Peer responses (8) - 50 words each - due in 2 hours

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Respond to 8 students - due in 2 hours - 50 words each - I have put a guided response for each set to help with the response:

  

Guided Response: Review several of your classmates’ posts and respond to at least two classmates.  Offer an additional example of how development of the age groups your classmates selected influence curriculum decisions.

Student 1: Tracie:
The age group I chose is 3-5 years of age. The physical development of children in this age group is movement and coordination which can also influence the curriculum. During this time, children’s’ brains are like sponges. They are watching and learning everything in their environment. This age group brings a “wide variety of experiences to the preschool setting, which should serve to inform curricular decisions (Jaruszewicz, 2013). The social and emotional aspect of this age group is that of caring, understanding and many more. Three to five-year old’s need the aptness to proceed around and we as teachers should promote physical development. A great way of doing this is consistently doing active play inside and also outside of the classroom. Teachers should label bins and shelves that have objects such as toys and the areas they are playing/ working in. The children will be able to independently pick them up and return them as they play. Incorporate games in the curriculum that lets them move free and easily within the game.

Cognitive aspect of a 3-5-year-old is that their brain functions are learning things on a daily base to help the child. In the newsletter by Paraskevopoulou it was written: “Curriculums that include topics such as appropriate scheduling, creating a developmentally appropriate classroom, and making the most of learning centers, will help create a classroom environment that actively engages the child and keeps his or her attention.  When implemented in the classroom, these components contribute to less discipline problems and a smoother day” (Paraskevopoulou, F, (2008).

The key to successful learning, especially for children ages 3-5, you must have a classroom environment that’s design especially for them. The environment should be one where they able to move around freely with no obstacles in their way. The curriculum must be on the preschool level for the students to understand.

References:

Jaruszewicz, C. (2013). Curriculum and methods for early childhood educators. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu (Links to an external site.)

Paraskevopoulou, F, (2008), Teachers of young children (3-5 years old) and their

interaction with pupils: approaching positive classroom management. Retrieved from

https://www.cceionline.com/newsletters/May_08.html

Student 2: Stephanie: 

The group I selected that I would love to work with is age range from 3 to 5 years old. During this stage, the children are using language to express their feelings, questions, and thoughts. This age group is considered what I would call " preschoolers". 

 The physical domain goals focus on developing coordination and fluidity of movement. Children are growing so fast during this time that their body image may lag behind their actual physical appearance, and they may have difficulty with spatial awareness. Many of the physical development needs of preschoolers can be supported by careful planning of the environment and blocking out indoor and outdoor time periods where children are free and expected to make choices, direct their own play, and moderate their personal behavior.

The emergence of the social self takes center stage and with it attention to cultural and gender identity, making and being friends, and solving problems without coming to blows or hurting someone else's feelings. Children of this age are highly motivated by the desire to please the adults they came about.

Key goals in cognitive domain include development of memory, attention, symbolic representation, loge and reasoning, language and literacy, multiple perspectives, and the acquisition of concepts fundamentally to later learning across all content areas. 

References

Jaruszewicz, C. (2013). Curriculum and methods for early childhood educators. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Guided Response:  Respond to at least two of your classmates and provide recommendations to extend their thinking.  Identify at least one aspect of the video not discussed in their responses that you think should be included. Share some ideas for how they could incorporate this aspect in their classroom.

Student 1: Venice:

Preschool is a very important time in life for young children. Preschools help children get familiar with active play and children their age. Children attending preschool for the first time will get to experience being around other children their age if they haven't done so already during daycare. These children will learn how to communicate, share, and respect personal boundaries. Children attending preschool will learn letters, numbers, potty training, words, and should also begin writing their names by this age. Preschool isn't always based around curriculum in the classroom. Preschool also promotes life skills such as cooking, washing their hands, cleaning all through active play that will benefit them in the future.
Well qualified teachers are important to ensure the wellbeing of the children.

These qualified teachers help with steering the children in the correct direction of life and being successful during their school years. They also help assess issues in children early on that may surface, so those issues can be address and the child won’t suffer in the end. Qualified teachers also advocate for their children when it is something in the curriculum they like and may not like.

 Play is integrated into the classroom by allowing children to be social and use their imagination doing so while cooking, play talking on the phone, cleaning and pretending to be parents who they demonstrate what they are seeing at home. All of these things stimulate the brain and prepares them for what life has in store.

Student 2: Stephanie:

Preschool program is very important for young children. Preschool is known for an educational establishment to prepare the young children for Kindergarten. In preschool, children combine learning with play in a program run by professionally trained adults. Many people will confused preschool and daycare. Many people believe that preschool is just like a daycare center. However,  preschool is where the children emphasis in  learning and development rather than enabling parents to work or pursue other activities. Play is integrated into learning with a lot of make believe that allow children to develop abstract thinking, verbal and social skills, along with self-regulation. All of which enhance their imagination, vocabulary, social, emotional, and cognitive learning skills. Play is very important because it helps children learn about the world and society. It also promotes problem-solving, promotes creativity, imagination, cognitive, social, and emotional development.

