Week 6 Final Paper Assessment Design

Running head: CREATION OF SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT 1

CREATION OF SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT 7

Week 3: Creation of Summative Assessment

Pamela Weems-Baker

EDU 645: Learning & Assessment for the 21st Century (NMA1931A)

Dr. Julie-Ann Adkins

August 19, 2019

Summative Assessment

As students’ progress in their learning, it is expected that they must be assessed by their teachers rather instructors. In this regard, the teachers must come up with an assessment method rather a technique that is likely to reflect the performance of the students. The most common methods that are used today are formative and summative assessment techniques. Summative assessment takes place at the end of every unit, chapter or the end of each term and is mostly associated with distinct benchmarks, final projects and standardized tests (Clark, 2010). Summative assessments are done to test the students on what they have learned and their understanding of what they have been taught. Some of the examples of summative assessments include the end of chapter or unit tests, final portfolio, achievement tests, and standardized tests. Summative assessments are very important to the teachers and administrators as the results are used to test the final results of the students’ progress. The results are also used to assess students; the assessment is meant to assess students on how the teachers taught the unit or chapter (Lau, 2016). The summative assessment provides the test blueprint, assessment standards, the assessment rubric, advantages and limitations of selected-response and constructed-response assessments and the requirements of a good performance-based assessment.

Standard: The student will demonstrate the skills necessary to correctly research, analyze and resolve all issues on Form 1040X inquiries.

Test Blueprint

Learning Objective/Outcome

Bloom’s Taxonomy Classification

Number of Test Items

Point Value

% Weight of Test

The student will explain what each line item represents on Form 1040X, amended tax return for processing.

Understanding

4

40

40%

The student will analyze the Internal Revenue Manual (IRM) as a resource for processing the Form 1040X, amended tax return.

Analysis

3

30

30%

The student will effectively identify the taxpayer's issues by writing the appropriate letter to address the taxpayer inquiry (needs).

Remembering

3

30

30%

Totals

10

100%

Test Questions

Test Question One

Identify the Learning Objective

Students will be able to explain each line item on the Form 1040X, amended tax return for processing. (Understanding)

Identify the Type of Test Question Item

(selected-response, constructed-response, or performance-based assessment)

Constructed Response (1)

Identify the Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy Classification

Understanding

Write the Test Question and Answer.

(If it is a performance-based assessment, write “see rubric” as the answer.)

Question: What are the five filing statuses listed on Form 1040X, amended tax return?

Answer: Single, Married filing Jointly, Married filing separately, Head of household and qualifying widow

Test Question Two

Identify the Learning Objective

Students will be able to explain each line item on the Form 1040X, amended tax return for processing. (Understanding)

Identify the Type of Test Question Item

(selected-response, constructed-response, or performance-based assessment)

Selected Response (Multiple Choice) 1

Identify the Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy Classification

Understanding

Write the Test Question and Answer.

(If it is a performance-based assessment, write “see rubric” as the answer.)

Question: What mandatory tools are used to input adjustment from the Form 1040X, amended tax return?

A. XClaim-IAT Tool

B. IAT Tool

C. ADJ-54-TAX

D. CREDIT TRANSFER Tool

Test Question Three

Identify the Learning Objective

Students will be able to explain each line item on the Form 1040X, amended tax return for processing. (Understanding)

Identify the Type of Test Question Item

(selected-response, constructed-response, or performance-based assessment)

Selected Response (Matching) 2

Identify the Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy Classification

Understanding

Write the Test Question and Answer.

(If it is a performance-based assessment, write “see rubric” as the answer.)

Match each measure item to the appropriate transactions code from Form 1040X, amended tax return.

Line 1 Adjusted gross income 886

Line 5, Taxable income 888

Line 11, Total Tax 806

Line 12, Federal income tax withheld 290

Test Question Four

Identify the Learning Objective

Students will be able to explain each line item on the Form 1040X, amended tax return for processing. (Understanding)

Identify the Type of Test Question Item

(selected-response, constructed-response, or performance-based assessment)

Selective Response (True or False) 3

Identify the Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy Classification

Understanding

Write the Test Question and Answer.

