refers to a graphic and:  1) describes what type of information is presented in the graphic; 2) provides and explains example data; 3) explains the overall meaning of information in the graphic.

 

The paper fails to thoroughly address one of the required points.

The paper fails to thoroughly address two of the required points.

The paper fails to describe a graphic.

 

Result Explanation

Not applicable.

The results are explained in a manner that could be easily understood by a patient. Description demonstrates an excellent understanding of the results and their application in health care.

 

The results are explained in a manner that could be understood by a patient. Description demonstrates an adequate understanding of the results and their application in health care.

The results are not explained in a manner that could be easily understood by a patient. Description demonstrates poor or inaccurate knowledge of the results and/or does not address their application in health care.

The explanation is missing.

 

Analysis of Hypothesis

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The paper states if the hypothesis is supported or refuted by the data and why. 

The paper states whether the hypothesis is supported or refuted by the data but does not explain why.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The paper does not analyze if the hypothesis is supported or refuted.

 

 

2 Points

1.5 Points

1 Points

0.5 Points

0 Points

Points Earned

Discussion:

The paper includes a discussion of the validity and future implications of the research.  Two of the following points are discussed: 

1) Was the experiment designed and conducted according to proper scientific method? 

2)  Are the authors’ results supported by or in opposition to research conducted by other scientists? 

3)  What additional research or experimentation is needed? 

4)  What are the implications of the research (i.e., what is its use in the “real world”)?

 

 

 

Point 1

The discussion of the first point demonstrates careful consideration and thoughtful analysis of the topic with use of additional resources as necessary.

The discussion of the first point demonstrates an average analysis of the topic with use of additional resources as necessary.

Appears discussion was written with little thought or purpose. Minimal effort put into addressing required components.

Discussion of first point is inaccurate or missing.

 

Point 2

The discussion of the second point demonstrates careful consideration and thoughtful analysis of the topic with use of additional resources as necessary.

The discussion of the second point demonstrates an average analysis of the topic with use of minimal additional resources as necessary.

Appears discussion was written with little thought or purpose. Minimal effort put into addressing required components.

Discussion of second point is inaccurate or missing.

 

Additional Resources

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

At least one additional resource is used for the paper.

No additional resources are used.

 

In-Text Citations

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

All sources are cited in the text using the correct APA format.

In-text citations are absent or are formatted incorrectly.

 

Reference Page

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

All sources are cited in the reference page using the correct APA format.

Some sources are missing from the reference page or the incorrect format is used for citations.

Reference page is absent.