Unit 4 HA560

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 When assessing community health issues, it is important to identify what specific targeted population groups may be involved and ensure they are captured in the overall assessment. What is a targeted or high-risk population group? How would you identify this population group in a community? Why is it necessary to focus on these groups? Provide 2-3 examples of this type of population. 


In two diferent paragraph give your personal opinion to  Tinesia Newson  and Marla Stuck 

 Tinesia Newson 

High risk or targeted population groups usually consist of individuals that are at a dis-advantage in some way, shape or form. These populations are at an increased risk for poor health due to lack of support,  resources and/or appropriate health care facilities.

The first step to identifying a high-risk population regardless to the situation is to perform a risk assessment. This process enables you to examine information and data that can help to identify health disparities. The data collected via surveys, interviews, and observations can be used to not only identify high-risk populations, but it can also help to determine what interventions or resources are needed.

High-risk or targeted populations may not have access to the things they need to support their health. Some examples of those resources include: affordable health care, safe and adequate housing, mental health support, family support, and financial resources and unfortunately, this population sometimes falls through the cracks when it comes health resources and other needed resources. With the right resources in place it can help the community for many generations. Sometimes poor health practices are passed down and can continue to plague many generations of a family. Establishing healthy behaviors to prevent chronic disease is easier and more effective during childhood and adolescence than trying to change unhealthy behaviors during adulthood (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019).

Some examples of targeted or high-risk populations are:

  • Young mothers suffering from some form of substance abuse or addiction - This population would be considered high-risk because of their addiction. This population is at increased risk because many lack health seeking behaviors and are at and increased risk for things like heart disease, stroke, hypertension, heart attacks and blood borne diseases such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and mental health disorders. Addiction is not the only issue, many are dealing with homelessness, financial challenges and lack of support.
  • Individuals living below poverty levels - This population may posses health seeking behaviors however, they may not be able to afford things like health insurance, medication and doctors visit co-payments. They may live in a food drought community and may not have access to or be able to affordable, fresh, healthy food. They may not be able to afford adequate housing. In 2017, the US Department of Housing and Urban Development reported that almost 554,000 people in the country were homeless on a single night (Joszt, 2018).
  • LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual, Transgender and Queer) population - This population often has to deal with many forms of discrimination.  Healthy People 2020 reported that discrimination against this population is often linked to higher rates of suicide, mental health disorders and substance abuse (Joszt, 2018).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Promoting health for children and adolescents. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/factsheets/children-health.htm

Joszt, L. (2018). 5 vulnarable populations in healthcare. Retrieved from https://www.ajmc.com/view/5-vulnerable-populations-in-healthcare

 


Marla Stuck 

CHNA Targeted Populations

High risk or targeted population groups in a Community Health Needs Assessment may be a group of individuals affected by health disparities.  These groups may include:

  • “Uninsured or impoverished adults
  • Student within a school district
  • Specific racial or ethnic groups in a defined region
  • Recipients of a particular social service (e.g., WIC, SNAP)
  • Individuals with financial stress
  • Homeless individuals
  • Neighborhoods with environmental risks (e.g., factory pollution, high lead exposure)” (Association for Community Health Improvement, 2017, p. 1).

Identifying this group in a community.         

          There are several ways to identify these targeted groups in a community when conducting a community health needs assessment. A key to making this identification is by engaging community members, health organizations, patients, and other key stakeholders (Resnick, 2016).  Identifying the needs allows a focus of resources to these disparities.

Focus is necessary.

 Focus is necessary on the specific high-risk populations for compliance with IRS guidelines and assesses and mitigates health disparities in the community.  With this data, healthcare organizations may reach these specific populations utilizing better strategies, closing the gap on these inequities to health care, and possibly preventing diseases and illnesses. “Although compliance is a motivating factor, these entities are committed to understanding the communities they serve and to developing strategies to address health needs and inequities in health and health care” (Alberti, 2014, p. 1174).

High-Risk or Targeted Populations.

In the CHNA conducted with Oaklawn Hospital in Marshall, Michigan, two such groups were the community members in Albion and Marshall's senior citizens.  The reasons for this "target" are Albion community members are predominantly black, lower-income families, and there is no public transportation available to Oaklawn healthcare services.  This lack of transportation to healthcare proved to be an even more considerable concern during the height of the COVID 19 pandemic when black males had a higher mortality rate.

The second 'targeted" population was for senior citizens; one part was for the transportation issue; however, the focus was mental health care.  Mental health care needs were identified as a need and could help address concerns before suicides or the beginnings of dementia and Alzheimer's.  The senior white male has a much higher suicide rate than the rest of the population, and the population of Marshall is 96.6% white, with seniors making up nearly a quarter of that population (United States Census Bureau, 2019).

References

Alberti, P. (2014). Community Health Needs Assessments: Filling Data Gaps for Population Health Research and Management. The Journal for Electronic Health Data and Methods, 2(4): 1174.

Association for Community Health Improvement. (2017). Community Health Assessment Toolkit Step 3: Define the Community. Retrieved from healthycommunities.org: http://www.healthycommunities.org/Resources/toolkit.shtml#.W318ruhKhPZ

McLees, A. W., Nawaz, S., Thomas, C., & Young, A. (2015). Defining and Assessing Quality Improvement Outcomes: A Framework for Public Health. American Journal of Public Health 105(S2), S167-73, doi: 10.2015/AJPH.2014.302533.

Resnick, J. J. (2016). Exploring Community Health Needs. Hospitals in pursuit of excellence, 27.

Schifferdecker, K. E., & Bazos, D. A. (2016). A Review of Tools to Assist Hospitals in Meeting Community Health Assessment and Implementation Strategy Requirements. Journal of Healthcare Management 61(1), 44-57.

United States Census Bureau. (2019, July 1). Quick Facts United States. Retrieved from census.gov: https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/US/PST045219


 


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