HA560 Discussion Unit 1


Using as references any of this sources:

  1. This article provides more insight on the basics of community health assessment. ● Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [CDC]. (2018). Community Health Assessment & Health Improvement Planning. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/stltpublichealth/cha/index.html 

2. Click on this Community Health Assessment Toolkit link below and go to the “Community Engagement” tab to learn more about the community engagement approach. http://www.healthycommunities.org/Resources/toolkit.shtml#.W3HLAuhKhPY Association for Community Health Improvement. (2017). Community Health Assessment Toolkit. Retrieved from http://www.healthycommunities.org/Resources/toolkit.shtml#.W318ruhKhPZ 

3. These articles will pertain to the learning activity related to the course outcomes in this unit. ● Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2018). Determinants of health. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/foundation-health-measures/Determinants-ofHealth ● World Health Organization. [WHO]. (2018). Health impact assessment: The determinants of health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/hia/evidence/doh/en/ 

4. Readings based on a study that concludes that routine implementation of a community health assessment and improvement plan in local health agencies leads to improved public health decisionmaking and actions. ● Rabarison, K. M., Timsina, L., & Mays, G. P. (2015). Community Health Assessment and Improved Public Health Decision-Making: A Propensity Score Matching Approach. American Journal of Public Health, 105(12), 2526-2533. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2015.302795 

5. This article describes details of how economic and social disadvantage affects health, and describes some policy approaches to improve health and reduce health inequities by addressing socioeconomic disadvantage. ● Swain, G. (2016-2017). How does economic and social disadvantage affect health? Retrieved from https://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/focus/pdfs/foc331a.pdf 

6. Mathematical models can be very helpful to understand the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases. This book presents examples of epidemiological models and modeling tools that can assist policymakers to assess and evaluate disease control strategies. ● Feng, Z. (2014). Applications of Epidemiological Models to Public Health Policymaking: The Role of Heterogeneity in Model Predictions. New Jersey: World Scientific. 


 Every individual affects the community in some way. What individual factors (personal characteristics, genetics, developmental stage of life, lifestyle) affect community/public health? How can public health advocates and policy makers prevent and/or manage potential conflicts within the community that could arise as a result of public health assessments? Finally, what can advocate’s, policymakers, and others do to promote habits that will improve community health? 

in two diferent paragraph give your personal opinion to Rachel Shi  and  Christopher Moran 

Rachel Shi 

Throughout the human lifespan, our developmental biology, health behaviors, and personal characteristics intersect with public health. Interestingly, there is far more research regarding how environmental and community factors affect individual health than vice versa. Nevertheless, one clear example of the latter is how the color of our skin, based on biology and natural variance, can be such a powerful determinant of how an individual is treated in a community which impacts their emotional wellbeing and availability of resources and opportunities. Racial disparities abound in issues of health access, housing affordability, education opportunities, and economic development. Studies report that systemic racism in turn promotes chronic illness and inflammation (Thames et al., 2019). Public health policies engage with numerous aspects of the community which directly or indirectly influence the social and physical health of an individual and population. 

Communities are also vastly diverse in ideology and practices, so mutual understandings, policy negotiations, and, if conflict does arise, conflict management and resolution must be considered. One recommended approach that public health researchers have used to facilitate cooperation and understanding is community-based participatory research in which community members are more equitably engaged in the research process (Association for Community Health Improvement, 2017). In this way, health policies and initiatives should also include community voices to prevent miscommunication or a lack of communication that could lead to potential suffering of vulnerable populations. 

Improving community health requires a sustained, motivated effort to mobilize numerous stakeholders and members of the community. Changing health behaviors can include raising awareness of potentially harmful habits, incentivizing health-promoting ones, and discouraging harmful ones (Hayden, 2018). Everyone can play a part: policymakers can influence regulations and laws over certain behaviors; advocates and interest groups can help with persuasion and facilitate certain behavioral or technological improvements within a community; employers can try to foster a health-promoting institutional environment (e.g. paid sick leave, paycheck deduction for tobacco use). There are a multitude of health behavior theories such as the Health Belief Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, Transtheoretical Model (stages of change), the Social Cognitive Theory, and Social Ecological Model, each of which might be more or less relevant depending on the situation and behavior (Hayden, 2018).


Association for Community Health Improvement. (2017). Community Health Assessment Toolkit. Retrieved from http://www.healthycommunities.org/Resources/toolkit.shtml#.W318ruhKhPZ 

Hayden, J. (2018). Introduction to health behavior theory. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Thames, A. D., Irwin, M. R., Breen, E. C., & Cole, S. W. (2019). Experienced discrimination and racial differences in leukocyte gene expression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 106:277-283. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.04.016.

 Christopher Moran 

            In my personal opinion, I feel that age is the great factor that is affecting the community and the publics health. On one side of the spectrum there are “kids” that include teenagers, that have been stuck in a dormant phase due to the ongoing pandemic. The opposite is the elderly that do not adhere to the warnings and led to the largest spike in the Sars-Cov-2 outbreak and ended with many hospitalized or deceased since they are at a much higher risk (CDC, 2020). The younger people thought they were invincible and unaffected due to the media, the elderly were not under closer supervision inside the nursing homes.

            The media plays an extensive role on the impact of people lives and how they react to situations. There unfortunately is not enough conclusive evidence to prove this theory correct; however, if health policy makers were to utilize all of the platforms that would reach younger adults it would keep them more informed (Bou-Karroum et al., 2017). While, at the same time maintaining a presence on the news and in papers for those that do not utilize modern technology as well. The more informed people are the better they will know how to take care of themselves.

            Above the door to the Officer Candidate School House of the Marine Corp there is a sign that says “Ductus Exemplo”. It is Latin for, “Lead by example” (Genesis 10, 2014). When policy makers and government officials are seen not abiding by their own standards it is difficult to follow suite. I believe that if that enforcing a rule is a two way road and by leading by example it would influence others to do the same.

Do you think people are influenced by bad decisions, as fast as they are by good ones?

-Moran, C


Bou-Karroum, L., El-Jardali, F., Hemadi, N., Faraj, Y., Ojha, U., Shahrour, M., . . . Akl, E. (2017, April 18). Using media to impact health policy-making: An integrative systematic review. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5395744/

CDC. (2020, August 16) Older Adults. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/older-adults.html

    • 24 days ago
    • 15

    Purchase the answer to view it

    • attachment
    • attachment