Civilization history

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 A student must post two substantive responses to their classmates by Sunday for each discussion question. Each reply to a classmate should be 100 words or more. Response stating that “I agree” with a post is inadequate without adding more information. A student will not receive full credit for responses to classmates that are not substantive responses. 



Response 1

 

1. During the Vedic Age of Indian civilization, it is believed that after the collapse of the Indus Valley civilization some of the kinship groups and patriarchal families migrated into India. As some within the Aryas tribe (light-skinned) entered into the Ganges Valley, they encountered a struggle with the Dasas tribe (dark-skinned) but managed to force the tribe into southern India. The struggle between the tribes led to the development of the Varna class system. Under this system, people were born into one of the four Varna's: Brahmin was the class of priests and scholars; Kshatriya was warriors; Vaishya was merchants; and Shundra was peasants and laborers. The fifth group was the Untouchables; they were outside the system because of the nature of their work. The work was considered polluted as it dealt with dead things and cremations. 

Now, the Varna was divided into groups and subdivided into jati's: order of hierarchy. Under the hierarchy, were complex rules that governed the different occupations, duties, and rituals of each Jati as a well as regulations concerning interaction between people of different Jati. The system served to assign occupations to the Varna and Jati in which each individual belongs; and the system separated the members of the different Varna and Jati into a system of purity and impurity. Purity restrictions occurred in the areas of marriage, drink, food and touch. 

The system of Varna and Jati  lasted because many of the practices and attitudes were indoctrinated into the Hindu people, rules for social behavior, and the philosophy of reincarnation. The belief was every individual has an immortal spirit that will be reborn in another body after death and that body will be determined by karma in this and the previous life. The people believed that rebellion against caste expectations would result in a lower rebirth in the next life. 

The United States is a nation of diverse cultures. People are classified as rich, middle class, or poor. The rich are considered well educated and highly paid professionals; the middle class are semi-professional and educated working middle class; and the poor are the working under class with very little to no education. Income is the most prominent indicator of class status, and education to occupation and income. 

2.Yes, both routes originated for the purpose of trading. Both routes have harsh desert conditions. Silk road passes through the Tarim Basin. Trans-Saharan passes the Saharan desert. Both had famous outpost. Silk road had the Samarkand outpost and Trans-Saharan had the Timbuktu post.



Response 2


 During the Vedic Age of Indian civilization, it is believed that after the collapse of the Indus Valley civilization some of the kinship groups and patriarchal families migrated into India. As some within the Aryas tribe (light-skinned) entered into the Ganges Valley, they encountered a struggle with the Dasas tribe (dark-skinned) but managed to force the tribe into southern India. The struggle between the tribes led to the development of the Varna class system. The system seems to have kept much of the Indian population under subjection because some members was unwilling to challenge their positions. The internal divisions and complexes hierarchy of the Indian society served an important social function. The system provided each individual with a clear identity and role and offered the benefits of group solidarity and support. Certain interactions and behaviors were appropriate only between those of equal status. The system assured that the religious, political, and financial powers were all separated into four different social classes (Bulliet, et. 2011). The United States is a nation of diverse cultures. People are classified as rich, middle class, or poor. The rich are considered well educated and highly paid professionals; the middle class are semi-professional and educated working middle class; and the poor are the working under class with very little to no education. Income is the most prominent indicator of class status, and education to occupation and income. As both of the Sanskrit word varna and jati are usually translated as “caste”, it has always misleading because they have an important differences behind them. 

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