According to naeyc, play is an important part of children's learning and development. Their are many games that can be used to help with the children learning and development. In the video, the teacher had many great ideas for the children by using nature materials. This allows them to be familiar with the nature side of the world. This also allows them to be more creative with their thoughts.

Reference:

naeyc."Play". Retrieved from: www.naeyc.org/resources/topics/play

Guided Response:  Reply to at least one peer who chose a psychologist other than the one you selected and two or more peers overall.  The goal of the discussion forum is to foster continual dialogue, similar to what might occur in a verbal face-to-face exchange.  Consider the following questions in your responses:

· What additional questions do you have about the psychologist that your peer summarized?  For example, you could ask about his/her contributions to theory and/or research. 

· Are there relevant connections between the work of the influential figure you selected and the individual selected by your peer?

· Share examples from your own life that illustrate your peer’s chosen theoretical perspective.

Student 1: Amber:

Select one noted psychologist from any of the included lists in “The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century”. Haggbloom et al. (2002). 

· Sigmund Freud

Locate information about this person to learn more about him/her and his/her work. “Born: May 6, 1856

Birthplace: Freiberg, Moravia, Austrian Empire (now Příbor, Czech Republic)

Died: September 23, 1939

Place of death: London, England” (Cook, 2015).

Summarize the contributions of the influential figure you selected to the field of psychology.  In your discussion, include the following: Describe your selected psychologist and his or her main contributions to the field.

“Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis and as such has had a tremendous impact on contemporary thought and popular culture by baring the irrational and subconscious roots of much human action” (Cook, 2015).

Next, summarize the scholarly article you read.  Your summary should provide an overview of the theoretical perspective and describe any empirical work (i.e., research study) that is presented in the article. For additional assistance on how to summarize an article click here. 

In the article, Fears Founded and Unfounded, author Sigmund Freud explains his theory between actual and unstable fears. For example, one person might fear what another does not based on either knowledge/experience or their perception of a certain thing. In addition, Freud expresses that, fear could in fact, cause more harm than good in a situation, and that it is better to use rational thinking to analyze the situation to determine the best outcome rather than let fear drive certain behaviors and actions. However, fear is also a part of our safe keeping as it alerts us to real danger, so it is important to take this in consideration when determining whether the fear is real or an exaggerated misconception (2017).

Examine how this theory/research provides insight into differences in psychological functioning.

In layman’s terms, what does the theoretical perspective, that you explain, tell us about the differences between people and how they behave, think, and feel?  How might it explain why they do what they do?

Basically, it says that people who might be facing a true life and death situation might be facing a real fear brought on by self-preservation, while others are dealing with over exaggerated fallacy’s that are only causing more damage to the well-being of the individual mental health.

Illustrate with an example from your own observation or experience.

What personal experiences or observations of these types of behaviors might be able to be explained by this perspective?

Ia friend of mine was diagnosed with Social Anxiety Disorder, regarding my past experiences it has been common that in many social situations she has faced caused or led to negative consequences in life, so now she associates any social situation as having some kind of negative experience. This could be considered a false fear for some, but from my understanding it is based off prior experiences. 

References

Eagle, M. N. (2019). Review of Freud: An intellectual biography. Psychoanalytic Psychology. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1037/pap0000236

Anderson, J. W. (2017). An interview with Henry A Murray on his meeting with Sigmund Freud. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 34(3), 322–331. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1037/pap0000073

Cook, B. A. (2015). Sigmund Freud. Salem Press Biographical Encyclopedia

Freud, S. (2017). Fears Founded and Unfounded. Lapham's Quarterly, 10(3), 114

Student 2: Lisa:

Select one noted psychologist  

           Stanley Milgram

Locate a scholarly article

Milgram S. Behavioral Study of Obedience. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology. 1963;67(4):371. http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edo&AN=22903410&site=eds-live&scope=site. Accessed April 15, 2019

Describe your selected psychologist and his or her main contributions to the field.

Stanley Milgram was a social psychologist know for obedience experiments. His research was aimed at seeing how far people are willing to go to obey authority. His experiments raised some questions on ethical issues as well.  The biggest contribution Stanley Milgram made is seen today in how experiments are done and what is accepted and allowed to take place during the experiments.  

summarize the scholarly article

The article is a guide to the steps taken in an experiment which would determine how obedience play a part in the harming of others. The test subject was put in front of a machine which had buttons each button was a connected to a shock generator which was attached to a complete stranger in another room. The test subject would ask a question to the person hooked to the receiving end of the shock device. If the question was answered incorrectly the test subject would have to shock them. There were 30 buttons and every button were labeled from slight shock to Danger, sever shock. The test was performed to find out how far the person was willing to go if an authority figure was telling them to proceed with shocking the person.

Examine how this theory/research provides insight into differences in psychological functioning.

This experiment shows a lot about how the human mind works. Most people in the experiment was dismissive to the other person who was receiving the shock, simply because an authority figure told them to press the button. Some stopped a questioning their action but still proceeded in delivering the shocks. Very few stood up and said this is wrong I will not do it.  

