Research Proposal Draft


Running head: METHODOLOGY 1



Ram Pandey

South University



This research will be conducted in three countries; Nigeria and India as developing countries and Switzerland as a developing nation. Data from the study will be retrieved from the most recent Demographic Health Surveys of the following countries: Switzerland – a developed country, and India and Nigeria – developing countries. All the data that will be obtained will be represented of the respective countries. A semi-structured questionnaire will be used to get information from the eligible mothers and study design and methods will be uniform for each nation. Therefore, a survey with a tiered structure shall be conducted and the eligible sample participants will be nested in households, and households included in primary sampling units and regions (Olorunsaiye & Degge, 2016).

The sample population will only be women of reproductive age (15-49 years old), and resided in the selected household or had visited and slept in the household the day before the survey. A total of 17, 789 women will be included in the survey.

Women whose children will not have immunization records will not be involved in the survey. Additionally, data from strata which will be comprised of single primary sampling units will not be included in the survey.

Sampling Strategy

The survey will employ a two-stage stratified sampling technique that will be applied to draw a sample of households as well as individuals from primary sampling units. The population sizes in the particular regions of the survey shall be estimated. The extent to which immunization has to be done and the prevalence of the kinds of diseases vaccinated against will be determined and the desired level of confidence (Olorunsaiye & Degge, 2016). By using a two-stage stratified sampling technique, sampling will take place at two different stages. Sampling will start by randomly selecting a sample of primary units (districts). Then from each primary unit, eligible mothers will be selected. Two-stage stratified sampling technique has been deemed useful for this survey since it has pragmatic merits and is famous for its flexibility (Olorunsaiye & Degge, 2016). Individually, the number of primary (n1) and secondary (n2) units can vary to account for different costs of sampling primary versus secondary units and for the variability of the characteristic being estimated between primary units and between secondary units within primary units. The number of clusters will be calculated as follows:

Research Design

The research design will be a cross-sectional survey research design that will be conducted at a particular point in time (Pond & Mounier-Jack, 2016. The following information will be collected from the study population:

Outcome variables

The survey will generate an initial outcome variable which will be a binary measure of whether or not a child was fully vaccinated. Full immunization status is interpreted as a child between 12 -23 months old who had been immunized fully as per relevant guidelines in place in each country. Access for most children is determined by coverage of Diphtheria 1 and Diphtheria 3 and Measles. For instance, if it is vaccinated with DPT1 at 6 weeks, the ability to access such a service is high.

Mother-Child Independent Variables

There will be two categories of independent variables namely, individual (child and maternal) and district (contextual) indicators (Zheng et al., 2013). Both the sets of variables mainly dwelled on vital statistics.

District-Level Independent Variables

These variables captured the district ambient economic facts. Additionally, to provide a rational of the environment-specific challenges women faced, factors such as barriers to hospital access, lack of husbands or someone accompanying them, as well as the attitude of the healthcare workforce (Zheng et al., 2013).


Olorunsaiye, C. Z., & Degge, H. (2016). Variations in the Uptake of Routine Immunization in Nigeria: Examining Determinants of Inequitable Access. Global Health Communication, 2(1), 19-29. doi:10.1080/23762004.2016.1206780

Pond, R., & Mounier-Jack, S. (2016). Comments on “Monitoring vaccination coverage: Defining the role of surveys”. Vaccine, 34(50), 6111. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.09.066

Zheng, Y., Yang, P., Wu, S., Ma, C., Seale, H., MacIntyre, C. R., & Wang, Q. (2013). A cross-sectional study of factors associated with uptake of vaccination against influenza among older residents in the postpandemic season in Beijing, China. BMJ Open, 3(11), e003662. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003662