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StrategicManagementConcepts4th.pdf

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FOURTH EDITION

Strategic Management

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Frank T. Rothaermel Georgia Institute of Technology

FOURTH EDITION

Strategic Management

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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT, FOURTH EDITION

Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2019 by McGraw- Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2017, 2015, and 2013. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LWI 21 20 19 18

Bound: ISBN 978-1-259-92762-1 (student edition) MHID 1-259-92762-8 (student edition) ISBN 978-1-260-14192-4 (instructor edition) MHID 1-260-14192-6 (instructor edition)

Looseleaf: ISBN 978-1-260-14186-3 MHID 1-260-14186-1

Product Developers: Lai T. Moy Executive Marketing Manager: Debbie Clare Content Project Managers: Mary E. Powers (Core), Keri Johnson (Assessment) Buyer: Susan K. Culbertson Design: Matt Diamond Content Licensing Specialists: Brianna Kirschbaum Cover Image: (leadership concept on white background): ©ISerg/iStock/Getty Images RF; (globe): ©sankai/iStock/Getty Images RF Compositor: SPi Global

All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Rothaermel, Frank T., author. Title: Strategic management: concepts / Frank T. Rothaermel, Georgia Institute of Technology. Description: Fourth Edition. | Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education, 2018. | Revised edition of the author’s Strategic management, [2017] Identifiers: LCCN 2017049706 | ISBN 9781259927621 (paperback) Subjects: LCSH: Strategic planning. | Management. | BISAC: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Management. Classification: LCC HD30.28 .R6646 2018 | DDC 658.4/012—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017049706

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

mheducation.com/highered

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DEDICATION

To my eternal family for their love, support, and sacrifice: Kelleyn, Harris, Winston, Roman, Adelaide, Avery, and Ivy.

—FRANK T. ROTHAERMEL

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vi

PART ONE / ANALYSIS 2

CHAPTER 1 What Is Strategy? 4

CHAPTER 2 Strategic Leadership: Managing the Strategy Process 30

CHAPTER 3 External Analysis: Industry Structure, Competitive Forces, and Strategic Groups 64

CHAPTER 4 Internal Analysis: Resources, Capabilities, and Core Competencies 106

CHAPTER 5 Competitive Advantage, Firm Performance, and Business Models 144

PART TWO / FORMULATION 180

CHAPTER 6 Business Strategy: Differentiation, Cost Leadership, and Blue Oceans 182

CHAPTER 7 Business Strategy: Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Platforms 218

CHAPTER 8 Corporate Strategy: Vertical Integration and Diversification 264

CHAPTER 9 Corporate Strategy: Strategic Alliances, Mergers, and Acquisitions 308

CHAPTER 10 Global Strategy: Competing Around the World 338

PART THREE / IMPLEMENTATION 376

CHAPTER 11 Organizational Design: Structure, Culture, and Control 378

CHAPTER 12 Corporate Governance and Business Ethics 418

PART FOUR / MINICASES 447

HOW TO CONDUCT A CASE ANALYSIS 528

PART FIVE / FULL-LENGTH CASES Available through McGraw-Hill Create www.McGrawHillCreate.com/Rothaermel

CONTENTS IN BRIEF

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MINICASES /

1 Michael Phelps: The Role of Strategy in Olympics and Business 448

2 PepsiCo’s Indra Nooyi: Performance with Purpose 450 3 Yahoo: From Internet Darling to Fire Sale 453 4 How the Strategy Process Killed Innovation at

