History Final Exam

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Name: Fatimah Alsadah Professor name: Mathieu Billings World History 202 Day: Monday 06/08/15 Exam 2#

1. What is a primary source? Give an example from our syllabus.

Primary sources are those sources that are directly written by authorizes, or stories or

autobiographies. They are directly about the topic by time or participation. The maps and

images of important historical events covered in the syllabus are the primary sources.

2. What is a secondary source? Give an example from our syllabus.

The secondary sources are those sources that interpret or analyze the primary sources.

The textbook, “Traditions & Encounters" A global perspective on the past” is a

secondary source because it analyzes and interprets the primary sources.

3. What are the fundamentals of historical analysis?

The fundamental of historical analysis is to look for change over time. The time and place

and the changes taking place over time are very important when analyzing history. The

questions that can help in historical analysis are: what happened (subject), why did it

happen (argument), how do we know (argument), and why do we care about the event.

4. Why are time and place so important to historical thinking?

Time and place are important to historical thinking because they tell important things

about the event and help in historical analysis and historical thinking by telling about

when the event occurred and where the event occurred.

5. What is historiography?

Historiography in simple events can be defined as the history of historical events. The

importance of the original historical work, the way it has been analyzed, the way

Comment [T1]: From our syllabus?

Comment [T2]: Good.

Comment [T3]: Give an example of how impossible it would be to make sense of the world without one or the other….

Comment [T4]: Partly. I also want you to think of it as the “competing interpretations” of history.

Name: Fatimah Alsadah Professor name: Mathieu Billings World History 202 Day: Monday 06/08/15 Exam 2#

historians look and study the event and the sources used are the points related to

historiography.

275 words

1. What was the Industrial Revolution? Why did it happen? Why do we care?

The Industrial Revolution was a period of technological revolution that took place during

the eighteen and nineteen century. It brought about a great change in the industries and

more and more machines were introduced. The people wanted everything fast and people

were working hard to make new machines. People were seeking development and with

the increase in population the demands for good was increasing and therefore there was a

necessity for the production to be increased. The handmade tools or the basic machines

used by people at home were not enough to meet the demands of people and there was a

necessity to use new machines to increase manufacturing. People also wanted an easy life

and therefore there was a necessity to improve the means of communication and

transportation. People wanted more facilities and a better standard of living and this was

also one of the reasons behind the Industrial Revolution. We care about the Industrial

Revolution because it laid down the foundation of modern world and technological

development. Industrial Revolution changed the lifestyle of people. People became more

and more urbanized and there was a shift from agriculture to Industry. We care about

Industrial Revolution because it brought economic development and also it created social

differences between rich and poor. People started shifting jobs and our lives became

easier after the revolution. We also care about Industrial Revolution because it gave more

Comment [T5]: Where?

Name: Fatimah Alsadah Professor name: Mathieu Billings World History 202 Day: Monday 06/08/15 Exam 2#

power to the capitalist countries and the Industrial Revolution could be the reason behind

people getting greedier for power. It is also possible that the Industrial Revolution could

have been responsible for the World Wars too. Therefore it is important to analyze all the

important events related to the Industrial Revolution.

2. What was modernization? What caused it? Why does it matter?

Modernization can be associated with enlightenment. It can be defined as the process of

progress and development that changed the lifestyle of people. Modernization can also be

defined in terms of scientific, political, social, economic, environmental, geographic,

agricultural and religious changes. The causes behind modernization are enlightenment

and the scientific development. People started questioning the previous beliefs and started

reasoning everything. The traditional and religious beliefs were also questioned and

people wanted reasons for everything. The scientific development also led to

modernization. People started developing new machines and the scientific inventions led

to the development of modern machines and technology. The economic, social,

environmental, agricultural, religious and political changes were all prompted by the

scientific development.

Modernization matters to us because it brought many changes. The traditional outlook of

people changed, and people started thinking in an open manner. The social and cultural

views of people started to changed and led to a modern outlook. Agricultural practices

changed and people started to move towards urban areas. Medical practices changed and

people started to use modern medicines and they also came to know the reasons behind

diseases. Economic development too place and new terms like capitalism and

Comment [T6]: Some historical examples? Your sources?

Name: Fatimah Alsadah Professor name: Mathieu Billings World History 202 Day: Monday 06/08/15 Exam 2#

imperialism were introduced. Religious thinking changed and people started questioning

the role of church. Population increased, demands increased and this led to development

of industries and technology. Modernization brought many good changes, but it also

brought some negative changes, such as the environmental pollution increased with

modernization. Political revolution can be associated with modernization and the political

changes also led to social changes as people demanded equality and freedom.

Modernization laid down the foundation of the modern and technological world.

3. What was Imperialism? Why did it occur? Why do we care?

Imperialism can be defined as a process by which one can country can rule over the

country by using political means or by economic means. Imperialism can be related to

greed because every country and every empire wanted to expand and grow. They wanted

to make strong boundaries and gain more economic power and for this more and more

resources were required, so the empires and countries started controlling other countries

and empires to help in economic growth and also to gain more and more resources. The

kings led their people to wars to conquer near and far lands and there were major wars in

the European region for the sake of power. Modernization and industrial development are

also closely related to imperialism. With the development of industries and

modernization, the production of goods increased multifold and the imperialist powers

needed some place to dump their goods and at the same time they needed resources for

the production of goods. The imperialistic powers also needed cheap resources for their

economic development and they needed cheap manpower too. It was possible to gain

Comment [T7]: Some historical examples? Your sources?

