Capstone Project

Running head: Land Use Change

1

Capstone Project

Cory Kuzdzal

ENV/497

11/6/2017

Tiffany Janson

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[no notes on this page]

Land Use Change 2

Capstone Project

Introduction

The concept of sustainability is an approach that is very wide. Everybody is talking about

this concept, especially in an era where problems caused by different human activities are in

need of serious solutions (Herremans, & Reid, 2002). Sustainability directs attention towards

sustaining the requirements of the present short of interfering with the capability of generations

to come to sustain their requirements as well. There are three pillars that make up the concept of

sustainability. These pillars are economic, social and environmental. Informally, the pillars are

known as profit, people, and the planet.

To understand the concept of sustainability, one has to look at some of its characteristics.

The concept has two characteristics. The first characteristic is that sustainable development is

people-centered. It means that it has the goal of improving the quality of human life. Still, under

this characteristic, the concept is conservation-based since it is organized by the need to

recognize the ability of nature to offer life-supporting services and resources (Dixon & Fallon,

1999). Through this perspective, it means that sustainable development is after advancing the

quality of life even as things are living in the bounds of the carrying capacity important for

maintaining the ecosystem.

The second characteristic of the concept of sustainability is that sustainable development

becomes an established concept. This concept symbolizes benchmarks of behavior and judgment

that are to be followed since human society and community are trying to fulfill its needs of well-

being and survival (Marshall & Toffel, 2005).

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The general definition of sustainability must be appropriately understood to have a more

operational concept of sustainability that can be recommended when it comes to daily life as well

as detailed consequences. There needs to be a close interaction between people and the

environment.

The community under consideration is a Northern Maine community. Northern Maine is

located in the Northeastern part of the country. This region is covered by 3.5 million acres of

forest, and it is bordered by Canada to the West and North. There are many parts of the state of

Maine that are thinly populated. Some of the individuals here are private industrial owners and

private individuals. There are also the state government agencies in the area. The area of

Northern Maine that I am considering is between the town of Mount Katahdin and Monson.

While heading to Northern Maine, down this route, there are neither supplies nor towns.

This place will be transformed to become a modern town. This means that different

housings are to be constructed. There will be the construction of a big shopping mall, single-

family houses (free-standing) and various types of multi-user (attached) dwellings. When it

comes to the infrastructure, essential facilities will have to be built, such as power supplies,

sewers, electricity grids, telecommunication, water supplies, and tunnels.

Section 2

Impact of your community on land, wildlife, wilderness, and wetlands/how community will

affect each component

Another name for Northern Maine is The Northern Woods. This is because a significant

portion of the area is covered by forest. There has been only a small settlement in the area. The

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1. modern

You may want to mention that

the community will be home

to 100,000 people, per week

five. [Tiffany Janson]

2. tunnels.

The sections in this report

are: land use, water, waste,

and energy. This is your

introduction. So you need to

add a sentence here stating

that you will provide plans for

all of these. You mention

them but you need a little

more detail. Give a preview of

your plans. Add in a sentence

or two introducing your plans

for land use, water, waste and

energy. [Tiffany Janson]

3. This is a very

straightforward and effective

introduction. Well done.

Continue to work on writing

thesis statements. I think this

page provides a good

explanation:

http://writingcenter.unc.edu/h

andouts/thesis-statements/

[Tiffany Janson]

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area had been reclaimed by wilderness. Building a new community in the area will call for

clearing some parts of the forest. This is necessary in order to make room for construction of

housing, a mall, and infrastructures. Doing this will affect the land negatively. There are some

modifications that will also have to be carried out on the landscape of the area so to have a look

of a town. Constructing structures and specific infrastructures, such as roads, sewers, and power

grids among others will interfere with the natural setting of the land (Randolph, 2004).

The forest in Northern Maine is home to various wildlife. Among the wildlife are white-

tailed deer, moose, black bears, otter, mink, marten, weasel, bobcat, coyotes, red fox, fisher,

porcupine, muskrat, red squirrel, snowshoe hare, and different varieties of birds. The natural

habitat of this wildlife will have to be affected by building the community in the area. Most of

the wildlife will have to be pushed deeper into the forest, that is, far away from the community.

