English Class 5 Page Research Paper

Running Head: SOCIOLOGY 1

SOCIOLOGY 7

Research on sociological perspective of racism, cultural beliefs, socialization, and ethnicity

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Background information

The study concerning sociological perspective of racism, cultural beliefs, socialization, and ethnicity cuts across different societies for many months. The main subjects of this study were the societal perspective, cultures, ethnicity and racism, and socialization. The study involved different sociologists as researchers with an objective of learning different sociology concepts. Every society is bound by its cultures which are agreed by it and applicable to all members of that society. A breach of any cultural belief is regarded unethical and depending on the given societal culture, may attract punishment. Racism is one of the elements that almost all the societies considers unethical. The essay, Racism and Research: The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study” by Allan M. Brandt found in Readings for Sociology, edited by G. Massey is among the articles which are actually advocating for anti-racism in the society. This paper seeks to explore on the cultural content if this book and other sources having similar content. The objective of this paper is to explore on the cultural chapters presented in this book including sociological perspective of racism, culture and cultural beliefs, socialization and ethnicity. By the end of this paper, the reader will have become able to actualize the theoretical content provided by various sources.

Introduction

This essay seeks to evaluate the cultural concepts presented by different sources whose research or study are aligned to the society where they represent. There are various sources whose objective is to reflect the societal beliefs in a way or another using different contexts such as religion, hospitals, and political ones. Many chapters regarding societal cultures such as sociological perspective, culture, socialization, racism, and deviance are used in exploration of different beliefs by different societies. This essay also seeks to evaluate the content of various sources regarding sociology and the manner in which different societies takes their content. Also, the applicability of different concepts in the society are explored. The main objective here is to explore on the sociological concepts and how various societies apply them with the aim of improving their ethicality.

The ethicality in this research

This research was ethical in the sense that it does not contravene any ethical standard while undertaking the study. Despite of undertaking a serious ethical cause, syphilis, the researchers are conscience about not being ethically gross. All the other aspects contained in the research are in accordance with the laid standards. Social perspectives are so wide to explore. Hence, different views are collected and analyzed while comparing those perspectives with different societal views. The aim of allowing this study to continue is to explore all the possible sociological perspectives in different contexts.

The evaluation of sociological perspective of racism, cultural beliefs, socialization, and ethnicity

The sociological perspective refers to the perspective that the society has on the behavior of human being and how such behavior is connected to the whole society. This concept has been used by Ferris and Stein to make an invitation for people to look at how the behavior of an individual and the structure of the society where they are living is connected (Ferris & Stein, 2016). Typically, people take the society as natural and that it is set up by nature. They don’t bother to know how society affect the people living in it. Therefore, the sociological perspective helps us to have an understanding of the importance of the society to us especially in shaping our lives.

Research shows that there are three major perspectives of sociology namely, symbolism interactionism, functionalism and conflict theory perspectives (Ferris & Stein, 2016). While applying the symbolic interactionist perspective, Ferris and Stein makes a consideration of the symbols and details that present the human behavior. The meaning of such symbols and the interaction between people are explored using this sociological perspective. The relationship that some parts of the society has with other parts and how different societal aspects are functional are explored using the functionalism theory. On the other hand, the society being large with many resources poses different conflicts which are explored using conflict theory perspective as given by Ferris and Stein. This perspective also explores on how elite control the poor and those who are weak.

Ferris and Stein (2016) states culture as a society value including things such as language, standards defining beauty, dressing style, food and music the people play. According to their essay, Ferris and Stein (2016) emphasizes the learnability of culture and the fact that it is passed from one generation to another using communication and not through genetic means. In an endeavor to further explore on culture, Ferris and Stein defines ethnocentrism as occurring when people apply their culture to make an evaluation of another group of people (Ferris & Stein, 2016). This action makes people to consider that their culture is the only normal one. Cultural relativism has also be defined in the book as the process where people or individual understands other’s culture by applying their own terms rather using the owner’s to render judgment. Culture is broad and for this reason, Ferris and Stein have divided them as material culture and symbolic culture (Ferris & Stein, 2016). The latter refers to the physical items that are associated with the culture while the former category has been used to refer to the manner in which people think.

Socialization has been defined as a method through which people are enlightened on how to become proficient in their society (Massey, 2015). Ferris and Stein have used this chapter to describe how people can understand the societal norms and what they expect from the society. Socialization can be termed as a process of sociology that caused by socializing (Ferris & Stein, 2016). According to the sociologists, the basic human activities are learnt through others. These authors have also used this main concept to present the theories of self-development including the psychological perspective, sociological theories, and Kohlberg’s.

Various sociologists view race and ethnicity as social constructions. This is due to the fact that race is not biologically based and that the categories of race are dynamic. Ferris and Stein defines race as a social perception of people regarding their biological differences. According to them, human beings are genetically similar despite of race. On the other hand, these authors have defined ethnicity as social category considering differences in language, religion, history and other cultural factors (Massey, 2015). The distinction between these elements is significant in that ethnicity can be exposed or hidden depending on the differences of the individuals while the other element is always displayed (Ferris & Stein, 2016). For example, immigrants can learn the language in their current society and hide their actual ethnic identity while they cannot change their actual race. Ethnicity can be hidden in order to remove tension which can be alleviated by cultural differences. Ferris and Stein have discussed how ethnicity is shown in symbolic forms so as not impact everyday life in a significant way. They explain how situational ethnicity can be applied in different contexts for the sake of avoiding some of the avoidable conflicts which can ruin the ethical standards of the society.

In the same context, Ferris and Stein have defined racism as a set of beliefs regarding how a given race or ethnic group is superior over the other and can be used for the justification of inequality (Brandt, 1978). Such differences are usually rooted by a mere assumption that differences between a given race and ethnic groups are no longer of significant issue in the society. People’s relationship as per their race is seen to be dynamic though according to Ferris and Stein, racism has not been eliminated (Ferris & Stein, 2016). Also, racism has been expressed as a source of prejudice and discrimination in the society.

Conclusion

Sociological concepts have proven to be generally aligned to the issues and resolutions in the society. A breach of any cultural belief is regarded unethical and depending on the given societal culture, may attract punishment. Racism is one of the elements that almost all the societies considers unethical. This research indicates that content of various sources regarding sociology and the manner in which different societies takes them differs depending on other factors such as cultural security leading to cultural preservation. Also, the applicability of different concepts in the society have been explored. I think for different societies to have a good relationship, there is need for them to integrate different activities and cultures so as to bring them closer to one another. Also, social issues are dynamic implying that replicating this research today would help in knowing the sociological concepts that sociology has changed and get the relationship between people of different races and ethnicity in the society.

References

Brandt, A. M. (1978). Racism and Research: The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. The Hastings Center Report8(6), 21. doi:10.2307/3561468

Ferris, K., & Stein, J. (2016). The real world: An introduction to sociology. New York: W.W. Norton.

Massey, G. (2015). Readings for sociology.