Graduate Nurse Resume and Cover letter

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C O N T E N T S

UNIT 1 The Development of Nursing CHAPTER 1 The Evolution of Professional Nursing, 1

CHAPTER 2 The Contemporary Image of Professional Nursing, 21

CHAPTER 3 The Influence of Contemporary Trends and Issues on Nursing Education, 34

CHAPTER 4 Nursing Licensure and Certification, 62

CHAPTER 5 Theories of Nursing Practice, 74

CHAPTER 6 Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice, 87

UNIT 2 Current Issues in Health Care CHAPTER 7 Paying for Health Care in America: Rising Costs and Challenges, 105

CHAPTER 8 Legal Issues in Nursing and Health Care, 120

CHAPTER 9 Ethical and Bioethical Issues in Nursing and Health Care, 166

CHAPTER 10 Cultural Competency and Social Issues in Nursing and Health Care, 183

CHAPTER 11 Complementary and Alternative Healing, 204

CHAPTER 12 Workforce Advocacy and the Nursing Shortage, 221

CHAPTER 13 Collective Bargaining and Unions in Today’s Workplace, 243

CHAPTER 14 Information Technology in the Clinical Setting, 253

CHAPTER 15 Emergency Preparedness and Response for Today’s World, 270

UNIT 3 Leadership and Management in Nursing CHAPTER 16 Nursing Leadership and Management, 285

CHAPTER 17 Budgeting Basics for Nurses, 309

CHAPTER 18 Effective Communication and Conflict Resolution, 322

CHAPTER 19 Effective Delegation and Supervision, 346

CHAPTER 20 Staffing and Nursing Care Delivery Models, 360

CHAPTER 21 Quality Improvement and Patient Safety, 374

CHAPTER 22 Quality and Safety in Nursing Education: The QSEN Project, 393

CHAPTER 23 Health Policy and Politics: Get Involved!, 405

UNIT 4 Career Management CHAPTER 24 Making the Transition from Student to Professional Nurse, 423

CHAPTER 25 Managing Time: The Path to High Self-Performance, 444

CHAPTER 26 Contemporary Nursing Roles and Career Opportunities, 461

CHAPTER 27 Job Search: Finding Your Match, 480

CHAPTER 28 The NCLEX-RN® Examination, 497

Index, 509

Contemporary Nursing

Issues, Trends, & Management

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Contemporary Nursing

Issues, Trends, & Management

Barbara Cherry, DNSc, MBA, RN, NEA-BC Professor and Department Chair for Leadership Studies

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Nursing

Lubbock, Texas

Susan R. Jacob, PhD, MSN, RN Professor Emeritus

The University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Nursing

Memphis, Tennessee

Sixth Edition

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3251 Riverport Lane St. Louis, Missouri 63043

CONTEMPORARY NURSING: ISSUES, TRENDS, AND MANAGEMENT, ed 6 ISBN: 978-0-323-10109-7 Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

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This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein).

Notices

Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treat- ment may become necessary.

Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.

With respect to any drug or pharmaceutical products identified, readers are advised to check the most current information provided (i) on procedures featured or (ii) by the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose or formula, the method and duration of administration, and contraindications. It is the responsibility of practitioners, relying on their own experience and knowledge of their patients, to make diagnoses, to determine dosages and the best treatment for each individual patient, and to take all appropriate safety precautions.

To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instruc- tions, or ideas contained in the material herein.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Contemporary nursing: issues, trends, & management/[edited by] Barbara Cherry, Susan R. Jacob. -- Ed. 6. p.; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-323-10109-7 (pbk.: alk. paper) I. Cherry, Barbara, MSN. II. Jacob, Susan R. [DNLM: 1. Nursing--United States. 2. Nursing Care--United States. WY 100 AA1] 610.73--dc23 2012037205

Senior Content Strategist: Yvonne Alexopoulos Associate Content Development Specialist: Emily Vaughters Publishing Services Manager: Jeff Patterson Project Manager: Jeanne Genz Design Direction: Amy Buxton

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Last digit is the print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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To all the student nurses whose curiosity and enthusiasm for nursing

will provide strong leadership for the profession far into the future

and to all practicing nurses who face serious challenges but reap

great rewards for providing high-quality patient care

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Being a Nurse Means . . .