Microsoft 456

5 Apple: The iPhone Turns 10, so What’s Next? 459 6 Nike’s Core Competency: The Risky Business of

Creating Heroes 463

7 Dynamic Capabilities at IBM 466 8 Starbucks after Schultz: How to Sustain a Competitive

Advantage? 470

9 Business Model Innovation: How Dollar Shave Club Disrupted Gillette 474

10 Competing on Business Models: Google vs. Microsoft 476

11 Can Amazon Trim the Fat at Whole Foods? 481 12 LEGO’s Turnaround: Brick by Brick 484 13 Cirque du Soleil: Searching for a New Blue Ocean 488 14 Wikipedia: Disrupting the Encyclopedia Business 491 15 Disney: Building Billion-Dollar Franchises 494 16 Hollywood Goes Global 498 17 Samsung Electronics: Burned by Success? 503 18 Does GM’s Future Lie in China? 509 19 Flipkart vs. Amazon in India: Who’s Winning? 512 20 Alibaba—China’s Ecommerce Giant: Challenging

Amazon? 516

21 HP’s Boardroom Drama and Divorce 520 22 UBS: A Pattern of Ethics Scandals 524

FULL-LENGTH CASES /

All available through McGraw-Hill Create, www.McGrawHillCreate.com/Rothaermel

Uber Technologies*

Starbucks Corporation*

Netflix, Inc.*

Walmart*

The Walt Disney Company*

Tesla, Inc. >>

Apple Inc. >>

Amazon.com, Inc. >>

Best Buy Co., Inc. >>

Facebook, Inc. >>

McDonald’s Corporation >>

Alphabet’s Google >>

Delta Air Lines, Inc. >>

UPS in India >>

The Movie Exhibition Industry >>+ Space X* + Kickstarter: Using Crowdfunding to Launch a New Board Game + Better World Books and the Triple Bottom Line

General Electric after GE Capital

IBM at the Crossroads

Merck & Co., Inc.

Grok: Action Intelligence for Fast Data

Make or Break at RIM: Launching BlackBerry 10

MINICASES & FULL-LENGTH CASES

* NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION >> REVISED AND UPDATED FOR THE FOURTH EDITION + THIRD-PARTY CASE

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CHAPTERCASES /

1 Tesla’s Secret Strategy 5 2 Sheryl Sandberg: Leaning in at Facebook 31 3 Airbnb: Disrupting the Hotel Industry 65 4 Dr. Dre’s Core Competency: Coolness Factor 107 5 The Quest for Competitive Advantage: Apple vs.

Microsoft 145 6 JetBlue Airways: Finding a New Blue Ocean? 183 7 Netflix: Disrupting the TV Industry 219 8 Amazon.com: To Infinity and Beyond 265 9 Little Lyft Gets Big Alliance Partners 309 10 Sweden’s IKEA: The World’s Most Profitable

Retailer 339 11 Zappos: Of Happiness and Holacracy 379 12 Uber: Most Ethically Challenged Tech

Company? 419

STRATEGY HIGHLIGHTS /

1.1 Teach for America: How Wendy Kopp Inspires Future Leaders 12

1.2 Merck: Reconfirming Its Core Values 18 2.1 Starbucks CEO: “It’s Not What We Do” 44 2.2 BP “Grossly Negligent” in Gulf of Mexico

Disaster 55 3.1 BlackBerry’s Bust 71 3.2 The Five Forces in the Airline Industry 75 4.1 Applying VRIO: The Rise and Fall of Groupon 119 4.2 When Will P&G Play to Win Again? 125 5.1 Interface: The World’s First Sustainable

Company 165 5.2 Threadless: Leveraging Crowdsourcing to Design

Cool T-Shirts 166 6.1 Dr. Shetty: “The Henry Ford of Heart

Surgery” 200 6.2 How JCPenney Sailed Deeper into the Red

Ocean 208 7.1 Standards Battle: Which Automotive Technology

Will Win? 230 7.2 GE’s Innovation Mantra: Disrupt Yourself! 248 8.1 Is Coke Becoming a Monster? 276 8.2 The Tata Group: Integration at the Corporate

Level 289 9.1 How Tesla Used Alliances Strategically 315 9.2 Kraft’s Specialty: Hostile Takeovers 326 10.1 The Gulf Airlines Are Landing in the

