English assignment


Running head: Annotated Bibliography 1

Annotated Bibliography 7

Sample Annotated Bibliography

Census, U. (2016, July 1). Mississippi Quick Facts. Retrieved February 10, 2018, from


This page covers the Census information gathered from Mississippi from the years 2012-2016. Specifically looking at the poverty information and the household income. Mississippi is one of the poorest states in the Union. Median household income is below the national average and this state is one of three below that line in earnings per household. Poverty is at 20.8%, and 13.9% of people under the age of 65 does not have health insurance. These factors affect the quality of life among the parents and students in need in Mississippi.

How Does Poverty Affect Education? | LSU Online. (2017, April 10). Retrieved February 26,

2018, from


This is an article written by LSU that focuses on the effects that poverty has on education. The article touched on four topics which were: Physical readiness, social-emotional readiness, cognitive readiness and funding for education. The article stated that children come to school everyday unprepared to have a successful day. The children in the area that we are looking forward to servicing these backpacks to live in a very low income area. These children are probably suffering from other issues and these backpacks can mean a lot to them. This document is important to our research because it shows some of the different effects of poverty that the children can be suffering from. We can use the information in this document and implement healthy eating pamphlets for the family, stress relief tips, and anything that can be helpful to the parent or child.

Engle, P. L., & Black, M. (2008). The Effect of Poverty on Child Development and Educational

Outcomes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 243-256. Retrieved April 9, 2018, from https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1196/annals.1425.023.

Dr. Patrice Lee Engle was a leading researcher in early child development. Engle studied psychology at Wellesley College and completed a PhD in child development and psychology at Stanford University. Her goals were to ensure that child development programs were based on scientific evidence, were evaluated rigorously, and were a central component of efforts to ensure the health, development, and well being of children. Alongside Dr. Maureen M. Black, the two doctors write an article that examines the effects of poverty on a child’s development and educational outcomes both directly and indirectly. The article dives into the impact of poverty and the interventions to influence the readiness of children in school, both in the United States and in developing countries. Taking in consideration that these two doctors have extensive background and experience in the study of psychology and child development, this article is quite reliable with credited information and research.

Jack, L., PhD. (2007). Thinking Aloud About Poverty and Health in Rural

Mississippi. Preventing Chronic Disease, 4(3). Retrieved February 22, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1955420/

In this article, retrieved within the US National Library of Medicine database, Dr. Leonard Jack’s experimental research elaborates on how poverty and health status are interrelated. Dr. Leonard Jack, Jr. is an accredited and reliable source for data. He has over 14 years of experience working for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and has served terms as Associate Dean for 2 universities. Dr. Jack delivers a detailed, analytical research article on the reasons behind poverty and his presumed resolutions. His experience allows for a clear understanding of the issue and its consequences. Although Dr. Jack seems to be speaking to an audience of public health professionals, most of his research can be understood by many individuals, including higher education students. His examination of the consequences of poverty compels readers to take a harder and more skeptical look on one’s ability to contribute to minimizing the consequences of poverty.

Matan, R., & Hartnett, B. (2011). How Nonprofit Organizations Manage Risk. Retrieved

February 26, 2018, from https://sobelcollc.com/sites/default/files/Summer%202011%20nfp%20white%20papers.pdf

This article gives an overview of possible risk that you may face while asking for donations. This article states different ways people may go about soliciting funds and different factors to keep in mind depending on where you live. Some of the risk are Operational Risk, Strategy risk, Fraud Risk, Market Risk, Compliance/ Regulatory, legal risk, environment risk, and management. It also gave some valuable advice on why it's good to have risk assessments to see the risk factor for each category. These risk factors are the standards used to identify the impact of and the likelihood of this coming to pass. Some of the risk factors are complexity of the process. Complexity process is measured as high, moderate, or simple Volatilely of the process. Volatility process shows the difficulty level of the process. Materiality of the process determines the material and organization. Lastly, Volume is what the organization must on how many units that you will need to do this book bag donation and other budgeting measures. The guide also shows an outline of different of how the process should go from introduction all the way to conclusion which I find very helpful.

Mossien, K. (2007). 7 Ways to Get Free School Supplies. Retrieved February 26, 2018, from


This article is about how to possibly be a way to get free school supplies. It spoke about how much parents usually end up paying so much for school supplies once all the expenses are added together which could be more or less than $600.00. That is quit a lot of money for one child let alone if you have more than one. That is the reason why my group found it would be very effective if we can find ways to donate. The first step that is said to inquire if the child school had a special supply list or if the teacher shops at resource center for their supplies. Second, try and organize a school supplies drive in the community or some major corporations. Third, try joining an online group to see if you can get in contact with regular non-profit groups to get the donations. Fourth, Utilize the community for donation of other funds. Fifth, seek out backpack programs that specialize in this, like school on wheels and school ready for any additional assistance. Sixth, go online to sites like craigslist that give away free items all the time. Seventh, check with the school district to seek help for extra funding.

