Microbiology

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-Define Pathogen

- Define Infectious disease

- Define Infection

- Define Primary Infection

- Define Secondary Infection

- Define Opportunistic Infection

- Define Accidental Infection

- Define Pathogenicity

- Define Virulence

- Define Virulence Factors

- Define Lethal dose

- Outline the 4 steps a pathogen must complete to cause an infectious disease

- What is the difference between direct and indirect transmission? Provide examples

- What is a common vehicle transmission? Provide examples

- What is the criteria for Airborne transmission? Provide examples

- What are 3 criteria about skin that makes it an effective barrier against microbes?

- What are 3 criteria about mucous membranes that makes it an effective barrier against

microbes?

- List one example of how a pathogen might penetrate a skin or mucous membrane barrier

- Define Exotoxin and list at least 4 features they have

- Define Endotoxin and list at least 4 features they have

- List an example of a waterborne transmission disease

List an example of a airborne transmission disease

- List an example of a contact transmission disease

- List an example of a vector transmission disease

- Influenza virus has an envelope that contains 2 types of protein spikes. Name and

describe them

- Why are spike antigens good at evolving?

- Name 3 characteristics about latent and slow (persistent) Viral Infections

- How are viruses able to bring about cancer cell division?

- Describe the difference between Viruses and Retroviruses in regards to cancer

development

- What is a vaccination?

- Define Attenuated Vaccines

- Define Inactivated Vaccines

- Define Subunit Vaccines

- Define DNA Vaccines

- Define Cutaneous Mycoses and its effect in humans

THE CONTROL OF MICROORGANISMS

- Define Sterilization

- Define Bactericidal

- Define Bacteriostatic

- Describe sterilization by heat

- Describe sterilization by irradiation

- Describe sterilization by filtration

- What is disinfection?

- List and describe 3 types of disinfectants

- Describe the Kinetics of Cell death

- Draw and describe the kinetics of cell death for any microorganisms.

ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

- Define Antibiotic

- What is a key component of antibiotics?

- Define Infection

- Name 5 antibiotics and the diseases they are typically used for

- Name and describe 6 properties that antibiotics should have

- What are 4 ways that antibiotics work?

- Describe and give an example of disruption of cell membranes as it relates to antibiotics

- Describe and give an example of inhibition of protein synthesis as it relates to antibiotics

- Describe and give an example of inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis as it relates to

antibiotics

- Summarize in 5 sentences resistance to antibiotics

- Provide 5 examples and describe 5 different ways bacteria can be resistant to antibiotics

- Summarize in 5 sentences how bacteria resistance arises

- Describe the pros and cons between broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum antibiotics in 3

sentences

- Define an Antiviral

- Why are antiviral drugs not as common as antibacterial drugs?

- List and provide a example of the 4 ways antivirals work

- Describe how Antifungals work

- List and describe 5 examples of Antifungal agents

- Why is it hard to target Antiprotozoal Agents?

- List and describe examples of Antiprotozoal Agents (At least 3)

- Give a 3 sentence summary on the future of Antimicrobials (in your own words)

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