enterprise system






This material is an introduction to the SAP S/4HANA enterprise environment..

It can be used in the classroom or for self-study.

On completion of the course, students will be able to understand the basic navigation and functionality concepts of the enterprise systems

The material also serves as a reference for occasional users of SAP systems.


The learning method used is “guided learning.” The benefit of this method is that knowledge is imparted quickly. Students also acquire practical skills and competencies.

Exercises at the end enable students to put their knowledge into practice.






ERP Systems


Dr. Paul Hawking

Reviewed by

Urooj R. Khan

Version 1.2019

Table of Contents

Introduction to SAP ERP 3

Getting Started 3

Task 1: Logging on to the SAP System 4

Task 2: SAP S/4HANA Fiori Launch Pad 7

Glossary 10

ERP Terminology 12

Task 3: SAP S/4HANA Navigation 15

Master Data Navigation 15

Task 4: SAP S/4HANA Reports 21

(a) Sorting 23

(b) Totals 23

(c) Drilling Down 24

Task 6: Logging Off 25

Introduction to SAP ERP

SAP’s Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system is designed to assist an organization with the integration and management of business processes. The system deals with the problems of organising and executing the millions of transactions that are fundamental to many large businesses. SAP is the leader in the ERP market. SAP ERP is a very large system which incorporates over 30,000 tables, and 50,000 transactions. This tutorial is an introduction designed to assist you with familiarising yourself with the SAP ERP basics utilising SAP’s latest ERP release: S/4HANA. Traditionally SAP’s ERP system could operate on a number of different databases (Oracle. SQL Server. DB2 etc). However SAP S/4HANA has been designed to take advantage of SAP HANA database’s in-memory capabilities.

Getting Started

SAP S/4HANA can operate on a variety of personal computers using different operating systems. You can access S/4HANA either through the traditional interface (SAPGUI) or the new interface (Fiori) built with HTML5 based on the UI5 standard. But no matter which equipment, operating system or interface which is used, there are some necessary requirements:

Log On details

Due to the value of the information stored in the ERP system it is necessary to control the access to the software. The SAP administrator would need to establish a user account for each user who intends to use the ERP system. Each user account is identified by a user name and requires a password for security. Each user account is also allocated a particular type of security profile which determines the data a user is allowed to view and change.

The other log on detail you require is the Client number. A Client is a set of self contained tables required for processing transactions in the SAP system. A user in one client can not change the data in another Client. You will need to know your user name, password and Client before you attempt to access the system. These can be obtained from your workshop leader.

Identify your log on details


User Name


Task 1: Logging on to the SAP System

There are various techniques to open SAP S/4HANA. For the purpose of these exercises you will access the ERP system via a web browser.

1 Logon to SAP S/4HANA. (URL given in the Tutorial section of BlackBoard)

The S/4HANA logon screen appears similar to the one below:

Input Areas of the Screen


Uniquely identifies you to the ERP system. Your User Id will be allocated by your workshop leader and remain the same throughout the unit


Uniquely identifies you to the ERP system.


Identifies the language the ERP will be displayed in. Our ERP system default is English.


A Client identifies a business entity in the ERP system. Each Client contains data that is completely separate from data in other clients. Different clients are established for testing and developing different aspects of the system and for training purposes..

2 Type your User Id GBI-###

3 Press <TAB> to move the cursor to the Password text box.

4 Type your Password which will supplied by the workshop leader.

To hide your new password from other people, it is hidden by as you type.

5 Type the Client details as provided by the workshop leader.

6 Click to authorise your details.

A new screen will appear which allows you to enter a new password to replace the temporary one you were supplied with.

You now need to create a new password. You will be the only person who knows this password so it is important to create a password which is easy to remember. However the ERP system has some rules about what it allows to be a password. These reules can be changed by the system administrator. But in general the following applies:

Password Rules

Passwords must be at least 6 characters.

Passwords are case-sensitive.

Passwords cannot start with a blank space, question mark(?). or an exclamation mark (!).

The password cannot be any of the previous 5 passwords.

7 Type your Current Password.

8 Type your New Password.

9 Type your new password aging in the Repeat Password field to confirm it.

10 Click to change your password.

After logging on to the SAP S/4HANA system the main screen appears.

Task 2: SAP S/4HANA Fiori Launch Pad

The SAP Fiori launchpad home page is the first page that users see after they have logged on. It is the main entry point to SAP Fiori apps on mobile and desktop devices. The primary place where a user will look for applications is the home page. The page features tiles that allow the user to launch apps and may show additional information. The page can be personalized and tiles can be added, removed, or bundled in groups.

