Short Answer – Write your answers in the space below each question. If you need more space, you can write on another sheet of paper. Clearly notify where the question is answered so the instructor can find it.

Do not copy answers. Please use your own words. If two students have identical answers, both will get the question wrong.

1. Why does the Earth’s surface constantly undergo change?

2. Explain how soil creep operates. Diagram the movement of the soil as it creeps.

3. Identify the key differences between a slump, a debris flow, a lahar, an avalanche, a rockslide, and a rockfall.

4. Discuss the role of vegetation and water in slope stability. Why can fires and deforestation lead to slope failure?

5. Distinguish between permanent and ephemeral stream and explain why they exist.

6. Describe how meanders form and evolve.

7. What is the recurrence interval of a flood and how is it related to the annual probability of flooding?

8. Is groundwater a renewable or a nonrenewable resource? Describe ways in which human activities affect groundwater.

9. What factors determine whether a region can be classified as a desert? Why do deserts form?

10. What is the process of desertification and what causes it?

11. How do mountain glaciers and continental glaciers differ?

12. Describe the mechanisms that enable glaciers to move and explain why glaciers move.

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