United States 347 10.2 Walmart Retreats from Germany, and Lidl Invades

the United States 351 11.1 W.L. Gore & Associates: Informality and

Innovation 386 11.2 Sony vs. Apple: Whatever Happened to Sony? 400 12.1 GE’s Board of Directors 430 12.2 Why the Mild Response to Goldman Sachs

and Securities Fraud? 435

CHAPTERCASES & STRATEGY HIGHLIGHTS

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PART ONE / ANALYSIS 2 CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS STRATEGY? 4

CHAPTERCASE 1 Tesla’s Secret Strategy 5

1.1 What Strategy Is: Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage 6

What Is Competitive Advantage? 8 1.2 Vision, Mission, and Values 11

Vision 11 Mission 13 Values 17

1.3 The AFI Strategy Framework 19 1.4 Implications for Strategic Leaders 20

CHAPTERCASE 1 / Consider This... 21

CHAPTER 2 STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP: MANAGING THE STRATEGY PROCESS 30

CHAPTERCASE 2 Sheryl Sandberg: Leaning in at Facebook 31

2.1 Strategic Leadership 32 What Do Strategic Leaders Do? 33 How Do You Become a Strategic Leader? 33 The Strategy Process Across Levels: Corporate, Business, and Functional Managers 36

2.2 The Strategic Management Process 38 Top-Down Strategic Planning 38 Scenario Planning 39 Strategy as Planned Emergence: Top-Down and Bottom-Up 41

2.3 Stakeholders and Competitive Advantage 47 Stakeholder Strategy 48 Stakeholder Impact Analysis 50

2.4 Implications for Strategic Leaders 55

CHAPTERCASE 2 / Consider This... 56

CHAPTER 3 EXTERNAL ANALYSIS: INDUSTRY STRUCTURE, COMPETITIVE FORCES, AND STRATEGIC GROUPS 64

CHAPTERCASE 3 Airbnb: Disrupting the Hotel Industry 65

3.1 The PESTEL Framework 67 Political Factors 68 Economic Factors 68 Sociocultural Factors 70 Technological Factors 70 Ecological Factors 70 Legal Factors 72

3.2 Industry Structure and Firm Strategy: The Five Forces Model 73

Industry vs. Firm Effects In Determining Firm Performance 73 Competition In the Five Forces Model 74 The Threat of Entry 76 The Power of Suppliers 79 The Power of Buyers 80 The Threat of Substitutes 82 Rivalry Among Existing Competitors 83 A Sixth Force: The Strategic Role of Complements 88

3.3 Changes over Time: Entry Choices and Industry Dynamics 90

Entry Choices 90 Industry Dynamics 92

3.4 Performance Differences within the Same Industry: Strategic Groups 93

The Strategic Group Model 93 Mobility Barriers 95

3.5 Implications for Strategic Leaders 96

CHAPTERCASE 3 / Consider This... 97

CHAPTER 4 INTERNAL ANALYSIS: RESOURCES, CAPABILITIES, AND CORE COMPETENCIES 106

CHAPTERCASE 4 Dr. Dre’s Core Competency: Coolness Factor 107

CONTENTS

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4.1 Core Competencies 110 4.2 The Resource-Based View 113

Two Critical Assumptions 114 The Vrio Framework 115 Isolating Mechanisms: How to Sustain A Competitive Advantage 120

4.3 The Dynamic Capabilities Perspective 124 4.4 The Value Chain and Strategic Activity Systems 128

The Value Chain 128 Strategic Activity Systems 130

4.5 Implications for Strategic Leaders 133 Using Swot Analysis to Generate Insights From External and Internal Analysis 134

CHAPTERCASE 4 / Consider This... 135

CHAPTER 5 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE, FIRM PERFORMANCE, AND BUSINESS MODELS 144

CHAPTERCASE 5 The Quest for Competitive Advantage: Apple vs. Microsoft 145

5.1 Competitive Advantage and Firm Performance 146 Accounting Profitability 146 Shareholder Value Creation 153 Economic Value Creation 155 The Balanced Scorecard 161 The Triple Bottom Line 164

