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Case Study Discussion Board Forum Instructions

Students will take part in 4 Discussion Board Forums in which you will conduct a case study of an observed study in a public administration context For the case study, students are welcome to cite a scholarly source, but if they do, it must not be merely a theoretical/philosophical discussion. Instead, whatever source is used for the actual case study must focus on a real-world public administration situation that is being discussed and analyzed in the chosen article. Students will in turn apply concepts discussed in the previous module/week’s essay to analyze the situation, in addition to the required reading and presentations from the current module/week. Remember: it will be important to do both!

Then, students will post replies of 200–250 words each to 3 or more classmates’ threads. Each reply must be unique and must integrate ideas (and citations) from the required reading. Reply comments must engage the case study observations made by classmates, and must bring to light concepts from the required reading from the current module/week as well as additional reading. Thus, merely posting the same reply in 3 places is not sufficient and may be treated as a form of academic misconduct. The original thread must incorporate ideas and citations from all of the required readings and presentations for that module/week in addition research from two scholarly sources. The reply posts must also integrate ideas and citations from the required readings and presentations for the module/week, as appropriate, and at least two scholarly sources.

Replies:

· 3 replies

· 200-250 words per reply

· Ideas and citations from required reading and presentations from the Module/Week, as appropriate

· Ideas and citations from two scholarly sources per reply

In this course, Discussion Board Forums play an exceptionally important role. Consider these threads and replies to be formal communications on the same level as those you would conduct with employers, clients, or colleagues in the professional, political, or academic world. As such, they must be free of grammatical errors, must be properly formatted in current APA style, and must consist of well-reasoned, contemplative, and substantive posts and replies, rather than mere ipse dixit. These threads and replies must be adequately supported by citations of the sources or support for your ideas as well as any quoted materials.

Open, courteous discussion will yield the greatest opportunities for growth in this class. Both responding to other students and responding to the instructor will count as 1 reply post. Remember that the art of communication is in many ways the lifeblood of effective political leadership. Everything you write—every paper, post, and email—creates or reinforces an impression of you. Begin to cultivate the communication skills of the statesman and stateswoman—the ability to logically and persuasively speak the truth with compassion and respect. Each response post must include new research and analysis, and must build upon the ideas communicated in the original post. Thus, they must go beyond merely restating and affirming what a classmate has said and instead bring in more depth, research and analysis. Accordingly, each response post must include citations from the required reading and presentations.

Responding to a classmate’s thread requires both the addition of new ideas and analysis. A particular point made by the classmate must be addressed and built upon by your analysis in order to move the conversation forward. Thus, the reply is a rigorous assignment that requires you to build upon the thread to develop deeper and more thorough discussion of the ideas introduced. As such, replies that merely affirm, restate or unprofessionally quarrel with the previous thread(s) and fail to make a valuable, substantive contribution to the discussion will receive appropriate point deductions.

This course utilizes the Post-First feature in all Discussion Board Forums. This means you will only be able to read and interact with your classmates’ threads after you have submitted your thread in response to the provided prompt. For additional information on Post-First, click here for a tutorial.


