History paper


   Please al least using 4 materials for giving

Please take a minute to look at the questions below.  As always, you should provide an analysis that does more than summarize, and you should aim for an original view of how the material combines—or doesn’t—as you see fit.  You are free to use parenthetical citations (ie, Takaki, 4; Caldwell, 8).  Please draw from the A-V material (videos, films,) and please be sure that bulk quotes do not take the place of your own analysis.  You can just cite a film with a general citation (ie, “Cachoiera” ) and you need not cite lecture material.  You need not cite lecture materials specifically, although you are of course welcome to use material from class.

Ideal responses will be original, insightful, and comprehensive, with a clear statement (thesis) that lays out your argument.  But we will bear in mind that you are working with a limited word count.  Your total answer should fall between 1800 and 2000 words.  These word limits are guidelines, not requirements.  Your total submission is likely to be around 7 pages, in a regular (ie, Times New Roman) font and 12-point size.  You may write more. You may write less, although this is not recommended.  In each case, you must have a thesis and an argument that is supported from citations from the texts.  We are looking for clarity, originality, and comprehensiveness.  Your answer must include multiple textual cites and a discussion of at least one film.  



1. The main reading:

       Ron Takaki, A Different Mirror: A history of multicultural America  

       Manning Marable, Race, Reform and Rebellion: the second reconstruction and beyond in Black America. 

2. Module 1 material:

  Desmond, “In Order to Understand” https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/08/14/magazine/slavery-capitalism.html?mc=aud_dev&ad-keywords=AudDevGate&fbclid=IwAR3pllDsbUegGSkXekXKx0rFwGdf2hZ9kVf4En-ZlDIgCemRBXUUmgqPh2M&dclid=COzg592Mi-wCFQRGAQoduTYJYA 

 Caldwell, “The Negroization of the Chinese”

  Wolf, “Europe and the Peoples”  

3. Module 2 material :

   Cameron, “Buenos Vecinos” 

Ani Mukherji, “Like Another Planet” 

Nguyen Ai Quoc, “On Lynching and the KKK” 

Ernest Allen, “When JapanWas Champion” 

Alex Lichtenstein, “The Negro Convict is a Slave”

Benjamin Madley, “Patterns of Frontier Genocide” 

3.Moudule 3 material:

 Covington, “Revolutionary Techniques” 

 Cabral, “Connecting the Struggles” 

 Kelley and Esch, “Black Like Mao” 

 Kaufman, “What does the Pentagon see in   https://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/07/weekinreview/the-world-film-studies-what-does-the-pentagon-see-in-battle-of-algiers.html 

 Ferreira, “All Our Relations” 

 Roth, “Separate Roads Intro” 

 Mike Davis, “The Great God Trump” https://www.jacobinmag.com/2017/02/the-great-god-trump-and-the-white-working-class/ 

 Malloy, “Our Demand is Simple” 

The material without the link I have uploaded in order.

Answer 1 of the following:

  • In 1964, the black revolutionary Malcolm X compared conditions in Africa to those in America. He said “Algeria was a police state.  Any occupied territory is a police state.  Harlem is a police state.  The police in Harlem are like an occupying force.  The same conditions that forced the noble people of Algeria to resort to terrorist-type tactics…those same conditions prevail in every Negro community in the United States.”  Evaluate the historical importance of Malcolm’s claim, using Cabral, Covington, Kaufman, the Black Panther Party 10-part program (located I slide show L15), The Battle of Algiers, and Malloy.  Put simply, evaluate Malcolm’s analogy as a template for understanding the black freedom struggle.

  • The transcendentalist Unitarian minister and abolitionist reformer Theodore Parker spoke of “the moral arc of the universe” as “long, but bending toward justice.” King was fond of this phrase, as, it seems, is former President Barack Obama.  The idea of American society as growing slowly, but surely, toward a freer and more equitable one seems supported by events such as emancipation, women’s suffrage, the civil rights movement, and other reforms.  At the same time, Sean Malloy observes that “the persistence of police violence directed against African Americans, enduring patterns of racialized economic inequality and de facto segregation, the militarization of U.S. policing and its links to wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the emergence of the Black Lives Matter movement raise the question of what relevance the Black Panther Party and its legacy have in the twenty-first century.”  More generally, Malloy points to the continuation of patterns of violence and inequity that have plagued the United States for centuries.  Mike Davis extends Malloy’s notion further, casting “political and social war” as “inevitable” in the United States.  These seem two diametrically opposed ideas. In one, the U.S. is a self-regulating democracy growing ever freer.  In the other, fundamental oppressions return time and again.  Compare and contrast these two visions, using specific evidence from our class.  Which do you find more compelling, and why?  Feel free to include material from modules #1 and #2.

  • As had been the case in the interwar (1919-1939) years, the postwar (1945-1995) Black Freedom Struggle was profoundly shaped by international conditions and by the direct and indirect engagement of African Americans with struggles throughout the world. In an essay, evaluate the importance of struggles beyond the borders of the United States for thinking about the Black Freedom Struggle.  You may want to discuss Algeria, South Africa, and China.  What is gained by a global approach toward thinking about African American politics?  What, if anything, is lost? How do the struggles engaged after 1945 differ, if at all, from the countries (Mexico, the Soviet Union, Japan) that were influential before 1945? Again, you may want to use material from module #2.
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