Overview: Some scholars argue that international relations in the post-Cold War era is fundamentally different from the Cold War era (e.g., Fukuyama 1989), subsequently, states should use “smart power” strategies to achieve their goals within this new environment (e.g., Nye 2011). Critics of “smart power” agree that the international system has changed in the post-Cold War era, but maintain that power is “returning” to international politics and the effective use of power (particularly hard power) is still crucial for achieving objectives in the post-Cold War era (e.g., Gelb 2009, Kagan 2007). The tradeoffs between hard, soft, and “smart power” form the basis of the final examination. Prompt: Choosing ONE of the cases listed below: 1. United Kingdom 2. France 3. Germany 4. Brazil 5. Russia 6. China Examine the extent to which “smart power” dominates the foreign policy in your selected case. Does the foreign policy of your selected case reflect a commitment to smart power as Nye recommends? Or does it reflect a “return to history” and a greater reliance on hard power as Kagan and Gelb suggest? Should it emphasize smart power? Why? Why not? To address this question, your paper should do the following: 1. Identify how “end of history” and “return to history” theorists conceptualize international relations in the post-Cold War era (i.e., What does each predict in international politics?). 2. Define hard, soft, and “smart” power and explain the utility of hard, soft and “smart” power in both the “end of history” and “return to history” narratives (e.g., Should states focus on hard power? Soft power? Both?). 3. Detail the main foreign policy objectives in your selected case, examining whether they are consistent with Nye’s concept of smart power. 4. Argue whether foreign policy in your selected case should/should not reflect the aims of smart power. Requirements: The paper should provide a well-organized argument to the prompt, using course materials (lecture, course readings, current events materials, etc.) to substantiate your argument. Please be advised that papers which 1) lack a clear thesis statement and/or 2) show little or no familiarity with course readings will be penalized. Although you may use additional current events materials if desired, you do not need to use outside theoretical resources for this paper. The paper should be 6-8 pages in length (typed, double-spaced, 12-inch Times New Roman font, with one-inch margins), and should contain a bibliography. You may use either MLA or APA format to cite sources within your paper. Please be advised that papers which do not meet minimum requirements may not receive credit for the assignment. A handout detailing the format of a social science paper is available on the course website.  Due Date: An electronic copy of your final must be submitted to turnitin.com via TED no later than 5:59pm on 14 December 2018. We will grade whatever you have submitted at the time of the deadline, so please make sure you have uploaded the correct copy of your midterm because once the deadline has passed, we cannot clear the submission. Barring a documented emergency, no e-mail attachments or late papers will be accepted. Additionally, we will not entertain ANY late requests which we are not made aware on the day the paper is due. Please be advised that barring notification of a Turnitin.com outage, an inability to submit the paper before the due date due to failing to hit submit, slow internet connection/upload, etc., is not considered an emergency so please plan accordingly. Good Luck! 

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