Behavior Assignment


Animals in Behavioural Research

Main advantages: 1. Control genetic makeup and learning history

2. More strictly control experiment

3. Cannot be ethically conducted on humans

Research Ethics Potential to inflict harm on or deceive subjects = ethical concerns

CCAC - Canadian Council on the Care of Animals

The Three Rs Replacement alternatives avoid or replace the use of animals

Reduction alternatives strategy that results in fewer animals used Refinement alternatives modification of procedures to minimize distress

Silver Spring Monkeys

Research Ethics

Classical Conditioning Certain innate behaviours come to be produced in new situations

Operant Conditioning Strengthening or weakening of a behaviour as a result of its


E.G. emotional responses and likes or dislikes (fear, sexual arousal)

E.G. goal directed, voluntary (studying, complimenting)

Notation for Conditioning Diagrams

Bell: Food

Colon = the events occur in sequence

Bell: Food

sound of the bell is followed by presentation of food

Arrow = events also occur in sequence BUT one causes the other

presentation of food causes the dog to salivate

Food Salivation Bell Salivation

Bell Salivation

Bell: Food Salivation

Bell is presented just before the food, and the food in turn cause the dog to salivate

Then the presentation of the bell itself now causes the dog to salivate

Lever press Food pellet

The pressing of the lever results in the consequence of availability of food

**Target behaviour is in italics

Elicited Behaviours And Classical Conditioning

Chapter 3

1. Elicited Behaviours Reflexes

2. Mechanisms of Learning

3. Classical Conditioning Pavlov Basic Procedures

Elicited Behaviour

Elicit is to draw out or bring forth

1. Behaviour is automatic 2. Drawn out by particular stimulus

Basic form is a REFLEX

Reflex......... simple automatic response to stimulus

Can involve a few or many coordinated muscle movements

E.G. Startle Response

E.G. Acoustic startle response in mice

E.G. Orienting Response

A movement response to novelty

E.G. Flexion Response

Reflex arc is the neural structure underlying reflexes

Consists of...... 1. Sensory neuron 2. Interneuron 3. Motor neuron

E.G. Patellar Reflex

1. quadricep stretches - sensory neuron 2. motor neuron - tightens quadricep 3. interneuron - inhibits and relaxes hamstring