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Assessment can be done by analyzing samples taken from urine and examined under a microscope. This is meant to establish white blood cells or bacteria which indicate infection (Yamamoto, 2016). The practitioner may also take urine culture which is used to detect and identify yeast or bacteria responsible for causing UTI (Elbeddini, 2018). Blood in the urine may be caused by UTI or other problems in the urinary tract. Checking the urinary tract by taking CT scan or ultrasound may be used to detect any problems (Yamamoto, 2016). 


Some organisms are known to cause UTI such as large numbers of bacteria living in the area around rectum or vagina, as well as around the skin. When bacteria get into urine from the urethra, they travel upwards to the bladder or kidney (Yamamoto, 2016). The presence of such bacteria in the urinary tract cause problems to the victim (Elbeddini, 2018). Some people are more prone to UTIs than others. Women conduct UTI more than men because they have shorter urethras which allows bacterial to travel and reach the bladder faster. 


For Shelly, the treatment can be done through a short course of antibiotic medications which involve a 3-day course of antibiotics. If the infection is greater, the treatment may take longer. The urge to pee and associated pain often go away after few doses but it is recommended that the patient takes the full course of the prescribed antibiotics (Elbeddini, 2018). If the UTI is not fully treated, it may return and cause more problems. 


Before Shelly and her mother are dismissed from the hospital, they should be advised to ensure they follow the prescribed medication (Elbeddini, 2018). They should also be educated in drug interactions in order to ensure the medication for UTI is not mixed with the ones for fever. 


Elbeddini, A. (2018). Treatment Considerations in Urological Tract Infection (UTI). Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Research, 02(03). doi: 10.26502/jppr.0013

Yamamoto, S. (2016). Prevention and treatment of complicated urinary tract infection. Urological Science27(4), 186–189. doi: 10.1016/j.urols.2016.07.001

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