5.2 Business Models: Putting Strategy into Action 165 The Why, What, Who, and How of Business Models Framework 167 Popular Business Models 168 Dynamic Nature of Business Models 170

5.3 Implications for Strategic Leaders 171

CHAPTERCASE 5 / Consider This... 172

PART TWO / FORMULATION 180 CHAPTER 6 BUSINESS STRATEGY: DIFFERENTIATION, COST LEADERSHIP, AND BLUE OCEANS 182

CHAPTERCASE 6 JetBlue Airways: Finding a New Blue Ocean? 183

6.1 Business-Level Strategy: How to Compete for Advantage 185

Strategic Position 186 Generic Business Strategies 186

6.2 Differentiation Strategy: Understanding Value Drivers 188

Product Features 191 Customer Service 191 Complements 191

6.3 Cost-Leadership Strategy: Understanding Cost Drivers 192

Cost of Input Factors 194 Economies of Scale 194 Learning Curve 196 Experience Curve 199

6.4 Business-Level Strategy and the Five Forces: Benefits and Risks 201

Differentiation Strategy: Benefits and Risks 201 Cost-Leadership Strategy: Benefits and Risks 203

6.5 Blue Ocean Strategy: Combining Differentiation and Cost Leadership 204

Value Innovation 205 Blue Ocean Strategy Gone Bad: “Stuck In the Middle” 207

6.6 Implications for Strategic Leaders 210

CHAPTERCASE 6 / Consider This... 211

CHAPTER 7 BUSINESS STRATEGY: INNOVATION, ENTREPRENEURSHIP, AND PLATFORMS 218

CHAPTERCASE 7 Netflix: Disrupting the TV Industry 219

7.1 Competition Driven by Innovation 221 The Innovation Process 222

7.2 Strategic and Social Entrepreneurship 225 7.3 Innovation and the Industry Life Cycle 227

Introduction Stage 228 Growth Stage 230 Shakeout Stage 233 Maturity Stage 234 Decline Stage 234 Crossing the Chasm 235

7.4 Types of Innovation 242 Incremental vs. Radical Innovation 243 Architectural vs. Disruptive Innovation 245

7.5 Platform Strategy 249 The Platform vs. Pipeline Business Models 249 The Platform Ecosystem 250

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7.6 Implications for Strategic Leaders 254

CHAPTERCASE 7 / Consider This... 254

CHAPTER 8 CORPORATE STRATEGY: VERTICAL INTEGRATION AND DIVERSIFICATION 264

CHAPTERCASE 8 Amazon.com: To Infinity and Beyond 265

8.1 What Is Corporate Strategy? 268 Why Firms Need to Grow 268 Three Dimensions of Corporate Strategy 269

8.2 The Boundaries of the Firm 271 Firms vs. Markets: Make or Buy? 272 Alternatives on the Make-or-Buy Continuum 274

8.3 Vertical Integration along the Industry Value Chain 278

Types of Vertical Integration 279 Benefits and Risks of Vertical Integration 281 When Does Vertical Integration Make Sense? 283 Alternatives to Vertical Integration 284

8.4 Corporate Diversification: Expanding Beyond a Single Market 285

Types of Corporate Diversification 287 Leveraging Core Competencies for Corporate Diversification 291 Corporate Diversification and Firm Performance 293

8.5 Implications for Strategic Leaders 297

CHAPTERCASE 8 / Consider This... 298

CHAPTER 9 CORPORATE STRATEGY: STRATEGIC ALLIANCES, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS 308

CHAPTERCASE 9 Little Lyft Gets Big Alliance Partners 309

9.1 How Firms Achieve Growth 310 The Build-Borrow-Buy Framework 310

9.2 Strategic Alliances 313 Why Do Firms Enter Strategic Alliances? 314 Governing Strategic Alliances 317 Alliance Management Capability 320

9.3 Mergers and Acquisitions 323 Why Do Firms Merge With Competitors? 323 Why Do Firms Acquire Other Firms? 325 M&A and Competitive Advantage 327