Launch Pad Components

The launch pad screen has a number of screen elements you need to become familiar with:

Profile Icon

Group Selection Bar





The tiles provide direct access to apps or content. They are similar to large icons and have a rectangular shape. The launchpad home page comes with a predefined set of groups and tiles. However, the user can also personalize the launchpad home page to reflect their individual roles by choosing from a wide range of ready-to-use tiles from the app finder.

Tiles differ in the content they display. They can contain an icon, a title, some informative text, numbers, and charts. The information that is shown depends on the function of the tile or app.

Icon Chart Number

The number of tiles visible on a page depends on the screen resolution. The tiles are placed below each other and are resized for smaller screens such as smart phones and tablets.


Groups are areas where related Fiori tiles are displayed. This assists the user to quickly move from one activity to a related activity.

Group Selection Bar

In the launchpad home page, tiles are usually clustered in groups. These groups are listed in an Group Selection Bar at the top of the page. When users select a group name, the page scrolls down to the selected group.

Profile Icon

The Profile Icon provides access to the Me Area. This area provides a number of options for customizing your Home screen. It also provides a list of the most recent tiles or objects you have worked on.

Search Icon

The Search Icon allows users to find business objects such as materials or sales orders and tiles such as Leave Request or Current Accounts Balance.


Using Help

SAP has an extensive Help documentation. It is essential that you understand how to use the Help documentation if you want to gain a better understanding of this system. SAP ERP provides different kinds of on line Help. You can access the Help documentation a number of different ways. There is web based Help at http://help.sap.com/ :

The Help menu contains the following options:

· Application help: Displays comprehensive help on the current application.

· SAP Library: This is where all online documentation can be found.

· Glossary: Enables you to search for definitions of terms.

· Release notes: Displays notes which describe functional changes that occur between ERP releases.

· SAP Service Marketplace: Enables you to log on to SAP’s web based repository of SAP resources.

· Create Support Message: Enables you to send a message to the SAP for support. However you need appropriate level of access to do this.

· Settings: Enables you to select settings for help

11 Choose Help SAP Library to display the Help screen.

The Help screen is divided into two sections. On the left is the Contents or main headings while on the right side the Help documentation appears.

12 Click Getting Started – Using SAP Software in the left pane.

A new window appears

13 Click V next to Getting Started to display the available topics.

14 Click V next to SAP GUI for Windows to display the available topics.

15 Click > next to Navigating in the SAP Window

16 Click Element of an SAP GUI Window to display the contents.

17 Click The Menu Bar to display the Help documentation.

Explore some of the other topics.

Once you have explored some of the Help options:

18 Click SAP Library on the Help menu bar to return to the main Help screen.

19 Click of the Help window to close the last Help screen and return to the SAP main menu.

Another form of Help documentation is Application Help which can be accessed via a number of techniques. You can access it by choosing the SAP Library command from the Help menu or from particular task screen you can access it via the Application Help command from the Help menu. The major difference between these two techniques is that Application Help command is Context Sensitive Help. This means that Help screen displayed gives help relevant to the SAP screen it was accessed from. To demonstrate this:

20 Choose Human Resources -> Personnel Management -> Recruitment -> Appl. Master Data on the SAP Main Menu.

21 Double click to start this action

The Initial Entry of Basic Data screen appears. To find out about how this screen is used:

22 Choose Help -> Application Help from the menu bar

The Help documentation for Initial Entry of Applicant Data appears on screen, as this was the task screen that was active. This is an example of context sensitive help. From here, you can select relevant topics.


The Help documentation also includes an online glossary which can help you to understand some of the terminology used in the SAP system.

23 Click Glossary on the Help menu bar to move to this screen.

The Glossary screen appears:

SAP Help system enables you to search for particular topics.

Find the term client by using Advanced Search. What data is stored at the Client level? (hint – 3rd result).

24 Close of the Help window to close the last Help screen.

25 Click to return to SAP ERP main screen.

ERP Terminology

After working with the Help files you would have encountered a number of ERP terms which are important to understand if you are going to understand how these systems operate.

Business Scenario: Grouping of business processes in a specific organizational unit that share some similar goals in the enterprise, such as purchasing, services, balance sheet preparation, production, personnel administration, and so on.