Post #1

Rebecca 

The World Bank defines governance as "the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country's/nation's economic and social development" (World Bank, 1994, p.vii).  This "power" resides in the leaders of a country/nation and its public administrators.  This power can be used to promote economic and social development, or it can be used to hinder them. The World Bank applied this definition to countries in Africa and their governments' management.  It was determined that "governance was regarded as the single most important, if not the sole explanation of Africa's underdevelopment (World Bank, 1994, p.60).  According to Olowu (2002), "well-governed countries are led by regime leaders who respect the law, accountability, transparency, and permit the enjoyment of human and civil rights" (p. 346).  These "well-governed" countries are countries such as the United States.  The United States has a democratic government that allows for governance to have a larger and more positive influence on its social and economic development.  A democratic governance model has the assumption of fundamental equality between the governed and the governors (Olowu, 2002).  This assumption of fundamental equality is directly related to the quality of rules and leadership established by the United States and its citizens.  Therefore, governance is the "institutional context of a country's public administration system" (Olowu, 2002, p. 347).  According to Amsler (2016), public administration scholars have engaged in an ongoing dialogue about the relationships among management, politics, and law in public administration.  This dialogue has met a challenge known as collaborative governance (Amsler, 2016). Vigoda (2002) states that "modern public administration involves an inherent tension between responsiveness to citizens as clients and effective collaboration with them as partners (p. 527).  This collaboration between the government and its citizens involves identifying problems, issues, and potential solutions as well as design new policy frameworks to address these issues, implement programs, and enforce old and new policies. Public administration is a "broad-ranging and amorphous combination of theory and practice that is meant to promote a superior understanding of government and its relationship with the society it governs, as well as to encourage public policies to be more responsive to social needs and institute managerial practices attuned to effectiveness, efficiency, and deeper human requisites of the citizenry" (Henry, 2015, p.5).  Analyzing this definition, it is clear how the idea of governance is a crucial part of the field of public administration.  As a public administrator, it is important to establish a relationship and collaboration with citizens.  This collaboration allows for more successful policies and practices to be created and respect to be developed between the governors and the governed.  This trust will help public administrators have more success in implementing these policies into society.  Through the years, the field of public administration has been molded to broaden its duties within the government.  As mentioned above, the idea of governance is essential in the field of public administration.  Governance has also "moved public administration from its preoccupation with the supply side to straddle both supply side as well as the demand side of governance, thus taking it beyond its conventional narrow confines" (Olowu, 2002, p. 347).  This has allowed for public administration and administrators to be more influential in society and grow as a field in the government. The field of public administration thrives on relationships and leadership from within the field and from leaders within the government.  Strong and successful leadership allows for public administrators to do their jobs to the best of their ability.  Leadership determines relationships and communication that is valuable to the success of policies and their implementations.  Jesus is a good example of a leader that built relationships and trust amongst his governed and implemented rules and regulations within society. How Jesus lead his followers was an example of governance within his society.  God gave humankind the ten commandments.  He expected us to follow these commandments and gave us the tools to do so.  How God and Jesus had all the characteristics of successful leaders and governed their followers in a way that led to strong relationships and trust. Analyzing the information presented above, governance is a large and essential part of the field of public administration.  It is the management part of how a country or organization develops socially and economically.  Public administrators rely on relationships and communication to create policies that better help countries and organizations to grow and become successful.  If a country or organization is badly managed, its policies are not going to be as beneficial to all parties involved.  The opposite is true for a country or organization that is well managed.  

References

Amsler, L. B. (2016). Collaborative Governance: Integrating Management, Politics, and Law. Public Administration Review, 76(5), 700–711. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.12605

Henry, N. (2015). Public Administration and Public Affairs. 12th ed., Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

Olowu, D. (2002). Introduction—Governance and Public Administration in the 21st Century: A Research and Training Prospectus. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 68(3), 345–353. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020852302683003

World Bank (1994) Governance: The World Bank’s Experience Washington, DC: World Bank.

Vigoda, E. (2002). From Responsiveness to Collaboration: Governance, Citizens, and the Next Generation of Public Administration. Public Administration Review, 62(5), 527–540. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-6210.00235

Post #2

Sarah 

Throughout the years, government has been ever-changing to conform to the needs of the country and the citizens within it. The evolution between the traditional approach, New Public Management, to the emerging approach of public administration has influenced the definition as to what “public administration” means, and how it plays an interchangeable role within governance. 

Governance is conceptualized into two major perspectives being the aid agency-driven perspective and the academic perspective (Hasan, 2019; Haque, 2011). Creation of policy, implementation of policy, overall technical issues and state-market relations are associated with the aid agency-driven perspective (Hasan; 2019). The academic perspective focuses on a more thorough understanding of how power and authority relate under different contexts (Hasan, 2019; Haque, 2011). Focusing on the academic principles, this has the most evidence to be more relatable in today’s context. 

Focusing on the academic perspective of governance, the relation between power and authority are influenced by the context for overall effectiveness. Breaking down this definition, there needs to be an understanding of the differences between power and authority. Power is in relation to abilities while authority relates to permission (Fischer, 2010). Expert power entails being knowledgeable and one’s expertise; respect can derive from knowledge (Fischer, 2010). Referent power derives from being influential and likeable; referent power can enhance effectiveness of expert power (Fischer, 2010). Overall power does not need authority however, power is necessary for authority. 

Within traditional public administration, the government and elected officials held all power and authority due to a hierarchical approach to accountability. Through progression to the New Public Management, the shift of accountability went to a results-based (Amsler, 2016), market driven (Bryson et. al., 2014) perspective. This approach took the full power and authority away from the government with decision making, services, etc. and dispersed it to outside agencies known as markets, businesses and nonprofit organizations (Bryson et. al, 2014). 

