Academic paper

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You are required to submit two papers. 

The first will require you to write a paper on one of the Topics from 1 to 4 that you are interested, for instance, the Big Bang theory, Earth in space, plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, geological time, rock cycle, or soil, etc. (4 pages)


the second will require you to write a paper on one of Topics 5 to 10, for instance, oceans, the atmosphere, weather, water, and climate change (4 pages). All papers must be typed, 1” margins, 1.5 spacing. Sources must be cited in MLA or APA format (see Google scholar).


Writing Guideline:

The writing is mainly for the purposes of scientific outreach to the general public.

1. Introduction (old ideas): introduce an old idea (or a prevailing idea in old times), e.g., old ideas about the universe, the geocentric model, contracting Earth theory, and myths and legends about earthquakes and volcanoes etc.

2. Paradigm shift (new ideas): describe the new ideas, e.g., the Big Bang theory, the heliocentric model, continental drift theory, and plate tectonics to interpret earthquakes and volcanoes, etc.

3. Evidence (supporting the new ideas): describe the scientific method and supporting evidence (data or theory) gathered through scientific methods, e.g., the seafloor spreading theory that supports continental drift theory, the Doppler effects supporting the expansion of the universe, observation of phases of Venus supporting the heliocentric model, etc.

4. Ongoing research (uncertainties and competing hypotheses): describe the current research topics on some uncertainties in the new ideas that scientists have been investigating, e.g., the dinosaur extinction by asteroids collision or volcanoes.

    • Posted: a month ago
    • Due: 
    • Budget: $49