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5/4/16, 10:12 PMLaw School Survival - The I.R.A.C. Method

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At some point in your law school career, you will be introduced to the I.R.A.C method. This

acronym stands for: Issue, Rule, Application, and Conclusion. Although the definitions are useful as a foundation for legal writing, don't get stuck thinking (as many people do) that you have to keep

these components in this specific order or that you can't style their arrangement to your needs; I

kept my writing style open, and had great success in my writing assignments doing so. But, be

warned, some professors will tell you exactly how you should order your paper, and you should

follow their suggestions since they will be grading your writing. Here are the definitions of the


ISSUE: In legal writing, issues are the core of your paper or essay. If you can't spot a single

issue, you will earn no points. To find issues, look for anything in the facts of a case that

could raise a question, sometimes called a "question of law": Could the defendant be

charged with x crime? Could he be convicted of that crime? Does he have any defenses for

his actions? Is the case eligible to be heard by a jury? If a jury hears the case, would they

convict even if the laws make the defendant look guilty?

Issue spotting is easiest when you know the laws and court holdings of your state, so

be sure to research and study thoroughly, but if you run across a question that is not

addressed by the rules of your state, don't fret, this is a good opportunity to bring up rules

from other jurisdictions that might persuade the court to make new precedence on that


RULE: In legal writing, rules are the same as they are in the rest of life; they are statements

that cannot be ignored without punishment, lower grades in our case. Rules can be found in

laws, regulations, and precedents (court holdings from similar cases), but while all rules are

mentionable, all do not carry the same strength. If one rule pertains to identical issues as

your paper, and another has only similar issues, the most persuasive rule (which must be

mentioned) is the one that is on point; it is up to you to decide whether the less persuasive

rule is worth mentioning. The same differences in persuasiveness exist for rules that come

from your states laws & courts versus those from other states. And of course, any ruling

from the Supreme Court overrides local precedence on that issue.

APPLICATION: The application should be the simplest part of your writing. If you know the facts, can

see the issues, and know the rules pertaining to those issues, the application will write itself.

Simply state the issue, state the facts & rules that give rise to the issue, and tell your

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5/4/16, 10:12 PMLaw School Survival - The I.R.A.C. Method

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professor how those facts do or do not meet the requirements laid down by the rules. Then

tell your professor whether you think a court would find the D guilty or not guilty based on

the strength of the facts and the rules. Even though this seems simple, you must be vigilant

to not leave any loose threads; address all elements of the rule and all the relevant facts.

Don't try to strengthen your argument by "forgetting" to include elements or facts that hurt

your argument.

CONCLUSION: The conclusion, as with all writing, is a statement that tells your reader what the result

of your arguments is, or what it should be. But, as with all good writing, the conclusion

should be redundant. All of your application sections should have already clearly stated the

conclusion for each individual issue. I suggest using this final conclusion section only to

remind the reader of those previous conclusions, and to resolve any differences between

those conclusions, such as when a defendant can be found guilty of a crime, but also may

have a defense. Example: "The Defendant met all of the elements of crime X, and can thus

be found guilty, but it is likely the court will find that his justifiable defense of Y will prevent

that conviction if they follow the precedent set by X v. Y.

The I.R.A.C. method is a great start, but there is much more to think about when writing an essay

answer and when implementing the I.R.A.C. method, as found in Intro to Essay Writing.

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