Organisational Units: An organisational unit represents any type of organisational entity found within a company, for example, subsidiaries, divisions, departments, or special project teams. These organisational units need to be mapped in the SAP ERP system as they are the locations where the various Business Scenarios occur. Some of the possible organisational units are displayed below:

The types of organisational units mapped in the SAP system will depend upon which Business scenarios are going to be used. Some units are only relevant to certain SAP modules.

List some of the Organisational Units you would find in a university.

Master Data: Business Scenarios involve various objects such as customer, vendors, products, employees etc. Data which describes these objects is referred to as Master Data. This data describes the various objects stored within the SAP system. This data usually remains unchanged over an extended period of time.

A Master Data object, such as a customer, can be used by more than module. Each module may only be concerned with certain aspects of the Master Data.

Image result for sap customer master data

List Master Data objects in a Student Administration system

Transactions: are application programs which execute a business processes in the ERP system. They usually result in the interaction with master data objects such as creating a customer order, posting an incoming payment, or approving a leave request. The majority of processing the SAP ERP system is related to transactions. For example the diagram below illustrates a Transaction the interaction between the Master Data objects of Customer and Material in the creation of a sales document.

List some common transactions that would occur within a university.

Document: A data record that is generated when a transaction is carried out and contains all the predefined information such as sales document, order, pay slip etc.

Reports: Program which reads certain data elements and displays them in a list. SAP has extensive reporting facilities which enables users to access and display the data in various formats.

Task 3: SAP S/4HANA Navigation

Master Data Navigation

An ERP system stores vast amounts of data about the various objects used in different business processes. To display the data you require from such a large system there are various navigation techniques you need to become familiar with. SAP S/4HANA includes a number of tools which can facilitate this navigation.

This exercise requires you to find the Master Data for a particular product. The product we are interested in is referred to as Deluxe Touring Bike. The Master Data referring to a product is called a Material Master. To display the Material Master for a product:

26 Click on the Group Selection Bar to display this Group

27 Click Fiori tile to start this transaction.

The Display Material: Initial Screen appears:

The screen requires the details of the Material you want to display. If could remember the details you can type directly into the Material field. Notice that the material field has an * which indicates that it is required information for this transaction to occur. Often it is difficult to remember the Material’s details so you would need to search for it. In this exercise you want to search for a material (product) called “Deluxe Touring Bike”,

There are usually thousands of different products in the ERP system, a facility called a matchcode can make the search a lot easier. A matchcode is a method of finding a certain piece of data when you do not know the specific number of that record.

To access the matchcode tool for a particular field you click the icon of the relevant field

28 Click to display search dialog box.

You will notice there are numerous ways to search for a Material. We want to search by Material description.

29 Type Deluxe*Bike* in the Material description: field to display all materials that have a Material Description that includes bike.


You are able to replace letters and numbers by using wildcards. A summary of the different types of wildcards can be seen below:



* and +

Characters you do not know


Multiple characters


Exactly one character

For example:


Searches for everything


Starting with z


Containing the character string sale, such as rvsale07


Containing an f as the second-to-last character, such as rmlogifa


Starting with rp, ending in sch, and containing any three characters in between, such as rp012sch or rpinvsch

30 Click in the dialog box to accept this option and display the search results.

There are a number of products that satisfies the Matchcode.

31 Click Deluxe Touring Bike (Silver) (any one) to select it.

32 Click in the dialog box to accept this option and to move to the next screen.

Notice that the ERP system has automatically places the material number in the Material field.

What is the Material Number for the Deluxe Touring Bike (Silver)?

Now that the relevant Material Number has been found you can display the Master Data for the product.

33 Click or press <ENTER>

The Select Views dialog box appears on screen. The Material Master stores a large amount of data depending upon which Business Scenarios it is involved in within the organisation. The costing data about a material would be of little interest to someone responsible for its storage in the warehouse. The Select View dialog box allows the user to select which data from the Material Master will be displayed.

From this dialog box it is evident that there is a large amount of information available about a product. We are going to assume that you are assigned to the purchasing department and therefore only require details relevant to this area.

34 Click next to Plant Stock to select this view of the data. You will need to use the scroll bar to display the other possible views.

35 Click or press <ENTER>

Often products may be used at more than one organisation level in a large corporation or produced at different plants within a country or around the world. To display the product details which are relevant to you, an organisation level will need to be indicated.

36 Click *Plant field to insert the cursor.

37 Click to display a list of possible entries.

This displays the Plants that are responsible for the Deluxe Touring Bike (Silver).

