Philosophy: Metaphysics

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  1. (a) Thrasymachus’ (the sophist’s) definition of Justice or Right or Right Doing/Living is “The Interest of the Stronger (Might makes Right).”  How does Socrates refute this definition? (cite just one of his arguments)   [cf: The Republic, 30-40, Unit 1 Lecture Video]
    (b) According to Socrates, what is the true definition of Justice or Right? [cf: The Republic, 141-42, Unit 2 Lecture Video]
    (c) And why therefore is the Just life far preferable to the Unjust life (142-43)?

  2. (a) The Allegory of the CAVE (the main metaphor of western philosophy) is an illustration of the Divided LINE. Characterize the Two Worlds, and the move/ascent from one to the other (exiting the CAVE, crossing the Divided LINE)—which is alone the true meaning of Education and the only way to become Just, Right, and Immortal.  [cf: The Republic, 227-232, Unit 3 Lecture Video]
    (b) How do the philosophical Studies of Arithmetic (number) and Dialectic take you above the Divided Line and out of the changing sense-world of illusion (the CAVE) into Reality and make you use your Reason (pure thought) instead of your senses?  [cf: The Republic, 235-37, 240-42, 250-55. Unit 4 Lecture Video (transcript)]

  3. Give a summary of the Proof of the Force (Why there is the “Universe,” “Man,” “God,” “History,” etc)?  Start with, “Can there be nothing?”  [cf: TJH 78-95, Unit 2 Lecture Video]

  4. NIETZSCHE is the crucial Jedi philosopher who provides the “bridge” between negative and positive Postmodernity by focusing on a certain “Problem” and the “Solution” to it.
    (a) Discuss 2 of the following items (1 pertaining to the Problem, 1 pertaining to the Solution): “The Death of God,” “Nihilism,” “meaninglessness,” and the Need for a “New God,” “The Superman,” and “The Eternal Return.”
    (b) According to Nietzsche, in The Antichrist, what is the true meaning of the gospel (“good news”) of Jesus Christ?   [cf: Unit 4 Lecture Video, The Nietzsche PowerPoint, NWKF, TJH 44-46, 67-68, 325]
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