You will never be bored,

You will always be frustrated,

You will be surrounded by challenges,

So much to do and so little time.

You will carry immense responsibility

And very little authority.

You will step into people’s lives,

And you will make a difference.

Some will bless you.

Some will curse you.

You will see people at their worst,

And at their best.

You will never cease to be amazed at people’s capacity

For love, courage, and endurance.

You will see life begin

and end.

You will experience resounding triumphs

And devastating failures.

You will cry a lot.

You will laugh a lot.

You will know what it is to be human

And to be humane.

Melodie Chenevert, RN

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C O N T R I B U T O R S

L. Antoinette (Toni) Bargagliotti, DNSc, RN, ANEF, FAAN Professor Loewenberg School of Nursing The University of Memphis Memphis, Tennessee

Virginia Trotter Betts, MSN, JD, RN, FAAN Professor The University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Nursing Memphis, Tennessee

Barbara Cherry, DNSc, MBA, RN, NEA-BC Professor and Department Chair for Leadership Studies Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Nursing Lubbock, Texas

Genevieve J. Conlin, DNP, MS/MBA, MEd, RN, NEA-BC Director of Nursing Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital Boston, Massachusetts

Charlotte Eliopoulos, PhD, RN, MPH, ND Executive Director American Association for Long Term Care Nursing Glen Arm, Maryland

Debra Dawson Hatmaker, PhD, RN-BC, SANE-A Chief Programs Officer Georgia Nurses Association Bishop, Georgia

Susan R. Jacob, PhD, MSN, RN Professor Emeritus The University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Nursing; Education Consultant Faith Community Nursing Church Health Center Memphis, Tennessee

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Marylane Wade Koch, MSN, RN Adjunct Faculty Loewenberg School of Nursing The University of Memphis Memphis, Tennessee

Robert W. Koch, DNS, RN Associate Professor Loewenberg School of Nursing The University of Memphis Memphis, Tennessee

Laura R. Mahlmeister, PhD, MSN, RN Clinical Professor of Nursing University of California, San Francisco President Mahlmeister & Associates Belmont, California

Rosemary A. McLaughlin, PhD, MSN, RN-NIC Associate Professor School of Nursing Union University Jackson, Tennessee

Linda D. Norman, DSN, RN, FAAN Senior Associate Dean for Academics School of Nursing Vanderbilt University Nashville, Tennessee

Tommie L. Norris, DNS, RN Director, Associate Professor Clinical Nurse Leader Program The University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Nursing Memphis, Tennessee

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viii CONTRIBUTORS

Patricia Reid Ponte, DNSc, RN, FAAN, NEA-BC Senior Vice President for Patient Care Services Chief of Nursing Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Executive Director, Oncology Nursing & Clinical

Services Brigham and Women’s Hospital Boston, Massachusetts

Anna Marie Sallee, PhD, MSN, RN Adjunct Faculty, Alvin Community College Alvin, Texas; Staff Nurse and Educator, Houston Hospice Houston, Texas

Carla D. Sanderson, PhD, MSN, BSN Provost and Executive Vice President Union University Jackson, Tennessee

Gwen D. Sherwood, PhD, RN, FAAN Professor and Associate Dean for Academic Affairs School of Nursing The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Margaret Elizabeth Strong, MSN, RN, NE-BC Assistant Professor Division of Nursing Baptist College of Health Sciences Memphis, Tennessee

Dawn Marie Vanderhoef, PhD, DNP, RN, PMHNP/CS-BC Clinical Assistant Professor School of Nursing University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota

Jill J. Webb, PhD, RN, CS Assistant Director of the Honors Community Professor School of Nursing Union University Jackson, Tennessee