(If it is a performance-based assessment, write “see rubric” as the answer.)

True or False

If the taxpayer's signature is missing from the Form 1040X, amended tax return, we can process the claim? FALSE.

Test Question Five

Identify the Learning Objective

The student will analyze the Internal Revenue Manual (IRM) as a resource for processing the Form 1040X, amended tax return for processing. (Analyze)

Identify the Type of Test Question Item

(selected-response, constructed-response, or performance-based assessment)

Constructed Response (2)

Identify the Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy Classification

Analyze

Write the Test Question and Answer.

(If it is a performance-based assessment, write “see rubric” as the answer.)

Question: During your research in the IRM and you cannot locate the taxpayer's topic, What is your next level of assistance?

Answer: Work leader

Test Question Six

Identify the Learning Objective

The student will analyze the Internal Revenue Manual (IRM) as a resource for processing the Form 1040X, amended tax return for processing. Analyze

Identify the Type of Test Question Item

(selected-response, constructed-response, or performance-based assessment)

Selective Response (4)

Identify the Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy Classification

Analyze

Write the Test Question and Answer.

(If it is a performance-based assessment, write “see rubric” as the answer.)

What Form is used to claim cancellation of debt?

A. Form 5329

B. Form 982

C. Form 1040X

D. Form 1095-A

Test Question Seven

Identify the Learning Objective

The student will analyze the Internal Revenue Manual (IRM) as a resource for processing the Form 1040X, amended tax return for processing. Analyze

Identify the Type of Test Question Item

(selected-response, constructed-response, or performance-based assessment)

Selected Response (5)

Identify the Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy Classification

Analyze

Write the Test Question and Answer.

(If it is a performance-based assessment, write “see rubric” as the answer.)

True or False

The final resolution to the taxpayer issue concerning a payments on their tax account is a 672C.

Answer: True

Test Question Eight

Identify the Learning Objective

The student will effectively identify the taxpayer's issues by writing the appropriate letter to address the taxpayer inquiry (needs). Remembering

Identify the Type of Test Question Item

(selected-response, constructed-response, or performance-based assessment)

Constructed Response (3)

Identify the Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy Classification

Identify

Write the Test Question and Answer.

(If it is a performance-based assessment, write “see rubric” as the answer.)

As the final resolution to the taxpayer issue. The taxpayer amended tax return column amounts does not match what's on our records; what letter would the student send the taxpayer?

Answer: Letter 474C, incomplete amended tax return

Test Question Nine

Identify the Learning Objective

The student will effectively identify the taxpayer's issues by writing the appropriate letter to address the taxpayer inquiry (needs). Remembering

Identify the Type of Test Question Item

(selected-response, constructed-response, or performance-based assessment)

Selected Response (6)

Identify the Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy Classification

Remembering

Write the Test Question and Answer.

(If it is a performance-based assessment, write “see rubric” as the answer.)

Question: As the final resolution to the taxpayer issue, what letter would the student use when the taxpayer is asking about a payment which has already been paid to the IRS?

Answer: Letter 672C, Payment Inquiry

Test Question Ten

Identify the Learning Objective

The student will effectively identify and address the taxpayer's issues by writing the appropriate letter to address the taxpayer inquiry (needs).

Identify the Type of Test Question Item

(selected-response, constructed-response, or performance-based assessment)

Performance-based Assessment (1)

Identify the Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy Classification

Remembering

Write the Test Question and Answer.

(If it is a performance-based assessment, write “see rubric” as the answer.)

