health program management

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**PLEASE READ BEFORE STARTING! 500 WORD PAPER ONLY USING THE NOTES I HAVE PROVIDED BELOW. ESSAY QUESTION IS RIGHT BELOW AS WELL.**


Three common approaches to understanding leading – traits, behaviors, and situational or contingency approaches - may or may not be effective in leading/managing a healthcare program. Briefly summarize each and its appropriateness for healthcare management.

Health Program Management (Longest, 2015)

  • “Leading effectively means influencing participants to make contributions that help accomplish the mission and objectives established for a program.” (Longest, 2015, p. 139)
  • Traits approach 
    • “Based on the proposition that traits - encompassing skills, abilities, or characteristics - inherent in some people explain why they are more effective at leading than others.” (Longest, 2015, p. 140)
    • Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991, 48) stated, “Key leader traits include: drive (a broad term which includes achievement, motivation, ambition, energy, tenacity, and initiative); leadership, motivation (the desire to lead but not to seek power as an end in itself); honesty and integrity; self-confidence (which is associated with emotional stability); cognitive ability; and knowledge.” (as cited in Longest, 2015, p. 140)
  • Behaviors approach
    • “Traits cannot fully explain effectively leading, is based on the assumption that particular behaviors or sets of behaviors that make up a style of leading might be associated with success in leading.” (Longest, 2015, p. 140)
    • Planning, clarifying, monitoring, problem solving, supporting, recognizing, developing, empowering, advocating change, envisioning change, encouraging innovation, facilitating collective learning, networking, external monitoring, representing (Longest, 2015, p. 142)
    • Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s continuum of leader styles model: (Longest, 2015, p. 147)
      • Autocratic leaders - makes decisions and announces them to other participants 
      • Consultative leaders - convince other participants of the correctness of a decision by carefully explaining the rationale for the decision and its effect on the other participants and on the program 
      • Participative leaders - present tentative decisions that will be changed in other participants can make a convincing case for different decisions 
      • Democratic leaders - define the limits of the situation and problem to be solved and permit other participants to make the decision
      • Laissez-faire leaders - permit other participants to have great discretion in decision making
    • “Leaders must adapt and change styles to fit different situations.” (Longest, 2015, p. 147)
    • “An autocratic style might be appropriate in certain clinical situations in programs where work frequently involves a high degree of urgency. But this style could be disastrous in other situations, such as when a manager must decide how to offer a new service in a program or improve communication with participants.” (Longest, 2015, p. 147)
  • Situational/Contingency approach
    • “Integrates the traits and behaviors approaches by arguing that traits and behaviors must be combined with particular situations to explain effective leading.” (Longest, 2015, p. 140)
    • Fiedler’s contingency model 
      • “His hypothesis was that effective leading is contingent on whether the elements in a particular leading situation fit specific traits of the leader.” (Longest, 2015, p. 148)
      • “The contingency model has utility in management practice, especially in suggesting to managers the importance of systematically assessing whether their relationships with the participants in a program are supportive.” (Longest, 2015, p. 148)
      • “The contingency model also considers how the organization design and processes are being used fit a manager’s leader style and, in turn, how this affects his or her effectiveness as a leader.” (Longest, 2015, p. 148)
    • Hershey and Blanchard’s situational model 
      • “Identifies the participants a manager is attempting to lead as the most important situational variable, specifically focusing on participants’ readiness to perform.” (Longest, 2015, p. 149)
      • “In this model, readiness is assessed according to two factors: ability and willingness. Ability refers to the knowledge, experience, and skills that an individual or group possesses. Willingness is the extent to which an individual or group has the commitment and motivation needed to accomplish a specific task.” (Longest, 2015, p. 149)
      • “This model, widely used by managers, suggests that managers engaged in leading must be concerned about other participants’ readiness to be led, and must recognize their ability to affect the readiness levels of other participants. This model also reminds managers that it is important to treat all participants in a program as individuals, with real differences among them.” (Longest, 2015, p. 149)
  • “To lead effectively, managers must create and maintain conditions under which the other participants in a program can and do make their best contributions.” (Longest, 2015, p. 154)
  • “Models within the content perspective focus on the internal needs and desires that initiate, sustain, and eventually terminate behaviors.” (Longest, 2015, p. 154)

Leadership in Healthcare (Kumar & Khilijee, 2016)

https://www-sciencedirect-com.proxylib.csueastbay.edu/science/article/pii/S1472029915002507 

  • “This requires effective leadership at all levels within healthcare organizations and cannot simply be solved by a top-down approach. Lastly there has been an important drive to improve the quality of healthcare provision, and this fundamentally requires ‘change’ to occur, with clinical leaders acting as agents of change.” (Kumar & Khilijee, 2016)
  • “Contingency theory. Effective leaders develop different ways of working with their followers depending on the situation and the needs and attributes of followers.” (Kumar & Khilijee, 2016)
  • “Effective leadership is crucial in bringing about the changes necessary for quality improvement but the unique structure of healthcare organizations can prove a hindrance to change.” (Kumar & Khilijee, 2016)
  • “Successful leaders in healthcare organizations must acknowledge this and overcome the considerable barrier to change (e.g. ingrained working practices and cultures) that this inverted power structure supports.” (Kumar & Khilijee, 2016)
  • “Rather than toppling resistance to change, transformational leaders acknowledge and deal with it. Moreover quality improvement initiatives are more likely to succeed if healthcare professionals believe they have ownership of the task.” (Kumar & Khilijee, 2016)

The Most Effective Leadership Style for the New Landscape of Healthcare (Demaltoff & Lazarus, 2014)

https://go-gale-com.proxylib.csueastbay.edu/ps/i.do?p=AONE&u=csuh_main&id=GALE|A377998723&v=2.1&it=r

  • “Healthcare leaders must understand the value and critical importance of delivering an emotionally and behaviorally intelligent style of leadership to ensure that their staff feel empowered and supported” (Demaltoff & Lazarus, 2014)
  • “Because emotion is an internal process and cannot be seen by others (other than in the behaviors that those emotions generate), leaders must move from emotional to behavioral intelligence in order to realize the desired effects. And this is where the leadership game is won or lost: It is not enough for a leader simply to understand the effect of emotions on his style; he must move from internal (and unseen) emotion to external behavior--what people see, hear, and respond to.” (Demaltoff & Lazarus, 2014)
  • “By embracing an emotional and behavioral intelligence approach to leadership, executives can mitigate many of the difficulties associated with change and foster an organizational culture of support, empathy, and shared success. When leaders drive emotions and behaviors positively, they bring out the best in the people who follow them.” (Demaltoff & Lazarus, 2014)
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