This is in my opinion very disturbing to say the least. For a human to know they are hurting someone else and proceed to do so even when they know they are wrong just because someone who is perceived as having authority told them to do so.  This shows humans will do whatever they are told to do as long as they do not feel like they are responsible for the act.

Guided Response:  Reply to at least one peer who chose a hypothesis other than the one you selected and two or more peers overall.  The goal of this interactive learning activity is to foster creative and critical thinking. Consider the following questions in your responses:

· What ethical or methodological considerations may have been overlooked by your peer? 

· Suggest an alternate descriptive method (e.g., case study, survey, naturalistic observation) to test the same idea. 

Student 1: Carlen:

Select a hypothesis from the following list

Attractive people are more likely to be asked on a date.

Briefly summarize a perspective (e.g., behaviorism, psychodynamic theory, cognitivism, humanism, sociocultural perspectives, and biological/physiological/psychological) that you might apply to your study of this topic.  Explain how it may be relevant to your understanding of this topic.

Sociocultural perspective is what I chose because where you are or what you do and surround yourself with affects you prospective on most things and I believe social media changes your prospective on things.

Describe a simple experiment Preview the document that you might conduct to test the hypothesis you have chosen.  In your description, include the following:

Identify the independent and dependent variables, clearly operationalizing each. To test my theory I would use social media (Independent variable) and the type of dating apps would be my (Dependent variable). I would make it so I had 3 females and 3 male’s swiping on tinder and other dating sites and watch who they swipe. I would get the base line “hot” score by asking everyone what they prefer and making them vote and the most common selections would be what the base line is. Then watch them utilize the apps and see if who they swipe on matches the base line. One way that we could stop people from being bias is what I said, make a base line for hot and even if they swipe off of that it won’t count for the “hot” list.

Student 2: Pamela:

Hypothesis:  Reading to a child will result in a more extensive vocabulary.

Although Neurologist Sigmund Freud’s is well known as the founder of psychoanalysis, his theories were criticized and not widely accepted by his colleagues then or today because of weak, experimental methods, and his theories were hard to test so, they can not be deemed as true or false (LeFrancois, 2016, sec 9.2). 

According to LeFrancois, (2016), the description of psychology is based on a wide field of study; it is sometimes compared to a puzzle that requires placing the different pieces in the correct order.  Psychology is a social science that studies human behavior and the mental process through theory and hypothesis while specializing in trying to uncover the reason why people experience psychological disorders such as anxiety, depression addiction and relationship problems (LeFrancois, 2016).  The psychological study of the human mind is relevant to understanding and assessing the impact that research has on cognitive development and how it relates to behavior and emotions in children and adults.

Psychological Experiment:  Reading to a child will result in a more extensive vocabulary.

Theory:  Research shows that not only talking to your children but reading to them increases their vocabulary states Professor Dominic Massaro, (as cited in Fry, 2015).  Developing mastery over words expands grammatical understanding and is a strategy for competent literacy skill (Fry, 2015).

Simple experiment:  3-years olds divided into a group with books and a group without in separate area.   

Independent Variable:   Group A is 3- year old children being read to by parents and teacher utilizing books that describe objects and show scenes being portrayed, increasing their knowledge and vocabulary with new words.

Dependent Variables: Group B parents talks to 3-year old children utilize day-to-day language exchanges with parents, teachers and each other as they look at picture books and talk about what they see.  Without guidance, these children will not understand the importance of literacy or have an extensive vocabulary.

Observation 1: The children in Group A are not only looking at and enjoying the pictures in the book they are listening and following along as the speakers read the text aloud.  Professional parents who are educated usually have an extensive vocabulary and provide stimulating conversation and reading material.    

Observation 2: The children in Group B are using generalized communication with each other, and the adults present by exchanging conversation on topics about their, toys, people and pictures in their surroundings.  Parents education level may place a limit on vocabulary as well as their socioeconomic status.

To control potential mistakes and confusion children are placed in separate areas to be observed.  Children in Group A are placed in circle time where the choice of books are available, and they are encouraged to choose a favorite to be read by a nonconnected observer.  Children in Group B are sat at a table in a different room with another nonconnected observer and are each asked to pick a book and talk about the story.  Because children are stimulated and repeat language they hear reading to them opens a world of new words, language patterns and meaning.

According to LeFrancois (2016), a step a researcher could take to prevent bias is to make sure that whoever collects the information or data is not aware of which group is the experiment group and which is the test group.  Another prevention is to make sure that the subject is not aware that they are a part of an experimental group (LeFrancois, 2016).  

Eliminating bias in a controlled experiment ensures that an accurate and trustworthy result is obtained and that the objective is determined to be sound.

                                                                       References

Fry, S., (2015) Study says reading aloud to children, more than talking, builds literacy.  Retrieved from https://edsource.org/2015/study-says-reading-aloud-to-children-more-than-talking-builds-literacy/82045

LeFrancois, G. (2016). Psychology: The human puzzle (2nd ed.). [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/

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