astronomy, answer these question in few words

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READING--Chapter 1--Science and the Universe: A Brief Tour

  • Be able to put various things in our universe in order from closest to farthest, and from smallest to largest.
  • Explain the difference between the solar system, the galaxy, and the universe.
  • Talk about how big the universe is.

READING--Chapter 2--Observing the Sky: The Birth of Astronomy

  • Define the main features of the celestial sphere
  • Explain the system astronomers use to describe the sky
  • Describe how motions of the stars appear to us on Earth
  • Describe how motions of the Sun, Moon, and planets appear to us on Earth
  • Understand the modern meaning of the term constellation

READING--Chapter 3--Orbits and Gravity

  • Explain Kepler's first two laws of planetary motion
  • Describe Newton’s three laws of motion
  • Define mass, volume, and density and how they differ
  • Explain what determines the strength of gravitt
  • Explain how an object (such as a satellite) can be put into orbit around Earth
  • Explain how an object (such as a planetary probe) can escape from orbit

READING--Chapter 4--Earth, Moon, and Sky

  • Explain how right ascension and declination are used to map the sky
  • Describe how the tilt of Earth’s axis causes the seasons
  • Understand how calendars vary among different cultures
  • Explain the cause of the lunar phases
  • Understand how the Moon rotates and revolves around Earth
  • Describe what causes tides on Earth
  • Explain why the amplitude of tides changes during the course of a month
  • Describe what causes lunar and solar eclipses

READING--Chapter 5--Radiation and Spectra

  • Understand the bands of the electromagnetic spectrum and how they differ from one another
  • Understand how each part of the spectrum interacts with Earth’s atmosphere
  • Explain how astronomers learn the composition of a gas by examining its spectral lines
  • Discuss the various types of spectra
  • Describe the structure of atoms and the components of nuclei
  • Explain the behavior of electrons within atoms and how electrons interact with light to move among energy levels
  • Explain how emission line spectra and absorption line spectra are formed
  • Explain why the spectral lines of photons we observe from an object will change as a result of the object’s motion toward or away from us
  • Describe how we can use the Doppler effect to deduce how astronomical objects are moving through space

READING--Chapter 6--Astronomical Instruments

  • Describe the main functions of a telescope
  • Recognize the largest visible-light and infrared telescopes in operation today
  • Discuss the factors relevant to choosing an appropriate telescope site
  • Why do astronomers use spectrometers?
  • Can we "hear" radio waves?
  • Identify the world’s largest radio telescopes
  • List the advantages of making astronomical observations from space
  • Explain the importance of the Hubble Space Telescope

READING--Chapter 7--Other Worlds: An Introduction to the Solar System

  • Describe how the objects in our solar system are identified, explored, and characterized
  • Describe the types of small bodies in our solar system, their locations, and how they formed
  • Be able to draw a map of the solar system.
  • Describe the characteristics of the giant planets, terrestrial planets, and small bodies in the solar system
  • Explain what influences the temperature of a planet’s surface
  • Explain why there is geological activity on some planets and not on others
  • Explain how astronomers can tell whether a planetary surface is geologically young or old
  • Describe different methods for dating planets (Tinder is not an acceptable answer, but perhaps OKCupid?)

READING--Chapter 8--The Earth as a Planet

  • Describe the components of Earth’s interior and explain how scientists determined its structure
  • Specify the origin, size, and extent of Earth’s magnetic field
  • Explain the difference between weather and climate
  • Describe the causes and effects of the atmospheric greenhouse effect and global warming
  • Explain the scarcity of impact craters on Earth compared with other planets and moons

READING--Chapter 9--Cratered Worlds

  • How big is the Moon, compared to the Earth?
  • Differentiate between the major surface features of the Moon: crater, maria, highlands, peak, ray
  • Describe the properties of the lunar soil, also called regolith.
  • Explain the process of impact crater formation
  • Discuss the use of crater counts to determine relative ages of lunar landforms
  • Describe the top three early hypotheses of the formation of the Moon
  • Summarize the current “giant impact” concept of how the Moon formed
  • Describe Mercury’s basic structure and composition (at least 10 facts)
  • Summarize our ideas about the origin and evolution of Mercury

READING--Chapter 10--Earthlike Planets: Venus and Mars

  • Compare the basic physical properties of Earth, Mars, and Venus, including their orbits
  • Learn 10 facts about Venus
  • Explain what the study of craters on Venus tells us about the age of its surface
  • Explain why the surface of Venus is inhospitable to human life
  • Explain how the greenhouse effect has led to high temperatures on Venus
  • Learn 10 facts about Mars
  • Discuss the main missions that have explored Mars
  • Describe the various features found on the surface of Mars
  • Compare the volcanoes and canyons on Mars with those of Earth
  • Describe the general conditions on the surface of Mars
  • Describe the general composition of the atmosphere on Mars
  • Explain what we know about the polar ice caps on Mars and how we know it
  • Describe the evidence for the presence of water in the past history of Mars
  • Summarize the evidence for and against the possibility of life on Mars

READING--Chapter 11--The Giant Planets

  • Provide an overview of the composition of the giant planets. Do not say that Uranus and Neptune are made of gas.
  • Describe the general appearance and rotation of the giant planets
  • Describe the composition and structure of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
  • Compare and contrast the internal heat sources of the giant planets
  • Describe the discovery and characteristics of the giant planets’ magnetic fields
  • Characterize the giant planets’ wind and weather patterns
  • Understand the scale and longevity of storms on the giant planets

READING--Chapter 12--Rings, Moons, and Pluto

  • Name the major moons of each of the jovian planets
  • Planetary Fact Sheet.pdfPreview the document
  • Explain what may be responsible for the unusual features on the icy surface of Europa
  • Describe the major distinguishing characteristic of Io
  • Explain how tidal forces generate the geological activity we see on Europa and Io
  • Explain how the thick atmosphere of Titan makes bodies of liquid on its surface possible
  • Describe what we learned from the landing on Titan with the Huygens probe
  • Define "planet"
  • Name new dwarf planets discovered in our solar system
  • Describe information about Pluto’s surface deduced from the New Horizons image
  • Describe the two theories of planetary ring formation
  • Explain how the rings of Uranus and Neptune differ in composition and appearance from the rings of Saturn
  • Describe how ring structure is affected by the presence of moons

READING--Chapter 13--Comets and Asteroids: Debris of the Solar System

  • Describe the composition and classification of the various types of asteroids
  • Recognize the threat that near-Earth objects represent for Earth
  • Discuss possible defensive strategies to protect our planet
  • Characterize the general physical appearance of comets
  • Describe the composition of the Oort cloud
  • Describe trans-Neptunian and Kuiper-belt objects
  • Explain the proposed fate of comets that enter the inner solar system

READING--Chapter 14--Cosmic Samples and the Origin of the Solar System

  • Explain the difference between: meteors, meteorites, comets, asteroids
  • Explain what a meteor is and why it is visible in the night sky
  • Describe the origins of meteor showers
  • Explain the origin of meteorites and the difference between a meteor and a meteorite
  • Summarize the physical changes during the solar nebula stage of solar system formation
  • Describe the main events of the further evolution of the solar system
  • Explain the two primary methods for detection of exoplanets
  • Compare the main characteristics of other planetary systems with the features of the solar system
  • Describe the geological activity during the evolution of the planets, particularly on the terrestrial planets
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