I will conduct an "Active Reading" session and you will identify and address the needs of the taxpayer and send the appropriate letter. There will be groups of four and I will provide each team with a live case. There will be one spokes person from each team; as a group, your team will present the following:

1. Identify taxpayer's issues by telling me how many and what the issue are in the inquire.

2. How are you going to address the taxpayers issues by demonstrating what is needed to accurately resolve the case.

3. What letter will you send the taxpayer and what verbiage will you use in the context of the letter.

4. Near the end of the session, 10-15 minutes, we will discuss the correct path for accurately resolving the taxpayer issue (case).

Performance-Based Assessment Rubric

Bloom’ classification

Descriptor

Excellent

Good

Moderate

Poor

Understanding/explain

Apply (Understandsprofessionally the appropriate transaction codes to adjust the taxpayer's tax account to the given changes or topics of a taxpayer's tax account).

Analyze, understands and explain the items on the amended d tax return and perform on the taxpayer tax account to the given transaction codes changes to the taxpayer tax account.

Explain how to apply what is being perform on the taxpayer tax account and apply transactions codes to the given changes to the taxpayer tax account.

Explain how to generally apply what is being perform on the taxpayer account and apply transactions codes to the given changes to the taxpayer tax account.

Summarize and explain how to apply what is being perform on the taxpayer account and the appropriate transaction codes to the given tax changes to the taxpayer tax account.

Analyse/ analysis

Analyses, the Internal Revenue Manual to solve the taxpayer issues in the remarks session of the taxpayers amended tax return.

Critically selects, evaluates, the steps to resolving the taxpayer issues in the remarks session of the taxpayers amended tax return through a compelling, comprehensive of the subject being reviewed on the taxpayers amended tax return by a wide range of relevant and credible sources.

Selects, analyzes and uses the appropriate resolution for the taxpayer issues that inform the taxpayer through a credible, comprehensive, clear, and carefully constructed information supported by the IRM relevant and credible sources.

Selects applies, and structures ideas in a format that provides the taxpayer with a discernible and logically-sequenced information relevant to the purpose and context, and supported by the IRM sources.

Presents relevant and credible, but limited, the information in a structure and format appropriate to the taxpayer, purpose, and context, and supported by the IRM sources.

Remembering / identify

Analyses, through a compelling comprehensive of the subject letters being reviewed. The student sends the appropriate letter to the taxpayer, and carefully constructed letter to the taxpayer accounts issues.

Critically selects, evaluates the appropriate letter, and its structures in a format that informs the taxpayer through a compelling, comprehensive, and well-articulated letter to the taxpayers supported by a range of relevant and credible sources.

Selects, analyzes and applies the proper format that informs the taxpayer through a credible, comprehensive, clear, and carefully constructs verbiage that is relevant to the taxpayer's final resolution supported by a range of relevant and credible sources.

Selects applies, and structures ideas in a format that provides the taxpayer with discernible and logically-sequenced verbiage in the letter that is relevant to the taxpayer's final resolution supported by IRM sources.

Presents relevant and credible, but limited, the information available and the appropriate letter to the taxpayer, purpose, and context, and supported by the IRM sources.

Advantages of Selected-Response and Constructed-Response Assessments

Summative assessment technique is widely used today because of the advantages that the assessment technique has. Some of the advantages of summative assessment include the following.

One, it motivates students to learn and pay attention in class. Summative assessment is widely used by teachers because it motivates students to learn and pay attention in class. The knowledge that students will be assessed at the end of the term or chapter encourages students to encroach in couching practices which have been seen to enhance student’s performance (Clark, 2010).

Similarly, the assessment technique allows students to apply what they have learned in the chapter, unit or term. It is one thing for the students to remember what they have been taught in class, and it is another thing to apply what they have been taught. The summative assessment allows students to apply what they have learned in class.

Apart from the above mentioned rather discussed benefits of summative assessment techniques, it has been proven that the techniques help the teachers to identify learning and knowledge gaps in students.