Elizabeth E. Weiner, PhD, RN-BC, FACMI, FAAN Senior Associate Dean for Informatics Centennial Independence Foundation Professor of

Nursing Professor of Biomedical Informatics School of Nursing Vanderbilt University Nashville, Tennessee

Kathleen Werner, MS, BSN, RN Director Performance Improvement Meriter Hospital Madison, Wisconsin

Tami H. Wyatt, PhD, RN, CNE Associate Professor Chair, Educational Technology & Simulation Co-Director, Health Information Technology &

Simulation Center University of Tennessee, Knoxville School of Nursing Knoxville, Tennessee

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R E V I E W E R S

Lucille C. Gambardella, PhD, APN-BC, CNE-ANEF Chair and Professor Wesley College Dover, Delaware

Linda L. Johnson, DNP, RN, CCRN, GNP-BC ADN Program Coordinator, Health Sciences Hill College Cleburne, Texas

Gerry Walker, DHeD, MSN, RN Park University Parkville, Missouri

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At no other time in the history of modern nursing have nurses been presented with such tremen-dous opportunities to improve health care and advance the nursing profession. By understanding and providing leadership to address the very serious issues currently facing the U.S. health care system, nurses can advance health care delivery to promote the health and well-being of each individual in our society. These important issues include patient safety and quality care, health care reform and the uninsured population, nursing workforce challenges, advancing technology, changing legal and ethical concerns, evolving nursing education trends, rising health care costs, and working within a multicultural society.

WHO WILL BENEFIT FROM THIS BOOK? The sixth edition of Contemporary Nursing: Issues, Trends, & Management is an excellent resource to help nursing students and practicing nurses understand the very complex issues facing today’s health care systems and implement strategies from the direct patient care level to the national legislative arena that can signifi- cantly improve patient care, the health care system, and the nursing profession.

ORGANIZATION Unit 1: The Development of Nursing The book opens with a presentation about the exciting evolution of nursing, its very visible public image, and its core foundations, which include nursing education, licensure and certification, nursing theory, and nursing research and evidence-based practice. These opening chapters provide the reader with a solid background for understanding and studying current and future trends.

Unit 2: Current Issues in Health Care This unit provides a comprehensive overview of the most current trends and issues occurring today in nurs- ing and health care, including health care financing and economics, legal and ethical issues, cultural and social issues, complementary and alternative healing, work- place issues and nursing workforce challenges, collec- tive bargaining and unions, technology in the clinical

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P R E F A C E

setting, and emergency preparedness. Students, fac- ulty, and veteran nurses will be challenged to critically examine each of these significant issues that are shaping the practice of professional nursing and the health care delivery system.

Unit 3: Leadership and Management in Nursing This unit offers a foundation of knowledge in nursing leadership and management, with a focus on the basic skills that are necessary for all nurses, regardless of the setting or position in which they work, to function effectively in the professional nursing role. Chapters examine leadership and management theory and roles, budgeting basics, effective communication, delega- tion and supervision, staffing and nursing care delivery models, quality improvement and patient safety, qual- ity and safety education in nursing, and health policy and politics. The updated content in this unit provides the most current information available related to nurs- ing leadership and management and will serve as both a valuable educational tool for students and a very useful resource for practicing nurses.

Unit 4: Career Management The final unit prepares the student to embark on a career in nursing. Making the transition from student to professional, managing time, understanding career opportunities, finding a good match between the nurse and the employer, and passing the NCLEX-RN exami- nation are all presented with practical, useful advice that will serve as an excellent resource for both students and novice nurses as they build their careers in professional nursing.

