please do 15 pages only my chosen topic is teenage pregnancy

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WEEKONEMaclure-Prmotion.docx

Running head: PROMOTION AND DISEASE 1

PROMOTION AND DISEASE 6

Barbara Maclure

South University Online

Promotion and Prevention

Unprotected intercourse among teens

Overview

Unprotected sex is having vaginal, anal, and oral sex without the use of a protective measure such as a condom. The general consent regarding the percentages of teenagers engaging in activities which exposes them to risks of getting pregnant and acquiring HIV in addition to other sexually transmitted infections is still high. On a yearly basis, about one million young females aged 15 to 19 of all sexually active women in this age bracket are becoming pregnant. The huge numbers of these pregnancies are unintended. For the American teenagers, the risk of getting sexually transmitted infections is greater as compared to adults. According to the Youth Risk Behavior Survey which was carried out in 1997 by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there were 33 percent black males who were having intercourse before the age of 15, three times that of Hispanics teenagers and seven times of the White counterparts. White females are less sexually active as compared to males. There is outstandingly diminutive information regarding sexual activities in young age and its impacts on the succeeding sexual risk-taking (Poudel, Tandukar, Nakahara, Yasuoka, & Jimba, 2011).

There are a number of research works being carried out with a major focus on the alarming higher percentage of involuntary sex among teenagers. Adolescent health researchers are finding a hard time in refining the programmatic and research struggles to help in the maintenance of the advancement achieved towards reducing the risk behaviors which is still remaining to be prevalent. The resolution, in this case, may lie in reducing the present gap between research and the programs.

Why the behavior is problematic

The rate of unprotected sexual intercourse, sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and childbearing keeps on increasing in the United States especially among adolescents as compared to young people within industrialized nations. Early initiation of sexual intercourses among teenagers is placing them at a risk with regard to their health status. Teenage females are having an increased risk of exposure to unplanned pregnancy, being infected with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia and trichomoniasis; or the negative social and psychological outcomes. Unprotected sexual activities amongst teenager especially with HIV-positive individuals lead to adverse impacts on the health of the teenagers. It leads to increased risk of having various strains of HIV-1 or other sexually transmitted infections (Klein & Kaplan, 2012).

Having unprotected sex with an HIV-positive person caused an increased exposure to super-infections with other strains of HIV, for example, drug-resistant viral strains. Exposure to sexually transmitted infections leads to acceleration of the HIV disease. The presence of sexually transmitted infections for example syphilis and other genital related ulcers illnesses aggravate HIV infections by causing an increase in the viral load in the blood and the genital which also causes a reduction in the CD4 cells (Poudel, Tandukar, Nakahara, Yasuoka, & Jimba, 2011).

Predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling (PRE) factors for health behavior

With regard to the predisposing factors, knowledge and attitudes seem to be playing an important role in the risk or exposure to unprotected sex. Teenagers always get knowledge from older adults for examples parents regarding sexual matters. Parents are always at a unique position to help in addressing the gaps in the pre-adolescent and adolescent sexual health education. Parents are having an opportunity of communicating their expectations to their children at younger age before engaging in sexual activities. These parents are also capable of creating ongoing and developmentally suitable talks with their children concerning sex. However, parents-children communication concerning issues related to sex seems not to be their thus leaving children without knowledge on the safe sexual behaviors. Lack of knowledge concerning unprotected sex increases the exposure of children to unprotected sex (Klein & Kaplan, 2012).

Favorable attitudes towards the use of condom among youths are linked with an increased condom use self-efficacy. Teenagers are forming opinions and attitudes concerning condom use through their involvements, talks with families, peers, and other authoritative figures within the society for example teachers. Many teenagers are holding week positive attitudes towards condom use due to a lower level of educational attainment and failure to perceive the great accuracy regarding the information related to sexual intercourse.

Regarding the reinforcement factors, a building of a relationship which is supporting and reinforcing the positive health behaviors for the teenagers is important. Activities such as targeting close relationship which influences sexual and reproductive experiences of the teenagers for example parents an, intimate or sexual partners also influences issues on unprotected sexual activities among teenagers. The existence of the positive social norms and support within the community for the teenagers to practice safer behaviors influences the possibility of engaging in unprotected sex (Svanemyr, Amin, Robles, & Greene, 2015).

The enabling factors include the societal support and skills which are necessary to change the behavior and adopting the behavior of safe sex. When there is a lack of support from society on the issue of sexual activities, then it means that the majority of teenagers are left exposed to health risks related to unprotected sexual behavior. Some of the healthcare facilities through their workers have to make efforts to educate teenagers on the issues related to danger of being exposed to unprotected sex (Svanemyr, Amin, Robles, & Greene, 2015).

Possible Interventions

It is important to make an effort towards improving the teenagers' sexual outcome by discussing the benefits of protective sex for example use of a condom. Highlighting the benefit of condom use helps in the promotion of positive attitudes towards their use. Highlighting the benefits related to safe sex leads to an increased percentage of condom use self-efficacy and more potential condom use throughout sexual intercourse (Klein & Kaplan, 2012).

Parents and communities must build support by creating peer support networks. Engaging men and boys and the broader community to help in transforming sexual category and other social customs are equally important. It is necessary to have efforts towards promotion of the laws and policies which are specifically targeted at protecting and promoting human rights and handling societal awareness concerning matters via media approaches (Svanemyr, Amin, Robles, & Greene, 2015).

References

Klein, H., & Kaplan, R. L. (2012). Condom use attitudes and HIV risk among American MSM seeking partners for unprotected sex via the internet. International Public Health Journal, 4(4), 419-434. Poudel, K., Tandukar, P. K., Nakahara, S., Yasuoka, J., & Jimba, M. (2011). Knowing the Consequences of Unprotected Sex with Seroconcordant Partner Is Associated with Increased Safer Sex Intentions among HIV-positive Men in Kathmandu, Nepal. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition, 29(3), 191-199. Svanemyr, J., Amin, A., Robles, J. O., & Greene, M. E. (2015). Creating an Enabling Environment for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Framework and Promising Approaches. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(1), S7-S14.