Comment [T8]: Who? Where and when?

Name: Fatimah Alsadah Professor name: Mathieu Billings World History 202 Day: Monday 06/08/15 Exam 2#

cheap resources and cheap manpower by controlling other countries and this was also the

main cause behind imperialism.

We care about imperialism because it brought a great change in the world. It brought an

economic revolution and many historical events are related to imperialism. In fact,

modernism, imperialism, industrial revolution, and capitalism are all related to each

other. Imperialism was also the reason for the development of a global world and the

discovery of the new world and other countries are also because of imperialism.

Imperialism was also the reason behind slavery and the development of racism. Historical

analysis shows the relation of imperialism with many historical events and therefore we

care about imperialism.

500 words

Do you think the World History since 1700 is essentially Eurocentric- a story of European

power and culture? Whether you agree or disagree, be sure to identify which historical event

was the most Eurocentric, and which was the least? Dedicate one paragraph to each of the

following, the Industrial Revolution, Modernization and Imperialism.

The European power had a lot of control over most of the countries of the world. The

historical events that occurred since 1700 are somehow or the other related to Europe or

European countries. Therefore it would not be wrong to say that the World History since

1700 is essentially Eurocentric- a story of European power and culture. The most Eurocentric

event was modernization and the least Eurocentric event was Industrial Revolution because

Industrial Revolution had begun in almost all the countries around the world, but more

Comment [T9]: Okay. Good. Link this with Kipling’s “White Man’s Burden”…or the political cartoons I showed in class.

Name: Fatimah Alsadah Professor name: Mathieu Billings World History 202 Day: Monday 06/08/15 Exam 2#

obvious changes of modernization were visible in Europe. The World History is still

Eurocentric because of the relation of historical events with Europe.

The Industrial Revolution began in almost all the countries. The Industrial and scientific

revolution had its foundation in India because the Brahmic numerals and the concepts of

trigonometry developed in India. The Golden Age of Islam also introduced many new

concepts. Japan had advanced modern technology and it helped later in its fast development

(Thomas, 2009). Industrial Revolution had begun in almost all the countries and therefore

Industrial Revolution is the least Eurocentric historical event. Europe had money, power and

resources to exploit the industrial development, but other countries lacked in one or the other

area , for example Japan and India had many internal wars and therefore they could not

exploit their scientific and industrial development on a larger scale like Europe.

Modernization was the most Eurocentric historical event and it brought many changes in

Europe that affected the entire world. The development in transportation, communication,

and health and electrical industries that began in Europe revolutionized the whole world.

Europe had power and resources to develop the scientific ideas and work in perfect

coordination for the betterment of society. Most of the scientists and scientific theories have

developed in Europe. Most of the important and famous inventions of the world happened in

Europe and then developed in later parts of the world.

Imperialism is also a Eurocentric event to a great extent. As European countries started ruling

the different countries in Asia, Africa and America, imperialism can be considered a

Eurocentric event. The concepts of capitalism and industrialization are associated with

Comment [T10]: Thesis.

Comment [T11]: No. It started in Britain.

Comment [T12]: Okay. Good. This is basically how I want you to cite your sources.

Name: Fatimah Alsadah Professor name: Mathieu Billings World History 202 Day: Monday 06/08/15 Exam 2#

imperialism and capitalism and industrialization are also closely associated with European

powers. The history of Imperialism and the events of conquering other countries is also

Eurocentric. Britain, France, Portugal, Dutch occupied many other countries for the sake of

acquiring political and economic dominance after 1700 and therefore Imperialism is a

Eurocentric event.

The World History tells us about the events around the world, but after 1700 most of the

historical events are related to Europe, or are about the European power and dominance.

Industrialization had begun in many other countries apart from the European powers, so

Industrialization is the least Eurocentric event. Modernization and Imperialism are more

Eurocentric because most of the historical events about modernization and imperialism are

related to Europe. Analyzing the historical events, the historians can see that European

countries were involved directly or indirectly in most of the events and therefore it would be

right to say that the World History since 1700 is more Eurocentric.

References

Thomas, S. (2009). Eurocentrism adding fuel to the fire. Retrieved June 7, 2015, from Gulf Daily News:

http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Eurocentrism+adding+fuel+to+the+fire.-a0194040785

Name: Fatimah Alsadah Professor name: Mathieu Billings World History 202 Day: Monday 06/08/15 Exam 2#

Excellent Good Fair Poor Points

1. Historical Discipline (20) 16

2. Short Essays (45) 31

Accurately answers the entire question X

References time and place throughout X

Employs Source-Based Evidence to Support Answers

X

Synthesizes a Variety of Sources X

3. Long Essay (60) 43

Accurately answers the entire question X

References time and place throughout X

Employs Source-Based Evidence to Support Answers

X

Synthesizes a Variety of Sources X

Argues logically and effectively X

Overall Grade (125 points) 90 (C-)

Okay. In some ways, this is an improvement over your last exam. But you need to take a look

at the “A” examples on ACE. As I state in my comments, you need to elaborate upon your

main points by supporting them with historical information and citing where you got your

information. (To be clear: only sources from our syllabus. I know that you did that here, but I

want there to be no doubt). The same goes for your long essay. Remember, you can always

come see me for help.