The New Public Management approach focused on a business type of perspective, even relating citizens to the term clients. Vigoda (2002) connects the what complication can develop between the terms citizens and clients as so: 

The paradox between serving clients and collaborating with citizens needs to be resolved on the way to creating a high performing type of public organization, one that will work better for societies as well as for individuals in the generations to come. (p. 528)

This realization can be in connection to needing an overall change within the public administration field and governing. From this, the emerging approach began to develop. 

The Emerging approach focuses on a mutually accountable relationship between the federal government, state government, public and private sectors, nonprofit organizations, the citizens, and more. This type of collaborative governance can also be in relation to servant leadership. Servant leadership entails going the extra mile for participates within the covenantal relationship because there is a sense of love and care (Fischer, 2010). The emerging approach focuses on that love and care and respect for all parties and recognizes an equal amount of power and authority with all. 

Frederickson (2007) develops a descriptive definition for the term governance as so: 

The way government gets its jobs done; structure of political institutions; shift from bureaucratic state to the hollow state or to third party government; market-based approaches to government; the development of social capital, civil society, and high levels of citizen participation; the work of empowered, muscular, risk-taking entrepreneurs. 

Through Frederickson’s definition it is noted that there is a combination of the different generations of public administration described. This is a prime example of how governance and public administration can be seen as synonymous for one another, depending on context.

Public administration has a variety of definitions as does governance. Nigro (1970) expand on a definition for public administration that is applicable to today as so: 

(a) is a cooperative group effort in a public setting; (b) covers all three branches—executive, legislative and judicial—and their interrelationships; (c) has an important role in the formulation of policy, and is thus part of the political process; (d) is different in significant ways from private administration; and (e) is closely associated with numerous private groups and individuals (Bryson et. al., 2014).

Through this elaborate definition and comparing it to the definition for governance, there are many similarities. They both express working in a group effort, focusing on strengths of each party to accomplish a goal. Whether these groups are specifically different branches of government or groups/organizations or even citizen involvement. The terms public administration and governance overall have a common goal of serving for the betterment of society and the citizens within

References

Amsler, L. B. (2016). Collaborative governance: Integrating management, politics, and law. Public Administration Review,76(5), 700-711. doi:10.1111/puar.12605

Fischer, K. (2010). A biblical perspective on organizational behavior and leadership. Robins, Pearson Custom Publishing. 

Haque, S. T. M. (2011). The normative roots of governance theories: prospects and challenges from Bangladesh perspective. Understanding Governance & Public Policy in Bangladesh. MPPG Program, North South University, Dhaka

Hasan, S. (2019). Governance and public administration. Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31816-5_1820-1

Nigro, F. A. (1970). Modern Public Administration; New York

Shafritz, J. M., & Hyde, A. C. (2016). Classics of public administration (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage: 9781305639034

Vigoda, E. (2002). From Responsiveness to Collaboration: Governance, Citizens, and the Next Generation of Public Administration. Public Administration Review, 62(5), 527-540. Retrieved October 1, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3110014

Post #3

Marla 

Introduction

Governance is defined as “the act or process or governing or overseeing the control and direction of something (such as a country or an organization)” (Definition of governance, 2019).  Governance can be dated back as early as 336 B.C. with Alexander the Great. Can be seen today with the continued growth in our country and will continue to be the future of our country unfolds.  The evolution of governance started with hunters and gathers known as clans and vamped up to kingdoms, empires, democracies, republics, constitutional republics, startup nations, cloud governance, and rules without rulers (Max Borders, 2019).  The role governance plays with public administration is clearly defined in the governing or overseeing of a country and/or organization.  Public administration issues are all around us.  In the case study I evaluated, it is determining the link of minority investors and economic indicators.

Collaborative Governance

“Collaborative governance presents a new challenge” (Lisa Amsler, 2016, p. 700).  Collaborative governance can be described in various system designs and processes that work together in private sector, civil society, and the public to identify issues and potential solutions (Amsler, 2016).  On the other hand, we look at modern public administration and its involvement between responsiveness to citizens as clients and effective collaboration with them as partners (Eran Vigoda, 2002, p. 527).  It is important to understand

Defining the study

           In the case study, “Protecting minority investors: achieving sound corporate governance,” it is evaluated how “doing business to provide standardized, comparable measurements on the adoption of corporate governance practices across 190 economies can be tested against economic indicators” (“Protecting Minority Investors,” 2017, p. 1).  It also gives a better understanding of the many facets of governance and how often minority investors are protected.  Minority investors are strengthened through changes.         