LEARNING AIDS Each chapter in the sixth edition contains the same fea- tures that made the previous editions so successful: • Real-life Vignettes and Questions to Consider at the

beginning of each chapter, which pique the reader’s interest in the chapter content and stimulate critical thinking

• Key Terms that contain clear and concise defini- tions of terms that are critical to enhance readers

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xii PREFACE

understanding of the topics and expand their vocab- ulary related to health care issues

• Integrated Learning Outcomes that provide instruc- tors and students with a clear understanding of what behaviors can be expected after a study of the chapter is completed

• Chapter Overview is an overall perspective and guide to the chapter content

• Case Studies, included as appropriate, apply theory to clinical practice

• Summary at the end of each chapter provides a wrap- up and helps students focus on points to remember

• References related to chapter content help students explore further the issues that were covered

• Helpful Online Resources that are particularly rele- vant for further exploration of the topic are included at the end of selected chapters

NEW TO THIS EDITION Every chapter in the sixth edition has been updated to include the most current and relevant information available. New and expanded content in this edition includes the following: • Health care reform and the Patient Protection and

Affordable Care Act of 2010 • The nursing workforce supply, changing demands,

and new employment opportunities for nurses • Technological advancements and their impact on

health care and nursing practice • Meaningful use criteria for electronic health records • Implications for nursing practice from the following

major new reports: • The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing

Health released by the Institute of Medicine and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

• LACE (Licensure, Accreditation, Certification, and Education) Consensus Model for advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) regulation published by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing

• Crisis Standards of Care: A Systems Framework for Catastrophic Disaster Response released by the Institute of Medicine

• A Nurse’s Guide to the Use of Social Media released by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing

• The most current legal issues facing nurses • Technological trends in nursing education such as

e-learning, iPads, and digital messaging

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ANCILLARIES The student and instructor resources for the sixth edi- tion have been expanded to provide numerous activities to engage students in active learning, both within and outside the classroom.

Student Resources At the beginning and end of every chapter, students are referred to the dedicated Evolve website for the book, http://evolve.elsevier.com/Cherry/, where they can find additional online resources that provide them with the opportunity to become actively engaged in the learning process: • Student Learning Activities cover the major content

in the chapter with fill-in-the-blank, short answer, complete-the-chart, true-false exercises, and cross- word puzzles.

• Resumé Builder offers templates and samples of resumés and cover letters.

• Glossary of key terms and definitions from the book. • Appendixes include additional resources such as a

list of nursing organizations, state boards of nursing, state nursing associations, and Canadian nursing associations.

Instructor Resources On the same dedicated website, instructors will have access to all of the Student Resources as well as the fol- lowing resources that are designed to engage the student in active learning within the classroom and provide instructors with excellent in-class and online teaching- learning activities: • TEACH Instructor’s Manual containing case stud-

ies, critical thinking questions, and answer sce- narios to bring the content alive and help instructors facilitate discussion

• PowerPoint slides and Audience Response ques- tions giving rationale and level of difficulty for each chapter

• Test Bank with NCLEX-RN® exam alternative- format questions and rationales and level of difficulty based on Bloom’s Taxonomy

• Image Collection includes images from the book All instructor resources are password-protected, so please contact your local sales representative for further details.

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A B O U T T H E A U T H O R S

Barbara Cherry, DNSc, MBA, RN, NEA-BC, received her diploma in nursing from Methodist Hospital School of Nursing, her BSN from West Texas A&M University, her MBA from Texas Tech University, her MSN from Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, and her Doctor of Nursing Science from the University of Tennessee Health Science Center. Dr. Cherry’s clini- cal background is in critical care, medical-surgical, and nephrology nursing. Her research is focused on the long-term care nursing workforce and technology. She has more than 20 years of clinical and nursing leadership experience and is currently Professor and Department Chair for Leadership Studies at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Nursing in Lubbock, Texas.

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Susan R. Jacob, PhD, MSN, RN, received her BSN from West Virginia University in 1970, her MSN from San Jose State University in 1975, and her PhD from the University of Tennessee, Memphis in 1993. Her exten- sive experience as a clinician, educator, and researcher has been focused in the community health arena, specifi- cally home health and hospice. She has been an educator for more than 25 years and has taught at both the under- graduate and graduate levels. Dr. Jacob’s research has addressed the bereavement experience of older adults and enhanced models of home health care delivery. Dr. Jacob, Professor Emeritus in the College of Nurs- ing at the University of Tennessee, Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, serves as an educational consultant.

