6 different research studies

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Due Date: Friday January 18 by 11:59 AM ET

The attached worksheet provides information for six separate quantitative research studies. Using your readings, lecture materials, and any prior knowledge from research courses, do your best to complete the worksheet. Please type or write all your responses in the provided worksheet, then submit your completed worksheet using the Submit Assignment link below.

Participation points will be given for completion of all questions on the worksheet, as long as it shows you made an effort. This also allows me to assess baseline knowledge (and what you remember from other courses). If you don't know an answer, make your best guess. An answer sheet and discussion will be provided following all students' submission of the worksheet.

As a hint:

"What kind of research design is this?": Possible answers include experiment, repeated measures, correlational or predictive, survey.• What statistical method should be used?": Possible answers include t-test, ANOVA, correlation, and multiple regression.

Butler, M. H., Harper, J. M., & Mitchell, C. B. (2011). A Comparison of Attachment Outcomes in Enactment-

Based Versus Therapist-Centered Therapy Process Modalities in Couple Therapy. 

Family Process

50

(2), 203-

220. doi:10.1111/j.1545-5300.2011.01355.x

Attachment issues are viewed by many therapists as lying at the heart of couple distress. It is critical to 

empirically validate therapy processes that facilitate couples in responding to each other's attachment needs. 

This study examined enactments as a therapy process and change mechanism to promote secure attachment in 

couple therapy. Sixteen couples were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups-1 group received 3 

therapist-centered sessions followed by 3 enactment-based sessions, and a second group received 3 enactment-

based sessions followed by 3 therapist-centered sessions. To measure between-session and within-session 

change, each spouse completed pre-session and post-session measures of attachment security each week.

1.   What kind of research design is this?

2.   Identify the treatment variables.

3.   How many groups are there? 

4.   What statistical method should be used?

5.   Interpret these results:

·

Attachment security changes for each couple during first three sessions: Couples receiving 

enactment treatment first compared to couples receiving therapist-centered treatment first:  mean 

difference = 131.04, t = 2.71, p = o.05. 

·

Attachment security changes for each couple during final three sessions: Couples who received 

enactment treatment first compared to couples who received therapist-centered treatment first: mean 

difference = 108.08, t = 2.15, p = o.05.

Christian, D. D. (2015). Adventure based counseling: Exploring the impact of ABC on adaptive functioning in 

high school males. 

Dissertation Abstracts International Section A

76

.

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of ABC on adaptive functioning in high school males. 

Specifically, a pretest/posttest, experimental design (

N

= 46; Caucasian = 26, Hispanic = 20) was used to 

examine the changes in adaptive and maladaptive functioning in ABC participants (

n

= 21) compared to those 

in a control/waitlist group (

n

= 25) as measured by the Behavior Assessment System for Children, second 

edition (BASC-2). Participants randomly assigned to the treatment group engaged in 10 ABC sessions. In order 

to better understand group process in ABC, I had experimental group participants complete the Group Climate 

Question Short form (GCQ-S) three times during the intervention.

6.   What kind of research design is this?

7.   Identify the treatment variables.

8.   How many groups are there? 

9.   What statistical method should be used?

10. Interpret these results:

·

Comparing all participants pretest to posttest: 

F

(1, 33) = 8.58, 

p

= < .01, 

η

2

= 0.21.

·

Comparing the experimental and control/waitlist groups: 

F

(1, 33) = .064, 

p

= .80, 

η

2

< 0.01.

Delucia-Waack, J. L., & Gellman, R. A. (2007). The efficacy of using music in children of divorce groups: 

Impact on anxiety, depression, and irrational beliefs about divorce. 

Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, And 

Practice

11

(4), 272-282. doi:10.1037/1089-2699.11.4.272

This study examined the efficacy of a children of divorce group using music as an intervention in comparison to 

a more traditional psychoeducational children of divorce group. It was predicted that children of divorce groups 

that utilized music would have a significantly greater impact on the children's levels of anxiety, depression, and 

irrational beliefs about divorce after the group ended and at a 3-month follow-up assessment. Both interventions 

significantly decreased cognitive and social anxiety and all irrational beliefs about divorce, except hope of 

reunification. Depression did not decrease for all participants but when the relationship between depression and 

irrational beliefs was examined, irrational beliefs were found to be mediators of depression for children of 

divorce. These results suggest that current interventions for children of divorce do decrease anxiety and 

irrational beliefs in general, but specifically addressing irrational beliefs may also decrease depressive 

symptoms.

