Behavior Assignment

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The “Evolution” of Learning

Charles Darwin ‣modification by descent ‣no lower or higher species ‣NATURAL SELECTION

Set in MOTION a sensible, superior theory

“continuity between species”

Variation Transmission Competition

Behaviourism = study only observable behaviour

Stimulus-response: input from the environment = behavioural response

Classic Example: Pavlov’s dog

What is Behaviourism?

Schools of Behaviourism Methodological Behaviourism = only observable behaviour

Waton’s ideas on stimulus-response

Conscious thoughts & feelings Unconscious drives

& motives

Environmental Events

Observable Behaviour

Internal Events

Schools of Behaviourism

Hull’s Neobehaviourism = utilizes intervening variables

Clark Hull’s also a pure stimulus-response theorist

Internal psychological

processes Environmental

Events Observable Behaviour

Intervening Variables

For example; Hunger

Is the ‘concept of hunger’ measureable?

Schools of Behaviourism Cognitive Behaviourism = overall pattern directed at an outcome

Edward Tolman had a more molar or gestalt theory

Internal cognitive processes

Environmental Events

Observable Behaviour

Internal Events

Cognitive Map & Latent Learning

e.g. Driving to school

Schools of Behaviourism Social Learning Theory = emphasizes observational learning

Albert Bandura also had a more molar theory

Thoughts & Feelings

Environmental Events

Observable Behaviour

Internal Events *person variables

Social Learning Theory..........................lead Bandura to the concept of

RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM

Schools of Behaviourism

Radical Behaviourism = emphasizes environmental influence, rejects internal events.......AND thoughts need to be explained

B. F. Skinner includes internal events but does not use them to describe behaviour

Thoughts & Feelings

Environmental Events

Observable Behaviour

B. F. Skinner includes internal events but does not use them to describe behaviour...............because

ORDER is unknown e.g.

Emergency Feelings of concern Provide help

Feelings of concernProvide helpEmergency

Feelings of concern

Provide help

Emergency

B. F. Skinner therefore felt environment ULTIMATELY determines both external behaviour and internal events.

Thoughts & Feelings

Environmental Events

Observable Behaviour

Internal Events *private behaviours

Schools of Behaviourism

B. F. Skinner and the stimulus-response system

S-R chains = reflexive, classical conditioning Operant = controlled by consequences

Environmental Events

Observable Behaviour

Genetic Factors = not all behaviour is nutured, some is built in.......

“Operant conditioning is similar to natural selection”

Different Views in Europe.....ETHOLOGY

Konrad Lorenz (1940’s) •instinct and imprinting •1963 met Niko Tinbergen •won Noble Prize with Tinbergen & Von Frisch

Different Views in Europe.....ETHOLOGY

Niko Tinbergen (1950-1960’s) •cognition and behaviour •The Study of Instinct 1951 •pioneered “four questions”

•Causation, Development, Function, Evolution

Research Methods Chapter 2

1. Basic Term Review

2. Measuring Behaviour

3. Various Research Designs

4. Animal Research

Basic Term Review

Manipulation of......VARIABLES

1. Independent: condition/event that is manipulated

2. Dependent: affected by manipulation (i.e. dependent upon the independent)

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES

DEPENDENT VARIABLE:

Rival male invaders

Relationship between variables is functional

Basic Term Review 1. Stimulus: condition/event that can influence behaviour

2. Response: the instance of behaviour in response

Basic Term Review

1. Overt: behaviour that can be directly observed

2. Covert: internal subjective behaviour that only the actor knows of

Basic Term Review

1. Appetitive Stimulus: event/condition that is actively sought

2. Aversive Stimulus: event/conditions that is actively avoided

Often referred to as: Pleasant and

Unpleasant Stimuli

Appetitive

Aversive

Appetitive & Aversive events......depend on the state of the event

Establishing Operation

Two types.......

1. Deprivation: prolonged absence of event that increases appetitive behaviour

Establishing Operation

2. Satiation: prolonged exposure to event that decreases appetitive behaviour

Basic Term Review 1. Contiguity: closeness or nearness........

Temporal contiguity..........events occur close together in time

Spatial contiguity............events occur close to each other in space

2. Contingency: one event predicts and other event