# CIS 518 Discussion Post Response

DATABASE PERFORMANCE 3

Please respond to the following student's post regarding the discussion below.

"Data Structures" Please respond to the following:

· Imagine you are asked to write a program to print out a yearly calendar. In this program, the user enters the year desired, and the output is a calendar for that year. Determine how the representation of internal data will affect the way in which the program is written.

· Produce two examples of data structures that might be used in the scenario above.  (Hint: Are your data structures cumulative or not? How is a leap year handled?)

Student “NM” Responded with the following:

· Imagine you are asked to write a program to print out a yearly calendar. In this program, the user enters the year desired, and the output is a calendar for that year. Determine how the representation of internal data will affect the way in which the program is written.

Inside the computer, all data is represented by 0’s and 1’s for OFF and ON, respectively. These 0’s and 1’s are binary numbers that modern-day computer uses to operate. When it uttered, the person using it is trying to define the binary digit contraction—an item that can only hold a 0 or 1 (Ashbox, n.d.). The reason computers use the binary system is the number system best suited to the optical and magnetic storage components of the computer (Ashbox, n.d.). A binary system based on n bits can represent 2n different things and each bit added each time to describe something (Schocken, n.d.). Schocken (n.d.) denoted, “We used these bits combination to created agreed-upon code of…numbers, characters, images, etc.” (para. 1).

In the calendar program, the representation of internal data affects the way the program written if program codes miswrote or incomplete. It may implement the algorithm improperly or incompletely (Pfleeger & Atlee, 2010).

· Produce two examples of data structures that might be used in the scenario above.  (Hint: Are your data structures cumulative or not? How is a leap year handled?)

The data structure is widely used in computer science for the storage of data—refers to the allocation and storage of data in varied ways (Techspirited, n.d.). Meaning the organizing and storing of data allows data management to efficiently access and modified data when necessary (Pfleeger et al., 2010). Cumulative data is information gathered over some time (RG, n.d.). The two examples of data structure that might be used in the calendar scenario are linked list or tree. Both have nodes that are linked together. Tree nodes are connected in a sequence and linked list linked in a linear pattern (much like a standard calendar as it appears on screen).

References:

Ashbox. (n.d.). Why Binary Numbers are Used in Computer? Retrieved from  https://www.binarytranslator.com/why-binary-numbers-are-used-by-computers

Pfleeger, S. L., Altee, J. M. (2010). Software engineering: Theory and practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Techspirited. (n.d.). Types of Data Structure in Computer Science and Their Applications. Retrieved from https://techspirited.com/types-of-data-structures-in-computer-science-their-applications

Week 6 Discussion 2 ReplyTop of Form

Please respond to the following student's post regarding the discussion below.

"Generating Test Cases" Please respond to the following:

· From the e-Activity, identify at least two methods used to generate test cases in software development, and explain how they are used to identify and perform the path testing.

· Take a position on whether or not the structure of a program can reduce the number of test cases. Provide a specific example to support your answer.

Student “NM” Responded with the following:

· From the e-Activity, identify at least two methods used to generate test cases in software development, and explain how they are used to identify and perform the path testing.

The two methods used to generate test case in software development are Closed box and open box used (Pfleeger & Atlee, 2010).

Black-box testing (Closed-box testing) techniques test without having knowledge of the interior workings of the application (Tutorialspoints, n.d.). The tester is oblivious to the system architecture and does not have access to the source code. Typically, while performing a black-box test, a tester will interact with the system’s user interface by providing inputs and examining outputs without knowing how and where the inputs are worked upon (Tutorialspoints, n.d.). Pfleeer & Atlee (2010) denote, “Closed-box testing suffers from uncertainty about whether the test cased selected will uncover a particular fault (p. 422, para. 4).

White-box testing (Open-box testing) is the detailed investigation of internal logic and structure of the code (Tutorialspoint, n.d.). In order to perform white box testing on an application, a tester needs to know the internal workings of the code. The tester needs to have a look inside the source code and find out which unit/chunk of the code is behaving inappropriately (Tutorialspoint, n.d.). According to Pfleeger & Atlee (2010), “Open-box testing always admits the danger of paying too much attention to the code’s internal processing. And end up testing what the program does instead of what it should do” (p. 422, para. 4).

· Take a position on whether or not the structure of a program can reduce the number of test cases. Provide a specific example to support your answer.

The structure of a program will not reduce the number of test cases because sometimes a system remembers conditions from the previous case, so sequential of test cases are needed. (Pfleeger et al., 2010). Pfleeger et al. (2010) explain, “System implements a finite state machine, the code must recall the previous system state; the previous state plus current input determines the next state. Similarly, real-time systems are often interrupt-driven; test exercise sets of cases rather than single ones” (p. 422, para. 9).

References:

Pfleeger, S. L., Altee, J. M. (2010). Software engineering: Theory and practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.