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A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S

Our contributors deserve our most sincere thanks for their high-quality, timely work that demonstrates genu- ine expertise and professionalism. Their contributions have made this book a truly first-rate text that will be invaluable to nursing students and faculty and will serve as an outstanding resource for practicing nurses. We extend a special thanks to our reviewers who gave us helpful suggestions and insights as we developed the sixth edition.

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We would like to express our grateful apprecia- tion to the Elsevier staff—Yvonne Alexopoulos, Senior Content Strategist; Emily Vaughters, Associate Con- tent Development Specialist; and Jeanne Genz, Project Manager—for their very capable and professional sup- port, guidance, and calm reassurance.

Our deepest appreciation goes to the most important people in our lives—our husbands, Mike and Dick, our families, and our friends. Their enduring support and extreme patience have allowed us to accomplish what sometimes seemed to be the impossible.

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xv

C O N T E N T S

UNIT 1 The Development of Nursing CHAPTER 1 The Evolution of Professional Nursing, 1

Susan R. Jacob, PhD, MSN, RN

CHAPTER 2 The Contemporary Image of Professional Nursing, 21 L. Antoinette (Toni) Bargagliotti, DNSc, RN, ANEF, FAAN

CHAPTER 3 The Influence of Contemporary Trends and Issues on Nursing Education, 34 Susan R. Jacob, PhD, RN

Dawn Vanderhoef, PhD, DNP, RN, PMHNP/CS-BC

CHAPTER 4 Nursing Licensure and Certification, 62 Susan R. Jacob, PhD, MSN, RN

CHAPTER 5 Theories of Nursing Practice, 74 Susan R. Jacob, PhD, MSN, RN

CHAPTER 6 Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice, 87 Jill J. Webb, PhD, MSN, RN, CS

Rosemary A. McLaughlin, PhD, MSN, RN-NIC

UNIT 2 Current Issues in Health Care CHAPTER 7 Paying for Health Care in America: Rising Costs and Challenges, 105

Marylane Wade Koch, MSN, RN

CHAPTER 8 Legal Issues in Nursing and Health Care, 120 Laura R. Mahlmeister, PhD, MSN, RN

CHAPTER 9 Ethical and Bioethical Issues in Nursing and Health Care, 166 Carla D. Sanderson, PhD, RN

CHAPTER 10 Cultural Competency and Social Issues in Nursing and Health Care, 183 Susan R. Jacob, PhD, MSN, RN

CHAPTER 11 Complementary and Alternative Healing, 204 Charlotte Eliopoulos, PhD, RN, MPH, ND

CHAPTER 12 Workforce Advocacy and the Nursing Shortage, 221 Debra D. Hatmaker, PhD, RN-BC, SANE-A

CHAPTER 13 Collective Bargaining and Unions in Today’s Workplace, 243 Barbara Cherry, DNSc, MBA, RN, NEA-BC

CHAPTER 14 Information Technology in the Clinical Setting, 253 Tami H. Wyatt, PhD, RN, CNE

CHAPTER 15 Emergency Preparedness and Response for Today’s World, 270 Linda D. Norman, DSN, RN, FAAN

Elizabeth E. Weiner, PhD, RN-BC, FACMI, FAAN

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xvi CONTENTS

UNIT 3 Leadership and Management in Nursing CHAPTER 16 Nursing Leadership and Management, 285

Barbara Cherry, DNSc, MBA, RN, NEA-BC

CHAPTER 17 Budgeting Basics for Nurses, 309 Barbara Cherry, DNSc, MBA, RN, NEA-BC

CHAPTER 18 Effective Communication and Conflict Resolution, 322 Anna Marie Sallee, PhD, MSN, RN

CHAPTER 19 Effective Delegation and Supervision, 346 Barbara Cherry, DNSc, MBA, RN, NEA-BC

Margaret Elizabeth Strong, MSN, RN, NE-BC

CHAPTER 20 Staffing and Nursing Care Delivery Models, 360 Barbara Cherry, DNSc, MBA, RN, NEA-BC