There are other organisms that will lose their lives in the course of clearing the forest to create

room. Road construction and vehicle traffic in the area may lead to the killing of some

organisms, such as through car collision or while they are trying to cross the road that has been

constructed. \There will be a disruption in the migration patterns and foraging of wildlife.

The wilderness is an area that has usually been designated for preservation, especially in

its natural condition. Northern Maine had been reclaimed by wilderness. The land has been in its

natural state for a long time. However, this will have to change in some parts of the area. The

wilderness is usually biologically intact. However, after the construction begins, most of the

things are going to change about the area. The natural land will have to undergo a number of

transformations.

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1. clearing some parts of

the forest.

Will you need an EIS

performed on your

community? If the project

involves federal land or

funding then NEPA applies

and an EA/EIS may be

needed. The impacts, or

absence of impacts, would be

determined by an EA/EIS.

[Tiffany Janson]

2. construction

Questions to consider: What

types of housing materials will

you use (wood, brick,

concrete, metal, stucco, vinyl,

cob, earth, etc.)? Consider

the local resources available

at your location. Where will

the materials be sourced

from? Are the materials

renewable? How will the local

economy be affected by your

choices? [Tiffany Janson]

3. wildlife.

What major laws are in place

that protect resources,

ecosystems and organisms?

(Hint: the Endangered

Species Act would be one law

that could be discussed in the

Land Use section.) Take a

look at this list:

https://www.epa.gov/laws-

regulations/laws-and-

executive-orders [Tiffany

Janson]

4. pushed deeper into the

forest, that is, far away from

the community.

How can you minimise the

impact to the wildlife?

Consider the following:

1. Concentrated/vertical city

designs verses sprawl. 2.

Wildlife corridors and bridges

to reduce deaths and

fragmenting. 3. Legal

protection (minimising

expansion or hunting, for

example). [Tiffany Janson]

5. Road construction

You'll need to go into greater detail about your roads and transportation

systems. Most of the fossil fuels (and greatest source of pollution) in the US

are used in transportation. Please consider the following questions: How do

your roads affect wildlife? How do they affect water run-off and infiltration?

What is their albedo? Do they use non-renewable resources? Do they use

local resources? Do they require the use of heavy equipment? How much

maintenance do they need? Are they convenient for walking and biking (side-

walks and bike paths)? Are mass transit systems integrated? How is

vegetation integrated? Here is a short blog that might be helpful:

http://www.environmentalleader.com/2012/01/05/6-signs-that-mark-the-path-

to-sustainable-road-design/ [Tiffany Janson]

6. \There

typo [Tiffany Janson]

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With the construction of roads and urban development, some parts of the wetland in the

area will have to be affected negatively. Some of the activities will cause water dredging,

channelization, filling, destabilization of water delivery system, and excessive use of water in the

area. Also, there will be contamination as a result of the pollution of some wetland areas, due to

agricultural runoff and other activities. These activities will have to be limited so as not to cause

much pollution. The population that will be in the area will fully rely on the few sources of water

supplies for their daily activities. This means that there will be excessive use of water in the area.

Ensuring sustainability

To ensure sustainability of the land, wetlands, and wildlife in the area, there needs to be

the implementation of sustainable land management. This is about practicing and using

technologies that integrate the management of land, biodiversity, water, and other environmental

resources (Carter, 2002; Bindraban, Stoorvogel, Jansen, Vlaming, & Groot, 2000). This means

that the strategy will touch on land, wildlife, wilderness, and wetlands. Sustainable land

management in the new community will make it possible to meet the needs of humans while

making sure that the long-term sustainability of livelihood and the ecosystem. This means that

resources that are on the land will be put to good use. There will be minimum exploitation,

destruction, disruption, and killing of wildlife. All activities that are concerned with the

management of land will be covered by the sustainable land management. The use of land, as

well as developments that take place on the land, will be managed in the right way (Euliss Jr,

Smith, Wilcox, & Browne, 2008). This will be necessary to ensure a sustainable community.

