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Descriptive Text Transcript of the Citing Sources Quick Guide: Citing References in Text

7 slides | 5 minutes, 34 seconds total

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Slide 1: Welcome | 0 minutes, 4 seconds

Citing Sources Quick Guide: Citing References in Text

Learn how to cite references in the text, including how to

· implement the basic formats,

· cite multiple works,

· achieve clarity, and

· format references with missing information.

Slide 2: Overview | 0 minutes, 50 seconds

{DIAGRAM: A sample document page that includes citations in the text}

References in your manuscript are cited in text in the author–date format and are listed alphabetically in the reference list at the end of your manuscript. This style of citation briefly identifies the source and enables readers to locate the source in your reference list.

· Cite each source you have used in both the text and the reference list. Personal communications are cited in text only.

{TEXT ILLUSTRATION: Examples of citing a source in text and some reference list entries, highlighting the in-text citation and its corresponding reference list entry}

It is important to follow guidelines on

· basic formatting,

· citing multiple works,

· clarifying in-text citations, and

· citing works with no author and no date.

Academic Writer includes an in-text citation tool to help you accurately cite references in APA Style.

Let’s go through each of these one by one.

Slide 3: Basic Formatting | 1 minute, 32 seconds

First, basic formatting.

· An author–date citation can be formatted in two ways.

· Provide both author and date in parentheses, separated by a comma, which is called a parenthetical citation.

{TEXT ILLUSTRATION: Example of a parenthetical citation, highlighting the author and year in parentheses}

Early onset results in a more persistent and severe course (Kessler, 2003).

· Mention the author in the narrative followed by the date in parentheses, which is called a nonparenthetical or narrative citation.

{TEXT ILLUSTRATION: Example of a narrative citation, highlighting the author outside the parentheses and year in the parentheses}

Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological samples . . .

· If the citation includes a direct quotation, also include the page number or page range of the quoted material.

{TEXT ILLUSTRATION: Example citation of a direct quotation, highlighting the page number}

Research indicates that the incidence of major depression is higher in women than men “because of the higher risk of first onset, not because of differential persistence or recurrence” (Kessler, 2003, p. 5).

· For sources with one or two authors, always include all names.

· When there are three to five authors, include all the names the first time you cite the source. For all subsequent citations, list the first author’s name plus the abbreviation “et al.,” which stands for “and others.”

· For six or more authors, abbreviate to the first author’s name plus “et al.,” even on the first citation.

· For group authors, spell out the full group name when citing the source. If the group has a well-known acronym and you are citing works by that author multiple times, provide the acronym in parentheses or brackets after the first use in text; use the acronym consistently in the rest of your paper.

For sources with multiple authors, use an ampersand before the final author’s name in a parenthetical citation. Spell out the word “and” before the final author’s name in a nonparenthetical citation.

Number of authors

Parenthetical format

Nonparenthetical format

One author

(Kessler, 2003)

Kessler (2003)

Two authors

(Miller & Watson, 2012)

Miller and Watson (2012)

Three to five authors

First citation

Subsequent citation(s)

(Parker, Smith, & Li, 1997)

(Parker et al., 1997)

Parker, Smith, and Li (1997)

Parker et al. (1997)

Six or more authors

(Fernandez et al., 2000)

Fernandez et al. (2000)

Group author with acronym

First citation

Subsequent citation(s)

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003)

(NIMH, 2003)

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003)

NIMH (2003)

Group author without acronym

(University of Texas at Austin, 2010)

University of Texas at Austin (2010)

Slide 4: Citing Multiple Works | 0 minutes, 51 seconds

Second, citing multiple works.

To cite multiple works in parentheses, list them alphabetically, in the same order in which they appear in the reference list, separated by semicolons.

{TEXT ILLUSTRATION: Example of citing multiple works, highlighting the authors, years, and the semicolons between sources}

Several studies (e.g., Franklin & Combs, 2012; Michigan State University, 2010; Miller, Rodriguez, & Shafer-Brown, 2009; “Study Finds,” 2007) have demonstrated the importance of this matter.

To cite multiple works by the same author, list the dates in chronological order after the author’s name, separated by commas. Citations with no date precede citations with dates. Place in-press citations last.

{TEXT ILLUSTRATION: Example of citing multiple works by the same author, highlighting the years of publication and the commas between them, as well as the words “in press”}

A number of guidelines address this issue (American Psychological Association [APA], 2003, 2005, 2006; Greene et al., n.d., 2007). Furthermore, Smith’s (2012, in press) research lends further insight.

When citing the same source multiple times in a paragraph, include the date in parentheses for the first narrative citation. If you mention the source in the narrative again in that paragraph and the citation cannot be confused with another citation by the same author, omit the year. Always include the year for parenthetical citations.

{TEXT ILLUSTRATION: Example of citing a source multiple times, highlighting the author and year, if needed}

Among epidemiological samples, Kessler (2003) found that early onset social anxiety disorder results in a more potent and severe course. Kessler also found . . . The study also showed a high rate of comorbidity with alcohol abuse or dependence and major depression (Kessler, 2003).

Slide 5: Clarifying In-Text Citations | 1 minute, 8 seconds

{ILLUSTRATION: A wooden box with different shaped holes to fit matching plastic blocks}

Third, clarity.

Make sure each in-text citation refers to only one reference list entry.

If two or more different first authors have the same surname, include their initials in every text citation.