9.4 Implications for Strategic Leaders 329

CHAPTERCASE 9 / Consider This... 330

CHAPTER 10 GLOBAL STRATEGY: COMPETING AROUND THE WORLD 338

CHAPTERCASE 10 Sweden’s IKEA: The World’s Most Profitable Retailer 339

10.1 What Is Globalization? 342 Stages of Globalization 343 State of Globalization 344

10.2 Going Global: Why? 346 Advantages of Going Global 346 Disadvantages of Going Global 350

10.3 Going Global: Where and How? 353 Where In the World to Compete? The Cage Distance Framework 353 How Do MNES Enter Foreign Markets? 357

10.4 Cost Reductions vs. Local Responsiveness: The Integration-Responsiveness Framework 358

International Strategy 359 Multidomestic Strategy 360 Global-Standardization Strategy 360 Transnational Strategy 361

10.5 National Competitive Advantage: World Leadership in Specific Industries 362

Porter’s Diamond Framework 364 10.6 Implications for Strategic Leaders 366

CHAPTERCASE 10 / Consider This... 367

PART THREE / IMPLEMENTATION 376 CHAPTER 11 ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN: STRUCTURE, CULTURE, AND CONTROL 378

CHAPTERCASE 11 Zappos: Of Happiness and Holacracy 379

11.1 Organizational Design and Competitive Advantage 381

Organizational Inertia: The Failure of Established Firms 382 Organizational Structure 384 Mechanistic vs. Organic Organizations 385

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11.2 Strategy and Structure 387 Simple Structure 387 Functional Structure 388 Multidivisional Structure 390 Matrix Structure 394

11.3 Organizing for Innovation 398 11.4 Organizational Culture: Values, Norms, and Artifacts 401

Where Do Organizational Cultures Come From? 403 How Does Organizational Culture Change? 404 Organizational Culture and Competitive Advantage 405

11.5 Strategic Control-and-Reward Systems 407 Input Controls 408 Output Controls 408

11.6 Implications for Strategic Leaders 409

CHAPTERCASE 11 / Consider This... 410

CHAPTER 12 CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND BUSINESS ETHICS 418

CHAPTERCASE 12 Uber: Most Ethically Challenged Tech Company? 419

12.1 The Shared Value Creation Framework 421 Public Stock Companies and Shareholder Capitalism 421 Creating Shared Value 423

12.2 Corporate Governance 425 Agency Theory 426 The Board of Directors 428 Other Governance Mechanisms 430

12.3 Strategy and Business Ethics 433 Bad Apples vs. Bad Barrels 434

12.4 Implications for Strategic Leaders 437

CHAPTERCASE 12 / Consider This... 438

PART FOUR / MINICASES 447

PART FIVE / FULL-LENGTH CASES All available through McGraw-Hill Create, www.McGrawHillCreate.com/Rothaermel

Company Index 539 Name Index 545 Subject Index 547

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Frank T. Rothaermel Georgia Institute of Technology

FRANK T. ROTHAERMEL (PH.D.) is a Professor of Strategy & Innovation, holds the Russell and Nancy McDonough Chair in the Scheller College of Business at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), and is an Alfred P. Sloan Industry Stud- ies Fellow. He received a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER award, which “is a Foundation-wide activity that offers the National Science Founda- tion’s most prestigious awards in support of . . . those teacher-scholars who most effectively integrate research and education” (NSF CAREER Award description).

Frank’s research interests lie in the areas of strategy, innovation, and entre- preneurship. Frank has published over 30 articles in leading academic journals such as the Strategic Management Journal, Organization Science, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, and elsewhere. Based on having published papers in the top 1 percent based on citations, Thomson Reuters identified Frank as one of the “world’s most influential scientific minds.” He is listed among the top-100 scholars based on impact over more than a decade in both economics and business. Bloomberg Businessweek named Frank one of Georgia Tech’s Prominent Faculty in its national survey of business schools. The Kauffman Foundation views Frank as one of the world’s 75 thought leaders in entrepreneurship and innovation.