CHAPTER 21 Quality Improvement and Patient Safety, 374 Kathleen M. Werner, MS, BSN, RN

CHAPTER 22 Quality and Safety in Nursing Education: The QSEN Project, 393 Gwen Sherwood, PhD, RN, FAAN

CHAPTER 23 Health Policy and Politics: Get Involved!, 405 Virginia Trotter Betts, MSN, JD, RN, FAAN

Barbara Cherry, DNSc, MBA, RN, NEA-BC

UNIT 4 Career Management CHAPTER 24 Making the Transition from Student to Professional Nurse, 423

Tommie L. Norris, DNS, RN

CHAPTER 25 Managing Time: The Path to High Self-Performance, 444 Patricia Reid Ponte, DNSc, RN, FAAN, NEA-BC

Genevieve J. Conlin, DNP, MEd, MS/MBA, RN, NEA-BC

CHAPTER 26 Contemporary Nursing Roles and Career Opportunities, 461 Robert W. Koch, DNS, RN

CHAPTER 27 Job Search: Finding Your Match, 480 Susan R. Jacob, PhD, MSN, RN

CHAPTER 28 The NCLEX-RN® Examination, 497 Tommie L. Norris, DNS, RN

Index, 509

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C H A P T E R

U N I T 1 The Development of Nursing

1 The Evolution of

Professional Nursing

Susan R. Jacob, PhD, MSN, RN

Additional resources are available online at: http://evolve.elsevier.com/Cherry/

Building on a strong foundation for a bright future.

Toba Kamotu is a 17-year-old African-American college freshman who has been treated for depression for the past year at a local mental health center. It has also been reported that she suffered from anorexia and bulimia, in that she was vomiting frequently. Her treatment consisted of Zoloft 100 mg once daily and psychotherapy sessions once each week. Toba also had been complaining of somatic pain for the past 6 months. The pain radiated up her right leg and had a “pins and needles sensation.” Her therapist told her that these symptoms sometimes accompany depression and would dissipate as her depression improved. The pain in her leg kept her awake at night and was affecting her ability to study.

Toba’s college roommate was a nursing student who insisted that she be seen for her physical complaints. Because Toba had no insurance, she knew that her access

V I G N E T T E

We thank Shiphrah A. Williams-Evans, PhD, APRN, BC for her contribution to this chapter in the 4th edition.

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to care would be limited. Therefore, she was reluctant to seek health care services. The clinic that she preferred did not take Medicaid or medical assistance patients of any kind. Her roommate asked one of her nursing professors what Toba should do, and the professor referred them to a clinic that provided care to individuals in the commu- nity who had limited funds. Toba called immediately but was told that the earliest available appointment would be 2 months later. She made the appointment and placed her name on a waiting list to be seen earlier.

Within 2 weeks, Toba awakened vomiting and com- plaining to her roommate of feeling very hot. She was unable to walk because of excruciating pain in her right leg and was taken to the hospital by ambulance. When she arrived, her temperature was 103° F. A computed tomogra- phy (CT) scan was performed that indicated she had a liver mass measuring 10 cm. On biopsy the mass was determined to be malignant. Dr. Tabitha Winthrop, her oncologist,

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2 UNIT 1  The Development of Nursing

K E Y T E R M S Clinical nurse leader (CNL): A master’s degree–

educated RN who assumes accountability for client care outcomes through the assimilation and application of research-based information to design, implement, and evaluate client plans of care. The CNL is a provider and a manager of care at the point of care to individuals and cohorts or populations. The CNL designs, implements, and evaluates client care by coordinating, delegating, and supervising the care provided by the health care team, including licensed nurses, technicians, and other health professionals (AACN Updated White Paper on the Role of the Clinical Nurse Leader, July 2007).

Doctor of nursing practice (DNP): A practice-focused doctoral degree in nursing. The degree that is recom- mended by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) for all advanced practice nurses by 2015.

Clinical nurse …