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Write a reflection about teaching and learning that has been on your heart and/or mind. Freely express your thoughts and questions regarding this topic/situation. Describe an incident that has occurred in the classroom that relates specifically to these thoughts and/or questions about your teaching and students' learning. Read your reflection and write an area-of-focus statement, beginning with "The purpose of this study is to...."

Describe the process or plan you will use to locate literature relevant to your topic of interest. For example, a research topic might be to investigate reading strategies for accessing informational text. Describe how you will complete each of the following steps: 1) locate literature related to your topic, 2) access the literature, and 3) determine the criteria used to evaluate the credibility of the sources.

Design an action research project that addresses an area of interest or problem that you want to affect change by completing the nine-step action research plan described on  p. 61 of the text 

Use 2 pages for this work.   Represent the quotes (author, year, and page). Use APA 7.

 *** on another page answer two classmates separately more a 100words, one paragraph for each answer (peer 1, peer 2).  


Peer 1

Madelen Lopez

Research Project

 Teaching has been in my heart for a very long time. Teaching is a noble career that enhances teacher-student relationship. When it comes to teaching and learning, what stuck most in my mind is the strategies that are used to impart knowledge. I am more inclined to the learning approach that involves both verbal and visual communication. While the conventional pedagogic methods in teaching have been perceived as the most appropriate and practical means of content delivery in class, I think delivering the same content through technological means would provide more fun. With online and homeschooling becoming more pronounced in the academic world, I believe providing teaching through virtual connection will give educators a new dimension of understanding the emerging issues in this era of technological ecstasy. Additionally, gifted students, and ADHD diagnosed students have been associated with deviant academic behavioral patterns. Most of these patterns incline towards off-task behaviors. 

When I was in sessions with a client on mine at an elementary school, there was a student who had a great problem with the one of the teachers. He was always a brilliant boy in class. However, he would always have problems with the conventional teaching methods of the math teacher. These methods would include group discussions, question and answer technique as well as visual learning. Because of his unique way of learning, the student would find it difficult to express willingness to answer questions in class. This really made the teacher to change his attitude towards him. Surprisingly, the student would always score a hundred percent in math. This incident made me understand that there are other teaching methods that can replace the current traditional methods. The purpose of this study is to determine ways of increasing on-task behavior during distance learning time in gifted students with ADHD at the elementary level.


The study will use various works of literature. First, it will use peer-reviewed journals on previous studies to provide background information about ways of improving on-task behaviors among gifted students. Various websites will also be accessed to get the materials that handle the related topic to bolster claims of the thesis. Print books from the library may also be incorporated in this research owing to their authoritative research voice. The journals will be considered because they are peer-reviewed thus making them credible. Websites by organizations or experts will be considered. 

The preliminary literature review reveals that past studies are mainly focused on increasing on-task behaviors among gifted students with ADHD in a physical classroom. Limited efforts have been made to establish the way to increase on-task behavior during distance learning time in gifted students at the elementary level. In order to solve this problem, this study will employ both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The qualitative aspect will deal with the literature review of the previous studies. The quantitative methodology will delve into studying students’ on-task behavior in an online class as dependent variables. The type of classroom (whether physical or online) will be used as dependent variables.

This study will attempt to answer the following questions

  1. Does the nature of a class impacts on-task behavior among gifted students with ADHD at the elementary level?
  2. Is there a difference in terms of on-task behavior between typical, students and gifted students with ADHD?
  3. Does technology offer a solution to increasing on-task behaviors among gifted students with ADHD?

In order to find a solution to these questions, I will use the survey and first-hand interaction experiences to validate my thesis. Besides, I will employ a behavioral approach to find answers to these questions since the concept of gifted students with ADHD encompasses both behavioral and pedagogic areas. In this research study, I will incorporate learners of elementary level, one Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analyst, a Registered Behavior Technician and parents. This team will help in making observations and obtaining information that is reliable and credible. I will need permission from parents to allow us to interact with the learners at the research level. I will also seek permission from parents of the students to allow them to attend online sessions at home for the purposes of this research. The study will take two weeks during distance learning time.

The research will require computers (or laptops), internet connection, writing materials (e.g. books and pens), and charts. Two students will be used in this research. The students will take lessons and do assignments as a class. In each situation, both the on-task and off-task behaviors will be recorded.


Beserra, V., Nussbaum, M., & Oteo, M. (2019). On-task and off-task behavior in the classroom:  A study on mathematics learning with educational video games. Journal of Educational     Computing Research56(8), 1361-1383.

Wallace, P. (2009). Distance learning for gifted students: Outcomes for elementary, middle, and  high school aged students. Journal for the Education of the Gifted32(3), 295-320.