Summative assessment techniques allow teachers to assess the understanding of the students before moving to the next unit (Kerr et al, 2016). Summative assessment technique is important as it allows students who have not understood the topic to catch up with their peers. The technique is also imperative rather beneficial as it allows the teachers to understand the teaching gaps and understand their students’ learning disabilities in the process.

Limitations of Selected-Response and Constructed-Response Assessments

Although summative assessment has been used for a very long time by instructors and educators to assess the progress of students in a learning environment, the use of selected-response and constructed response assessment methods have several limitations which make it not a good tool for assessment.

One of the major limitations of using these tools in summative assessment is that they do not promote creativity among students. The tools are rigid and very strict, which lead to regurgitation of information that was learned. Students in this kind of assessment have to understand the ‘why” question before providing the answer, which, in general, limit their abilities to rewrite the information (Lau, 2016). Another very important limitation of the selected-response and constructed response assessment techniques is that they not accurately reflect students’ learning. The assessment promotes what is common as the teaching to the test, which sees teachers dedicating their efforts teaching what is likely to be tested at the district level. Studies that have been done in the past indicates that the idea to teach students to pass exams significantly dictate the kind of knowledge that is taught to students. Focusing on exam rich areas of the course make students not to learn other parts of the course and limit their knowledge.

Similarly, the assessment techniques ignore students’ timely learning needs. It is not easy for the educators to identify learning and knowledge gaps among the students since the assessment is done at the end of the term, unit or chapter (Sridharan et al, 2019). Similarly, educators have no time to rectify student’s scores, which may affect the final score of the student.

The assessment techniques have been seen to be biased based on the district demographics results to biases when students are not fairly graded but graded based on their demographics, such as race, color, and others. Studies that have been done in America in the past have indicated that summative assessment enhances education gaps.

Requirements of Good Performance-based Assessments

For any performance-based assessment to be successful, it must be designed to meet some requirements. One of the major requirement of performance-based assessment is that it has to be authentic and connected to the activities that take place in everyday life. The assessment should be designed to assess the abilities of the students and the type of knowledge that they have acquired over time. Assessing the abilities of the students is important as it highlights the areas where students have shortfalls.

The other requirement is that the assessment criteria must involve the students during the entire evaluation process. Involving the students in the entire process, making the students have confidence in the outcomes of the process (Sridharan et al, 2019). The other requirement is that performance-based assessment should integrate tasks that include skills and knowledge from a different culture. Incorporating different culture and skills means that the students who are being assessed can reflect their culture into their assessments. The other and final requirement is that the assessment has to be designed in a way that allows the students to reflect and notice their best as one way of generally improving rather overall students’ performance. The assessment should have the above-discussed requirements to make it suitable and perfect.

Conclusion

There are two major types of assessment that include summative and formative. However, it is very clear from the analysis of different education systems that summative assessment is used frequently and widely as compared to other assessment techniques.

In this regard, the teachers must come up with an assessment method rather a technique that is likely to reflect the performance of the students. The most common methods that are used today are formative and summative assessment techniques. Summative assessment takes place at the end of every unit, chapter or the end of each term and is mostly associated with distinct benchmarks, final projects, and standardized tests. It is because of this that schools should conduct their assessments from time to time to evaluate their student’s abilities in learning.

References

Clark, D. (2010). Bloom’s taxonomy of learning domains: The three types of learning. Big Dog & Little Dog’s Performance Juxtaposition.

Kerr, S., Muller, D., McKinon, W., & Mc Inerney, P. (2016). An online formative assessment tool to prepare students for summative assessment in physiology. African Journal of Health Professions Education, 8(1), 72-76.

Lau, A. M. S. (2016). ‘Formative good, summative bad?’–A Review of the dichotomy in assessment literature. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 40(4), 509-525.

Sridharan, B., Tai, J., & Boud, D. (2019). Does the use of summative peer assessment in collaborative group work inhibit good judgment? Higher Education, 77(5), 853-870.