How the community will not contribute to climate change

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1. agricultural runoff

How can agricultural runoff be

minimised? Consider buffer

strips and other methods.

[Tiffany Janson]

2. and

Discuss soil and agriculture in

this section. A sustainable

community must attempt to

produce as much of its own

food as possible (crops and

animal products). This cuts

down of fossil fuels used to

transport foods and it also

benefits the community

economically. How will you

manage this? How will your

community provide 100,000

people with local and

sustainable food? How will

you maintain the health of the

soil? [Tiffany Janson]

3. community.

Here you are covering the

"why" or the goals but not the

actual "how" of sustainable

land use. For this Capstone

Project, you really need to

focus on the how. With this

course you really want to

explore the nuts and bolts of

sustainable designs. So that

being said... How will your

community change the land

use? How will wildlife be

affected? How will wetlands

be affected? Be detailed and

specific.

Then, how can you reduce

the impacts? Think walkable

urban designs, wildlife

crossing, buffer zones, etc.

[Tiffany Janson]

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Sustainable management will help prevent climate change. This will be possible through

being energy efficient, making use of renewable power, trimming wastes that will be produced in

the area, ensuring those who are polluting the environment are paying or being fined, getting

every member of the community informed, and making sure that organizations advocating

sustainable development are supported.

Laws and regulation

Different laws will be implemented and adhered to with the intention of promoting

sustainable development and preventing climate change. The Pollution Prevention Act will be

employed to control different types of pollution. The Clean Air Act will be used to regulate

operations of power plants in the community. Other laws are those touching on green living and

sustainable manufacturing.

Discussion surrounding economics

The plan relating to creating the new community will benefit the area economically. The area will develop, and there will be the availability of employment since there will be different infrastructures requiring a workforce. Also, there will be the production of different products because farming will be practiced. Different kinds of facilities will be brought closer to the people who are already living in the area. There will be a community economic development. This will encourage using local resources in a manner that promotes economic opportunities while enhancing social conditions in a way that is sustainable.

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1. laws

What laws are in place that

protect resources,

ecosystems and organisms?

Take a look at this list:

https://www.epa.gov/laws-

regulations/laws-and-

executive-orders [Tiffany

Janson]

2. develop,

What are the costs involved?

Who pays for it (Federal or

State government)?

Can you find an example of

another city working towards

sustainability and discuss

their costs and economic

plan? [Tiffany Janson]

3. farming

A sustainable community

must attempt to produce as

much of its own food as

possible (crops and animal

products). This cuts down of

fossil fuels used to transport

foods and it also benefits the

community economically.

How will you manage this?

[Tiffany Janson]

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References

Bindraban, P. S., Stoorvogel, J. J., Jansen, D. M., Vlaming, J., & Groot, J. J. R. (2000). Land

quality indicators for sustainable land management: proposed method for yield gap and

soil nutrient balance. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 81(2), 103-112.

Carter, M. R. (2002). Soil quality for sustainable land management. Agronomy Journal, 94(1),

38-47.

Dixon, J. A., & Fallon, L. A. (1999). The concept of sustainability: origins, extensions, and

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usefulness for policy. Society & Natural Resources, 2(1), 73-84.

Euliss Jr, N. H., Smith, L. M., Wilcox, D. A., & Browne, B. A. (2008). Linking ecosystem

processes with wetland management goals: charting a course for a sustainable future.

Wetlands, 28(3), 553-562.

Herremans, I. M., & Reid, R. E. (2002). Developing awareness of the sustainability concept. The

Journal of Environmental Education, 34(1), 16-20.

Marshall, J. D., & Toffel, M. W. (2005). Framing the elusive concept of sustainability: a

sustainability hierarchy.

Randolph, J. (2004). Environmental land use planning and management. Island Press.

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1. hierarchy.

Who is the publisher?

[Tiffany Janson]

2. Press.

Is this a book? Which page

did you refer to? [Tiffany

Janson]