{TEXT ILLUSTRATION: Example of two in-text citations in which the authors have the same surname, highlighting the surname and the addition of their initials}

H. R. Wakefield (2003) stated that . . . Other researchers disagree (e.g., P. Wakefield, 2001).

If multiple references with four or more authors shorten to the same form, list as many authors as necessary to distinguish them, followed by a comma and “et al.” If only one author would be represented by the abbreviation “et al.” (as in the case of a reference with three authors), then write out all author names instead.

{TEXT ILLUSTRATION: Examples of references that cannot be abbreviated because they would abbreviate to the same format; the incorrect abbreviated format is shown after the arrow}

Smith, Alvarez, Chomsky, and O’Malley (2008) → Smith et al. (2008)

Smith, Jones, Chang, and Miller (2008) → Smith et al. (2008)

{TEXT ILLUSTRATION: Examples of references in which author names must be spelled out to avoid confusion; the correct abbreviated format is shown after the arrow}

Smith, Alvarez, Chomsky, and O’Malley (2008) → Smith, Alvarez, et al. (2008)

Smith, Jones, Chang, and Miller (2008) → Smith, Jones, et al. (2008)

Smith, Williams, and Gray (2008) → Smith, Williams, and Gray (2008)

If multiple references have identical author lists and dates, differentiate them by putting lowercase letters after the year in both the in-text citation and the reference list entry. Order them in the reference list alphabetically by the source’s title, ignoring the words “A,” “An,” and “The.” For in-press works and works with no date, insert a hyphen between “in press” or “n.d.” and the added letter.

{TEXT ILLUSTRATION: Example of multiple references with identical authors and dates, highlighting the addition of lowercase letters after the date}

Training materials are available (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2009a, 2009b; University of Virginia, n.d.-a, n.d.-b).

Slide 6: No Author or Page Number | 0 minutes, 52 seconds

Finally, citing references with no author or page numbers.

If a work is actually signed “Anonymous,” then list “Anonymous” as the author.

{TEXT ILLUSTRATION: Example citation highlighting “Anonymous” as the author}

(Anonymous, 2007)

Otherwise, if no author is listed, cite the first few words of the title instead.

· Use double quotation marks around the title or shortened title of an article, chapter, or web page.

{TEXT ILLUSTRATION: Example citation using the title of an article, chapter, or web page in place of the author, highlighting the quotation marks}

(“Study Finds,” 2007).

· Italicize the title of a periodical, book, brochure, or report.

{TEXT ILLUSTRATION: Example citation using the title of a periodical, book, brochure, or report in place of the author, highlighting the italicized title}

the book College Bound Seniors (2008)

For a source with no page numbers, use a paragraph number, a section name and paragraph number, or a heading and paragraph number to identify the location of the quoted material. When no page or paragraph numbers are visible, headings may be too unwieldy to cite in full. Instead, use a short title enclosed in quotation marks for the parenthetical citation.

{TEXT ILLUSTRATION: Example citation of a direct quotation without page numbers, highlighting the short title in quotation marks and paragraph number}

“Empirical studies have found mixed results on the efficacy of labels in educating consumers and changing consumption behavior” (Golan, Kuchler, & Krissof, 2007, “Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted,” para. 4).

Full heading: “Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted Information Gaps and Social Objectives.”

Slide 7: Review | 0 minutes, 17 seconds

APA Style Citing Sources: Citing References in Text

Following these guidelines will ensure that you are citing references in text clearly and accurately in APA Style.

· Cite references in text by providing the author and the date of the cited work.

· Make sure each in-text citation refers to only one reference list entry so that your readers have a clear path to the source.

· With few exceptions, such as personal communications, every source that you cite in the text should be included in the reference list and vice versa.

· Use the author–date format in your in-text citation, which can be formatted two ways:

· Provide both author and date in parentheses, separated by a comma (a parenthetical citation).

· Mention the author in the narrative followed by the date in parentheses (a nonparenthetical or narrative citation).

· If the citation includes a direct quotation, include the page number or page range of the quoted material.

· For a source with no page numbers, use a paragraph number, a section name and paragraph number, or a heading and paragraph number to identify the location of the quoted material. In some cases, in which no page or paragraph numbers are visible, headings may be too unwieldy to cite in full. Instead, use a short title enclosed in quotation marks for the parenthetical citation.

· Check your references frequently throughout the writing process to ensure the citations are accurate and complete.

Type of citation

First citation in text

Subsequent citations in text

Parenthetical format, first citation in text

Parenthetical format, subsequent citations in text

One work by one author

Walker (2007)

Walker (2007)

(Walker, 2007)

(Walker, 2007)

One work by two authors

Walker and Allen (2004)

Walker and Allen (2004)

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

One work by three authors

Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (1999)

Bradley et al. (1999)

(Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999)

(Bradley et al., 1999)

One work by four authors

Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, and Walsh (2006)

Bradley et al. (2006)

(Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2006)

(Bradley et al., 2006)

One work by five authors

Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (2008)

Walker et al. (2008)

(Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 2008)

(Walker et al., 2008)

One work by six or more authors

Wasserstein et al. (2005)

Wasserstein et al. (2005)

(Wasserstein et al.,2005)

(Wasserstein et al., 2005)

Groups (readily identified through abbreviation) as authors

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003)

NIMH (2003)

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003)

(NIMH, 2003)

Groups (no abbreviation) as authors

University of Pittsburgh (2005)

University of Pittsburgh (2005)

(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)

(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)

To learn more, please refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., §§ 6.11–6.21).

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