Nave, R. (2017, September 17). Mississippi Still Has Worst Poverty, Household Income.

Retrieved February 10, 2018, from

https://mississippitoday.org/2017/09/14/mississippi-still-worst-poverty-household- income-u-s/

This article analyzes the information gathered by the United States Census as it relates to the state of Mississippi. The article highlights the area of concern in Mississippi as the 3-year average from 2014-2016 the state poverty percentage was 20.8%. The article also informs on the average household income which is one of the lowest in the nation. They also point out the percentage of citizens without health insurance. These are contributing factors that affect the youth in Mississippi.

Report ranks state schools' performance 51st in the nation. (2014, January 9). Retrieved February

12, 2018, from


This article explains in a surprisingly non-biased view that Mississippi is ranked in the lowest ten states, “in providing young people a chance for success in life, financing schools, and improving teaching (Mississippi Business Journal). The article also highlights Mississippi’s high poverty rates and because of this high poverty rate, it is a challenge for their schools. Mississippi spends 3.6 percent of its taxable resources. This percentage is about what the national average spends on education, however, due to their significant poverty it does not compare to other states. Finally, the article supports our group efforts to locate a school that is in significant need of support for school supplies. Our backpack initiative will assist a rural elementary school in the Moss County District of Mississippi.

School Ready Supplies. (n.d.). Retrieved February, 2018, from


Kids in Need Foundation is a Charity that was founded in 1995. This charity offers a wide array of programs which include: National Network of Resource Centers (disburse school supplies to kids who would go without), Second Responder (provides school supplies to those who were affected by disasters), School Ready Supplies (backpacks filled with essential school supplies), and Teacher Supply Boxes (provides teachers with $500 worth of essential supplies). The program that best benefits this research is the School Ready Supplies. This section of the website focused on what that program offers and how they work. It tells how they get the funding for their backpacks, the steps that they go through to ensure that people will donate to their cause, and how they go about sponsorships. This website also leads to where one can learn more about their backpacks and even hosting and event. When opened the link gives beneficial information about the school supplies that are in the backpack. That is very useful and important for our research because it gives us an idea of the items we can have in our backpacks as well as a budget.

Walck, L. (2017, October 19). Shakeup in accountability scores as two top Coast school districts

slip to a B. Retrieved February 17, 2018, from http://www.sunherald.com/news/local/education/article179721511.html

Walck writes of the ambitious efforts of the Mississippi school system to customize standard their standardized testing. The school system has made an effort to show consistency with their scoring.  This still puts the school at the lower end of standardized testing results with comparison of the fifty-one states; however, they were able to move up a notch to number forty-nine. Moss Point ranked lowest among the district.  The concern is the distribution of wealth in Mississippi.  All states struggle with this concern, however, Mississippi has not successfully developed a system that would assist with this gap as other states have done in the past. This article solidifies our motivation to bring a “Good Start Backpacks” program to Moss County Mississippi and in particular Moss Point Kreole Primary School.

Willen, L. (2012, July 27). Mississippi Learning: Why the State's Students Start Behind — and

Stay Behind. Retrieved February 28, 2018, from http://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,2120539,00.html

In this Time article, written by Liz Willen; starts off focusing on a boy name Akeelon Lewis. The author focuses on Akeelon because he is an examples of how many Mississippi’s children are lack school readiness. In the article it states, “Akeeleon Lewis will head to kindergarten for the second time. He started school last fall not knowing his colors or numbers” (Willen, 2012). The article then shifts to some of Mississippi’s educational history by helping understand where this achievement gap may have started. It says in the article that even though when kindergarten was established statewide, attendance was not made rule until the first grade. It goes on how funding pre-kindergarten is important for the state because it helps children to become ready when entering kindergarten and it prevents students repeating grades which can cost the state a lot of money.

Mississippi Ranks No. 3 Among U.S. States for Disability Equality. (n.d.). Retrieved February

28, 2018, from https://www.usnews.com/news/best-states/mississippi

In this website, it shows statistics of the state of Mississippi. It shows where Mississippi ranks in: healthcare, education, economy, opportunity, infrastructure, crime and corrections, fiscal stability, and quality of life. Throughout this website it breaks down the details of each rankings. The overall state ranking, Mississippi got a 49/50.

Board, S. T. (2015, July 31). School supplies are an important safety net for students. Retrieved

April 09, 2018, from


In Seattle, nonprofits like YWCA Seattle King Snohomish serves thousands of children on different levels of trauma. YWCA has reported about 1,800 students are in need of assistance for school supplies. Many of these people are children of color who are receiving assistance; amongst them are teen parents and homeless children. YWCA has noticed that homeless children are having to repeat a grade because miss too much school and are not school ready. Some children who are homeless are embarrassed of their situation that they don’t want to go to school. YWCA and other organizations find it important that “giving them the tools to learn is so important for setting a tone for the entire year.”