What are sound corporate governance practices?

           “Sound corporate governance is the optimal balance between controlling shareholders, company managers and market regulators” (“Protecting Minority Investors,” 2017, p. 2).  Some studies in the past have provided evidence regarding corporate governance and how it promotes economic development through equity, efficiency of investment allocation, and firm performance project (“Protecting Minority Investors,” 2017).

Corporate governance and development

Corporate governance principles give each company complete discretion in determining rules; thus, guaranteeing them direct control (“Protecting Minority Investors,” 2017).  When rules are not followed shareholders are given judicial recourse; while investors become willing to finance business ventures of others without direct control over affairs within the company (“Protecting Minority Investors,” 2017). 

History

Business has recorded 166 reforms in aspects of corporate governance in 100 economies since 2005 (“Protecting Minority Investors,” 2017, p.6).  54 economies shave introduced 63 legislative changes, thus strengthening minority shareholder protections since 2013 (“Protecting Minority Investors,” 2017). 

Conclusion of case study

It is not simple to achieve sound corporate governance; it is a very specialized and technical area (“Protecting Minority Investors,” 2017).  “With easier access to finance companies can grow and, in so doing, pay more taxes and employ more workers” (“Protecting Minority Investors,” 2017, p. 6). 

Biblical Worldview

If leaders are not representing God’s will, then they are not leaders of God.  

Isaiah 46:10

Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times things that are not yet done, saying, “My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure” (New King James Version).

Matthew 7:13-23

Enter through the narrow gate; for the gate is wide and the way is broad that leads to destruction, and there are many that enter through it.  For the gate is small and the way is narrow that leads to life, and there are few that find it. “Beware of the false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly are ravenous wolves” You will know them by their fruits. Grapes are not gathered from thorn bushes nor figs from thistles, are they?  So, every good tree bears good fruit, but the bad tree bears bad fruit.  A good tree cannot produce bad fruit, nor can a bad tree produce good fruit.  Every tree that does not produce good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire.  So, then you will know them by their fruits. Not everyone that says to me, “Lord, Lord will enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven will enter. Many will say to me on that day, Lord, Lord did we not prophesy in Your name and in Your name cast out demons, and in Your name perform many miracles?  And then I will declare to them, I Never Knew you, depart from me, you who practice Lawlessness.

How does this teach us about governance and minorities?  Jesus wants us to understand that regardless of where we come from, regardless of what we have done, and regardless of our upbringing; as long as we repent we will always have a place in heaven with him and his Father.

Structure and Culture

Structure and culture can be evaluated four different ways: bureaucratic model, human relations model,

human resources, and systems theory (K. Fischer, 2010).  It is important to understand structure and culture in businesses.  It helps us to understand how ethics, statesmanship, and governance tie into a corportation.

References

Amsler, L. B. (2016). Collaborative Governance: Integrating Management, Politics, and Law. Public Administration Review, 76(5), 700–711. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.12605

Borders, M. (2019, September 21). The Evolution of Governance in 9 Stages | Max Borders.

Retrieved from Fee.org website: https://fee.org/articles/the-evolution-of-governance-in-9-stages/

Definition of GOVERNMENT. (2019). Retrieved from Merriam-webster.com website:

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/government

Fischer, K. (2010). A Biblical-Covenantal Prospective on Organizational Behavior and Leadership. Retrieved September 14, 2020, from https://learn.liberty.edu/bbcswebdav/courses/PADM700_B07_202040/Covenant%20and%20Organizational%20Behavior.pdf

Protecting minority investors: Achieving sound corporate governance. (2017). (). Washington: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. Retrieved from ProQuest Central Retrieved from http://ezproxy.liberty.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.proquest.com%2Fdocview%2F1860059954%3Faccountid%3D12085

Shafritz, J. M., & Hyde, A. C. (2016). Classics of public administration (8th ed.). Boston, MA:

Cengage: 9781305639034

Vigoda, E. (2002). From Responsiveness to Collaboration: Governance, Citizens, and the Next Generation of Public Administration. Public Administration Review, 62(5), 527–540. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-6210.00235



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