Frank has received several recognitions for his research, including the Sloan Industry Studies Best Paper Award, the Academy of Management Newman Award, the Strategic Management Society Conference Best Paper Prize, the DRUID Conference Best Paper Award, the Israel Strategy Conference Best Paper Prize, and is the inaugural recipient of the Byars Faculty Excellence Award. Frank currently serves (or served) on the editorial boards of the Strategic Man- agement Journal, Organization Science, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Manage- ment Review, and Strategic Organization.

Frank regularly translates his research findings for wider audiences in articles in the MIT Sloan Management Review, The Wall Street Journal, Forbes, and elsewhere. To inform his research Frank has conducted extensive field work and executive training with leading corporations such as Amgen, Daimler, Eli Lilly, Equifax, GE Energy, GE Healthcare, Hyundai Heavy Industries (South Korea), Kimberly-Clark, Microsoft, McKesson, NCR, Turner (TBS), UPS, among others.

Frank has a wide range of executive education experience, including teaching in programs at GE Management Development Institute (Crotonville, NY), Georgia Institute of Technology, George- town University, ICN Business School (France), Politecnico di Milano (Italy), St. Gallen University (Switzerland), and the University of Washington. He received numerous teaching awards for excel- lence in the classroom including the GT-wide Georgia Power Professor of Excellence award.

When launched in 2012, Frank’s Strategic Management text received the McGraw-Hill 1st Edition of the Year Award in Business & Economics. His Strategic Management text has been translated into Mandarin, Korean, and Greek. Several of his case studies are Most Popular among the cases distributed by Harvard Business Publishing.

Frank held visiting professorships at the EBS University of Business and Law (Germany), Singapore Management University (Tommie Goh Professorship), and the University of St. Gallen (Switzerland). He is a member of the Academy of Management and the Strategic Management Society.

Frank holds a PhD degree in strategic management from the University of Washington; an MBA from the Marriott School of Management at Brigham Young University; and is Diplom-Volkswirt (M.Sc. equivalent) in economics from the University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany. Frank completed training in the case teaching method at the Harvard Business School.

VISIT THE AUTHOR AT: http://ftrStrategy.com/

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

©Tony Benner

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PREFACE

The market for strategy texts can be broadly separated into two overarching categories: traditional, application-based and research-based. Traditional, application-based strategy books represent the first-generation texts with first editions published in the 1980s. The research-based strategy books represent the second-generation texts with first editions published in the 1990s. I wrote this book to address a needed new category—a third generation of strategy text that combines into one the student-accessible, application- oriented frameworks of the first-generation texts with the research-based frameworks of the second-generation texts.

The market response to this unique approach to teaching and studying strategy was overwhelmingly enthusiastic. Enthusiasm and support increased with each subsequent edi- tion. I’m truly grateful for the sustained support.

To facilitate an enjoyable and refreshing reading experience that enhances student learning and retention, I synthesize and integrate strategy frameworks, empirical research, and practical applications with current real-world examples. This approach and emphasis on real-world examples offers students a learning experience that uniquely combines rigor and relevance. As Dr. John Media of the University of Washington’s School of Medicine and life long researcher on how the mind organizes information explains:

How does one communicate meaning in such a fashion that learning is improved? A simple trick involves the liberal use of relevant real-world examples, thus peppering main learning points with meaningful experiences. . . . Numerous studies show this works. . . . The greater the number of examples . . . the more likely the students were to remember the informa- tion. It’s best to use real-world situations familiar to the learner. . . . Examples work because they take advantage of the brain’s natural predilection for pattern matching. Information is more readily processed if it can be immediately associated with information already present in the brain. We compare the two inputs, looking for similarities and differences as we encode the new information. Providing examples is the cognitive equivalent of adding more handles to the door. [The more handles one creates at the moment of learning, the more likely the information can be accessed at a later date.] Providing examples makes the information more elaborative, more complex, better encoded, and therefore better learned.*

