chemistry questions

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in 100 words or more each with references and in text citations answer the 4 questions.


  

1. What is a covalent bond and what are the important characteristics of covalent bonds? How are covalent bonds formed? Do some covalent bonds have "ionic character"? Explain.

2. What is ionic bonding and what forces are associated with an ionic bond? What is a cation and what is an anion? Which elements usually form cations and which elements usually form anions? Provide an example of chemical elements reacting to form an ionic bond.

3. Hi all, the electron affinity of an element is a measurable physical quantity, namely, the energy released or absorbed when an isolated gas-phase atom acquires an electron, measured in kJ/mol. Electronegativity, on the other hand, describes how tightly an atom attracts electrons in a bond. It is a dimensionless quantity that is calculated, not measured. I will look forward to hear back from you all on this.

4. What is the "octet rule" and what role does it play in Lewis structures. Use the octet rule to predict Lewis structures for a few simple molecules such as ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), ethane (C2H6), ethylene (C2H4) or acetylene (C2H2). The octet rule or the electronic theory of chemical bonding was developed by Kossel and Lewis. According to this rule, atoms can combine either by transfer of valence electrons from one atom to another or by sharing their valence electrons in order to attain the nearest noble gas configuration by having an octet in their valence shell.  I will look forward to hear from you all on this.

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