1.   What kind of research design is this?

2.   Identify the treatment variables.

3.   How many groups are there? 

4.   What statistical method should be used?

5.   Interpret these results:

Anxiety

·

Comparing anxiety score across treatment conditions: 

F

(3, 130) = 2.037, 

p

= .112.

·

Comparing anxiety scores over time (pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up):  

F

(6, 127) = 3.77,

p

= .002

·

Comparing interaction of treatment and time on Anxiety scores: 

F

(6, 127) = 0.487, 

p

= .817. 

Irrational Beliefs About Divorce

·

Comparing irrational belief scores across treatment conditions: 

F

(6, 117) = 0.604, 

p

= .727. 

·

Comparing interaction of treatment and time on irrational belief scores: 

F

(12, 111) = 0.988, 

p

= .465. 

·

Comparing irrational belief scores over time (pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up): 

F

(12, 111) = 

5.667, 

p

= .001.

Lewis, J., Coursol, D. H., Bremer, K. L., & Komarenko, O. (2015). Alienation among college students and 

attitudes toward face-to-face and online counseling: Implications for student learning. 

Journal Of Cognitive 

Education And Psychology

14

(1), 28-37. doi:10.1891/1945-8959.14.1.28

This study examined the relationship between 3 aspects of alienation: powerlessness, meaninglessness, and 

social estrangement, and attitudes toward face-to-face and online counseling among college students. 

Participants included 180 undergraduate students at a Midwestern university.

1.   What kind of research design is this?

2.   Identify the treatment variables.

3.   How many groups are there? 

4.   What statistical method should be used?

5.   Interpret these results:

Discomfort with face-to-face counseling

Powerlessness

r = .20

p = 0.008

Meaninglessness

r = .22

p = 0.003

Alienation

r = .10

p > 0.05

Denering, L. L., & Spear, S. E. (2012). Routine use of screening and brief intervention for college students in a 

university counseling center. 

Journal Of Psychoactive Drugs

44

(4), 318-324.

This study provides preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance 

Involvement Screening 

Test

(ASSIST) and ASSIST-linked brief intervention in a college mental health clinic. 

Data are from a single group, pre-post evaluation study (2006-2009) at a university 

counseling

center. Students 

deemed to be at risk for substance use problems were offered the ASSIST and the ASSIST-linked brief 

intervention. Staff therapists administered the ASSIST and intervention as part of routine care; 453 students 

(ages 18-24) participated in the evaluation and completed baseline and six-month follow-up interviews. 

Changes in alcohol and marijuana use were examined.

1.   What kind of research design is this?

2.   Identify the treatment variables.

3.   How many groups are there? 

4.   What statistical method should be used?

5.   Interpret these results:

·

Frequency of binge drinking (4 drinks) 

t

(451) = 0.77, 

p

= .44.

·

Frequency of binge drinking (5 drinks), 

t

(451) = 1.80, 

p

= .07.

·

Female binge drinking (5 drinks): 

t

(265) = 2.95, 

p

< .05, 

·

Male binge drinking (5 drinks), 

t

(184) = 

.085, 

p

= .93. 

·

Frequency of marijuana use: 

t

(451)=1.10, 

p

=.27.

Kleanthi, G. (2015). Psychosocial Risk Factors of Depression in Pregnancy: A Survey Study. 

Health Science 

Journal

9

(1), 1-6.

Investigation of the evidence regarding the association between personality trait and antenatal depression is 

poor while the evidence regarding marital support, social support and antenatal depression is contradictive. The 

purpose of the present study was to investigate the predictive value of trait anxiety, social support and marital 

support on antenatal depression. The study (running in 2011) involved 165 pregnant women undergoing 

antenatal screening in a public clinic of Athens. Basic demographic and medical information included: age, 

gestational age, parity, previous miscarriages, previous deliveries, complications during previous pregnancy and 

labour, previous infertility problems and previous in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment, marital status, 

educational level, economic level, and employment status. The educational level was categorized as low (up 

through elementary school), medium (high school certificate) or high (university degree). 

1.   What kind of research design is this?

2.   Identify the treatment variables.

3.   How many groups are there? 

4.   What statistical method should be used?

5.   Interpret these results:

·

Previous history of miscarriage and antenatal depressive symptomatology: 

t

= 2.340, 

= 0.024

·

Low educational level and antenatal depressive symptomatology: 

= 4.718, 

p

= 0.010

·

Interpret the table below (dependent variable of depressive symptomatology):

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