Strategic Management brings conceptual frameworks to life via examples that cover products and services from companies with which students are familiar, such as Facebook, Google, Tesla, Starbucks, Apple, McDonald’s, Disney, Airbnb, and Uber. Liberal use of such examples aids in making strategy relevant to students’ lives and helps them internal- ize strategy concepts and frameworks. Integrating current examples with modern strategy thinking, I prepare students with the foundation they need to understand how companies gain and sustain competitive advantage. I also develop students’ skills to become success- ful leaders capable of making well-reasoned strategic decisions in a globalized and turbu- lent 21st century.

I’m pleased to introduce the new 4th edition of Strategic Management. My distinctive approach to teaching and transmitting strategy not only offers students a unique learning experience that combines theory and practice, but also provides tight linkages between concepts and cases. In this new 4th edition, I build upon the unique strengths of this prod- uct, and continue to add improvements based upon hundreds of insightful reviews and

*Source: Medina, J. (2014), Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School (pp. 139–140). (Seattle: Pear Press).

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important feedback from professors, students, and working professionals. The hallmark features of this text continue to be:

■ Student engagement via practical and relevant application of strategy concepts using a holistic Analysis, Formulation, and Implementation (AFI) Strategy Framework.

■ Synthesis and integration of empirical research and practical applications combined with relevant strategy material to focus on “What is important?” for the student and “Why is it important?”

■ Emphasis on diversity by featuring a wide range of strategic leaders from different backgrounds and fields, not just in business, but also in entertainment, professional sports, and so forth.

■ Coverage of an array of firms, including for-profit public (Fortune 100) companies, but also private companies (including startups) as well as non profit organizations. All of them need a good strategy!

■ Global perspective, with a focus on competing around the world, featuring many lead- ing companies from Asia, Europe, and Latin America, as well as the United States. I was fortunate to study, live, and work across the globe, and I attempt to bring this cosmopolitan perspective to bear in this text.

■ Direct personal applications of strategy concepts to careers and lives to help internal- ize the content (including the popular myStrategy modules at the end of each chapter).

■ Industry-leading digital delivery option (Create), adaptive learning system (Smart- Book), and online assignment and assessment system (Connect).

■ Standalone module on How to Conduct a Case Analysis. ■ High-quality Cases, well integrated with text chapters and standardized, high-quality

teaching notes; there are two types of cases that come with this text: ■ 12 ChapterCases begin and end each chapter, framing the chapter topic

and content. ■ 22 MiniCases (Part 4 of the book), all based on original research, provide

dynamic opportunities for students to apply strategy concepts by assigning them as add-ons to chapters, either as individual assignments or as group work, or by using them for class discussion.

I have taken great pride in authoring all 12 ChapterCases, Strategy Highlights (2 per chapter, for a total of 24), and 22 MiniCases. This additional touch allows quality control and ensures that chapter content and cases use one voice and are closely interconnected. Both types of case materials come with sets of questions to stimulate class discussion or provide guidance for written assignments. The instructor resources offer sample answers that apply chapter content to the cases.

In addition to these in-text cases, 23 full-length Cases, with 20 of them (that is almost 90 percent!) authored or co-authored by me specifically to accompany this textbook, are available through McGraw-Hill’s custom-publishing Create program (www.McGrawHill- Create.com/Rothaermel). Full-length cases NEW to the 4th edition are:

∙ Uber ∙ Netflix ∙ Starbucks ∙ Disney ∙ Walmart ∙ SpaceX

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xvi PREFACE

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Popular cases about Apple, Amazon, Facebook, McDonald’s, Tesla, and Best Buy among several others are significantly updated and revised. Robust and structurally updated case teaching notes are also available and accessible through Create; financial data for these cases may be accessed from the Instructor Resource Center in the Connect Library.

What’s New in the 4th Edition? I have revised and updated the 4th edition in the following ways, many of which were inspired by conversations and feedback from the many …