Week 9 responses and question

Answer the following 3 questions (100 words). Then respond to the 8 post below. (50-100 words per post)

APA FORMAT

DUE Saturday July 13, 2019

1. How would you advise parents who have a teenager interested in beginning to lift weights?  What could be the positive / negative outcomes of them beginning a weight lifting program?

2. Advise a candidate for a firefighter's job about the most effective way to train for a physical test that requires 7 min of a series of job-related tasks (stair climb with equipment, hose drag, ladder raise, forcible entry with sledge hammer, simulated rescue dummy drag).

3. After reading the paper on Core Training by Mike Robertson(located in link below), please explain how you might change some of your core progressions for your rehabilitation programs.

https://www.t-nation.com/training/21st-century-core-training

Post 1: Jacob Schimitz

In general, I would expect for a man to have a greater maximum weightlifting amount in comparison to a women of identical body type.  The only reasoning for this is that in general, men have a greater amount of fat free mass in comparison to women for bodily functions, this increased muscle mass can give men a slight advantage.  Vaara et al (2012) came to the conclusion that “fat free mass was associated with maximal strength test scores and thus a major determinant for maximal strength.”  Although with proper training and neuromuscular facilitation, women can absolutely be much stronger than men at the same weight.  For example, if you haven’t heard of Stefi Cohen DPT, she’s 5 foot tall and 123 lbs and can deadlift over 500 lbs and currently holds the world record for her weight class.  She’s absolutely stronger than the majority, if not all men that weigh under 125 lbs.  I provided a link below to an article about her, definitely suggest checking it out!

https://barbend.com/stefi-cohen-deadlifts-525-pounds/

Post 2: Kennedy Rensing One would hope that there would not be any or many differences between these two athletes if the only thing that differs is there gender. However, the realist in me understands that there is probably some differences because thats just how our bodies are made. I found an article that looks at some of the reasons that men and women still differ even though they train the same way. Some of the key differences that they found include: size and body comparison, hormones and types of fibers, how our tissues handle carbs and fat, etc. (Nuckols, 2018). The last topic seems to make the most sense to me in the fact that women’s bodies are made to do many different things when compared to men’s. So, it would only make sense that their muscles handle our body’s intake differently then men’s. Thus, resulting in differences while weightlifting. 

Post 3: Sam Mayer

Typically men are able to lift more than women, however, when finding individuals with equivalent training histories and identical fat-free body mass, the results are altered. Comparing just the weights being lifted would provide the result that the man was able to lift more than the women. Utilizing relative strength comparisons using a ratio of the weight lifted to the fat-free mass, the strength differences between the man and the woman are vastly reduced (McArdle, Katch, & Katch, 2015). One study showed men were able to produce higher peak and average power, but women had higher peak and average velocities when the data was normalized to fat-free mass (Jones et al., 2016). The study concluded that the greater power was due to higher muscle mass in men (Jones et al., 2016).

Post 4: Adam J

The squat is a popular exercise utilized by many people to target the quadriceps muscle while also impacting many other areas of the body. By slightly modifying the manner in which the squat is performed, we can create a greater impact in the targeted quadriceps. One way to modify this exercise is by elevating the heels with a block throughout the exercise.  An article by physiqology (n.d.) tells us that by elevating the heels, we are able to increase the recruitment of the quadriceps, allowing the exercises to have a greater impact on this muscle.  By elevating the heels, physiqology claims that we decreased the range of motion located at the hip while subsequently increasing the range of motion observed in the knee throughout the movement.  Additionally, the author of this article claims that by forcing the ball of the foot to be more in contact with the ground, we are able to stimulate the central nervous system to increase the recruitment of the quadriceps.

Post 5: Kendra Clamors

The hip is a major weight-bearing joint that is never fully unloaded during daily activities. When body weight is evenly distributed across both legs during upright standing, the weight supported at each hip is one-half the weight of the body segments above the hip, or about one-third of total body weight. However, the total load on each hip in this situation is greater than the weight supported, because tension in the large strong hip muscles further adds to compression at the joint. Because of muscles tension, compression on the hip is approximately the same as body weight during the swing phase of walking. The hip joint is well designed to bear the large loads it sustains. Because the diameter of the humeral head is larger than the articulating surface of the acetabulum, contact between the two bones during initiation of weight bearing begins the periphery. As loading increases, the contact area at the joint also increases, such that stress levels remain approximately constant.With the knee there is articular cartilage on the medial plateau that is three times thicker than that on the lateral plateau which helps protect the joint from wear. The menisci act to distribute loads at the tibiofemoral joint over a broader area, thus reducing the magnitude of joint stress. The menisci also directly assist with force absorption at the knee, bearing as much as an estimated 45% of the total load (Hall,2019).

Post 6: Josh Young

During a squat, the ankles are passively dorsiflexed as the hips and knees are moved into a flexed position. For individuals who are lacking ankle dorsiflexion, the farther down in the squat they go, the more their heels come off of the ground to compensate for the lack of dorsiflexion. When that happens, as they stand up, they will be pushing through the balls of their feet with their heels off the ground. This shifts their entire weight forward, forcing the quads to do the majority of the movement, when really the glutes and hamstrings should be the dominant muscles used. By placing a block under the heels, the ankles start in a plantarflexed position. I like to think of it as a “negatively dorsiflexed position”, meaning that the ankle must move through more degrees of movement before the movement becomes limited. By using the block, the ankles gain more freedom of movement, which will permit the heels to stay down, thus enabling the glutes and hamstrings to perform the movement. This leads to more activation and training of the posterior chain for the legs.

Post 7: Delania Adams

The compression at the hip is higher than compression at the knee despite the fact that the knee supports more body weight during stance than the hip. This happens due to the fact that forces about the hips are being distributed as long on the hips. When you are standing the weight begins to equally distribute taking some of the load off the knee joint. This movement, in turn, will cause the hip to compress more due to the weight that is being applied to the hip area at a greater force than the knee to assist the weight being placed on the body. When body weight is evenly distributed across both legs during upright standing, the weight supported at each hip is one-half the weight of the body segments above the hip, or one-third of total body weight (Hall, 2007). With that being said the if there is any additional weight being applied from the hips up, that weight will increase compression of the hips. 

Post 8: Scott Walker

The barbell squat while using a block of wood has three distinctive advantages. “Elevating the heels decreases range of motion at the hip and improves range of motion at the knee, helping to recruit more quadriceps muscle fibers. When the heels are elevated, it forces the ball of the foot to make greater contact with the surface. The neural receptors in the feet send signals to the central nervous system to increase recruitment of quadriceps fibers. Heavier loads can be lifted with heels elevated squats because of improved range of motion and improved neural drive. Elevating the heels when squatting places even more emphasis on the quadriceps muscles, so this exercise is a double whammy for the front of the legs.” (Physioqology, N.D.) When using the block of wood to do a barbell squat, the individual who is working out will also feel less pressure during the down phase of the workout.