Peer 2

Anabel Caraza Cruz


One of the things that come to mind when I think about teaching and learning is that there is an increasing number of students who exhibit problem behavior in schools. They do not focus on classroom activities. They talk out of turn without permission, sleep during the class activity, are out of the seat without permission, laugh at others, and delay the work activity. At the same time, many teachers do not have the skill set to handle these problem behaviors. Questions arise to me: do teachers feel prepared to maintain order and discipline in the classroom? Do they receive adequate training in classroom management or, instead, do they learn to manage their classrooms by “trial and error”? I wonder if there are simple classroom management strategies that teachers can implement with success (i.e., strategies that result in desired student behavior change)?

 As a behavior assistant analyst, I have worked in classroom settings. I have seen the teachers correct the off-task behaviors of the students by yelling at them and telling them most of the time, what not to do and rarely what to do. Although the teachers use this strategy, I have seen the students repeat the same maladaptive behaviors again and again. I have noticed that most of the time, teachers correct the maladaptive behavior once it happens, but they do not use verbal prompts or reminders of expected appropriate behaviors (e.g., on-task behavior, following instructions). I wonder if the teachers using verbal prompts of expected on-task behaviors at different moments in the classroom can positively affect student behavior. How should teachers use verbal prompts to increase appropriate behaviors?

The reflections presented above led me to the following area-of-focus statement: The purpose of this study is to describe the effects of verbal prompts on the off-task/on-task behavior of elementary school students in a general education setting.

The process to Locate Literature Relevant to the Topic of Interest

The first step to locate literature related to my topic will be to identify and make a list of keywords. After that, I will search appropriate databases using my keywords and will identify authoritative subject headings to locate primary and secondary sources pertaining to my research problem. I will review the list of subject headings to identify related subheadings. I will check the links to authors of relevant sources for additional related sources. Also, I will check any links to the cited references or any listings of other articles that have cited a specific source (Mills, 2018).

For my review, I will examine a range of sources that are pertinent to my topic. To start, I will consult educational encyclopedias, handbooks, and annual reviews found in libraries. I will also search the Internet for government publications or organizational sites that address my research topic. These sources will allow me to get a picture of my topic in the broader context and identifying search terms and aspects related to it. I will also search for books in the university library. I will take advantage of the resources available from the library, such as the online catalog, databases like ERIC, Education Full Text, Education Source, PsycINFO, ProQuest, Dissertation Abstracts, and others. Other form of accessing to literature related to my topic is searching the Internet and the World Wide Web. Through Internet search engines, I can access information in a variety of formats, such as video, images, multimedia, PowerPoint presentations, screen captures, tutorials, and more. Blogs, RSS feeds, podcasts, wikis, e-mail, and other Web 2.0 tools offer researches a variety of alternative means for finding information.  I can also access online search engines such as Google Scholar, Google Books, and other Google Searches (Mills, 2018).

When I have retrieved a list of sources, I will need to evaluate them to determine not only whether these sources are relevant but also whether they are reliable and legitimate. For evaluating the credibility of the sources, I will use the categories of relevancy, author, source, methodology, and date. For analyzing these categories, I will need to respond to the following questions: What was the problem statement of the study? Is the study relevant given your research interests? Who was studied? Where was the source published? When was the study conducted? How was the study conducted? (Mills, 2018).

The Action Research Plan

  1. Write an area-of-focus statement.

The purpose of this study is to describe the effects of verbal prompts on the off-task/on-task behavior of elementary school students in a general education setting.

  1. Define the variables.

The variables would be: off-task behavior, on-task behavior, and verbal prompts.

  1. Develop research questions.

What is the effect of teacher-delivered verbal prompts on the off-task behavior of elementary school students in a general education setting?

What is the effect of teacher-delivered verbal prompts on the on-task behavior of elementary school students in a general education setting?

Do teacher-delivered verbal prompts have a stronger or weaker effect on specific types of off-task behavior?

  1. Describe the intervention or innovations.

The teachers will implement verbal prompts as a classroom management strategy.

  1. Describe the membership of the action research group.

The action research group will include students from an elementary school classroom and their teachers.

  1. Describe negotiations that need to be undertaken.

Negotiations that need to be undertaken are with the teachers and school’s principals.

  1. Develop a timeline.

The tentative timeline will adjust to the guidelines given for the course from May to August.

  1. Develop a statement of resources.

The research requires teacher release time for preparing to implement the intervention.

  1. Develop data collection ideas.

Two measures will be used: systematic direct observation to document students’ on- and off-task behavior, and anecdotal recording to document the fidelity with which each teacher provide (or not provide) a verbal prompt to each student.


Faul1, A., Stepensky, K., & Simonsen, B. (2012). The effects of prompting appropriate behavior on the off-task behavior of two middle school students. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(1), 47–55. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300711410702

George, K. (2016). Evaluating the effects of formal corrective feedback on off-task/on-task behavior of mild intellectually disabled students: an action research study (Thesis doctoral, Capella University). https://search-proquest-com.ucamia.cobimet4.org/docview/1767788724

 Mills, G.E. (2018). Action Research. A Guide for the Teacher Researcher. Pearson.

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