Behavior Assignment


Research Methods Chapter 2

1. Basic Term Review

2. Measuring Behaviour

3. Various Research Designs

4. Animal Research

Measuring Behaviour - Recording Methods

1. Rate of response - often called frequency # of behavioural responses per unit time

2. Intensity - magnitude of the behavioural response

3. Duration - length of time that behaviour is performed Total duration = total length of performance Mean duration = accumulation of several performances

4. Latency - length of time required for behaviour to begin

5. Interval Recording - if a behaviour occurs within a set interval

6. Time-Sample Recording - if a behaviour occurs within a series of intervals

Research Designs WE know the variables to to measure them.......HOW do we organize it all?

Descriptive Research ‣simply describing behaviour ‣NO manipulation

A. Naturalistic Observation

Stone Handling in Macaques

B. Case Studies


Research Designs

Experimental Research ‣looking for cause and effect relationships ‣manipulation of independent variable

A. Control Groups Design

One group = treatment One group = no treatment

A. Control Groups Design

Comparative design between species

Research Designs A. Control Groups Design

Disadvantages ‣averages across MANY individuals ‣need large sample sizes ‣comparisons across species may not be accurate


Research Designs Experimental Research

B. Single-Subject Designs - requires one or only a few subjects

Simple Comparison Design: baseline vs. treatment


Research Designs Experimental Research

B. Single-Subject Designs

Reversal Design: repeated alternations between baseline and treatment





Two-Treatment Reversal Design: repeated alternations between baseline and treatment



Treatment 1

Treatment 2 C





1. Behaviour MUST revert to baseline 2. Long-lasting effects will confuse results 3. Ethical considerations


1. Entire experiment with one subject 2. Generalization is possible with additional subjects 3. Can assess effectiveness of treatment

Research Designs Experimental Research

C. Multiple-Baseline Design - treatment started successively for two or more people/behaviours

Baseline Treatment Week 2Treatment Week 1

Baseline Treatment Week 3



Research Designs Experimental Research

D. Changing-Criterion Design - measures a gradual change over time

10 smokes/day FOR 3 DAYS

Baseline 12 smokes/day

8 smokes/day FOR 3 DAYS

6 smokes/day FOR 3 DAYS

Animals in Behavioural Research

Main advantages: 1. Control genetic makeup and learning history

2. More strictly control experiment

3. Cannot be ethically conducted on humans

Research Ethics Potential to inflict harm on or deceive subjects = ethical concerns

CCAC - Canadian Council on the Care of Animals

The Three Rs Replacement alternatives avoid or replace the use of animals

Reduction alternatives strategy that results in fewer animals used Refinement alternatives modification of procedures to minimize distress

Silver Spring Monkeys

Research Ethics

Elicited Behaviours And Classical Conditioning

Chapter 3

1. Elicited Behaviours Reflexes

2. Mechanisms of Learning

3. Classical Conditioning Pavlov Basic Procedures

Elicited Behaviour

Elicit is to draw out or bring forth

1. Behaviour is automatic 2. Drawn out by particular stimulus

Basic form is a REFLEX

Reflex......... simple automatic response to stimulus

Can involve a few or many coordinated muscle movements

E.G. Startle Response

E.G. Acoustic startle response in mice

E.G. Orienting Response

A movement response to novelty

E.G. Flexion Response

Reflex arc is the neural structure underlying reflexes

Consists of...... 1. Sensory neuron 2. Interneuron 3. Motor neuron

E.G. Patellar Reflex

1. quadricep stretches - sensory neuron 2. motor neuron - tightens quadricep 3. interneuron - inhibits and relaxes hamstring