38 Click DC Miami to select it. (MI00)

39 Click to insert automatically insert the Plant number in the Plant field.

40 Click or press <ENTER> to display the product details.

You can see from this screen that no stock is available for this material. However, you would like to know the price which this bike sells for and its weight. This data is stored in the Accounting and Basic Data views.

You will notice that the required Views do not appear on the View toolbar. You can display the Views available by clicking on the toolbar

What is the price and weight of the bike?



41 Click to close this transaction and return to the Home screen.

Task 4: SAP S/4HANA Reports

One of the major reasons a company implements an ERP system, like SAP, is to get up to date information about what is happening in the company. SAP S/4HANA has a broad range of reporting functionality. The next exercise will look at an example of common report functionality.

Your manager has asked for details sales since 2016 for East United States (UE00) sales organisation. The report is to include sale order details and total revenue. You are going to use an existing Fiori tile to display this report.

42 Choose Sales and Distribution on the Group Selection bar to display the assocaited tiles.

43 Choose to display this report.

A screen appears which enables you to enter variables as selection criteria to help narrow the scope of the information required. As mentioned earlier the information required pertains to sales orders since 2016.

To satisfy the report’s requirements you ne need to specify the date range.

44 Click the Document Date field to select it.

45 Type 01.01.2016 as the date from.

46 Press <TAB> to move to the date to field.

47 Type today’s date.

You now need to limit the data to the sales for East United States (UE00).

48 Click Sales Organisation field to select.

Notice that the icon appears in the field enabling you to search for the required variable.

49 Click to display a list of available Sales Organisations.

50 Click UE00 to select it.

51 Click or press <ENTER> to transfer the variable to the report selection screen.

You have now entered the required variables to filter the report data.

52 Click to run the report.

The report appears similar to be low. Your report may have more data depending on more recent sales orders.


(a) Sorting

To make the report more meaningful for your manager you need to sort the Net Value (NV) of the orders from highest to lowest. This can be done by selecting the appropriate Sort icon from the Application Toolbar. The first icon is for ascending while the other is order descending.

53 Click to display the Sort dialog box.

You want to sort by Net Value (Item) so it needs to be transferred to the Sort criteria pane.

54 Click Net Value (Item) to select this field.

55 Click to transfer this field to the search criteria.

Notice that radio buttons appear to give the option to sort either ascending or descending .

56 Select as the sort criteria.

57 Click to apply the sort criteria to the report.

The report is now sorted by Net Value (Item). Notice a small triangle appears in the column heading to indicate that it is part of the sort criteria. An alternate technique for performing a sort is by clicking the column heading of the field you want to sort and then clicking the appropriate Sort icon..

(b) Totals

You can perform a number of calculations on your reports to make them more meaningful. This can be done by clicking the Total button on the Application Toolbar. For example to determine total Net Value (Item) for all orders.

58 Click to select this column.

59 Click to perform the calculation.

Notice a new row appears with the total of this column.

(c) Drilling Down

SAP S/4HANA provides the facility to drill down to get further details about any item on a screen. This is done by double clicking the item you to get more details about. For example for shipping purposes you would like to determine the weight of the materials in Sales Document 3.

Once you have viewed the further details you can click the back button to return to the previous screen. At the moment we have created a report about "slug for shaft" for a specific time period. But the report only indicates a matchcode for the vendor rather than the vendor's details.

60 Double Click Material DXTR1997 to view more details about this order’s materials.

The order’s details appears on screen.

The weight (68,080g) of the combined materials is displayed (you may need to use the scroll bar to make this field visible). Drilling down is a very powerful feature which you should familiarise yourself with.

61 Click to return back to the report.

Task 6: Logging Off

It is important that when you have finished working with SAP S/4HANA that you log off correctly. This will protect data but more importantly it will prevent others from unlawfully using the system under your name.

62 Click profile icon on the Titlebar to exit SAP ERP.

63 Click

A dialog box appears asking to confirm your actions:

64 Click to exit the system.

You have now completed the introductory tutorial for SAP ERP: S/4HANA. As you become more familiar with the system you will find alternative ways of doing things. We have only covered the basics and there is a lot more to learn.


There were a number or new ERP terms you were introduced to throughout this exercise. These are important to understand. As a summary explain the following terms:

Master data

Material Master


Drill down

Match code




Organisational Unit

Intro to SAP (V1001) Page 1

Introduction to SAP S/4HANA Page 2