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CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 2

CHAPTER 3

CONTENTS

T he Early 20th century 1 Agimtion-The Grearesr Factor for Progress Mother Jones 3 1906: Rumble over 'The Jungle' Jon Blackwell 7

Remember Ludlow! Julia May Courtney 13 Frederick Taylor-The Biggest Bascard Ever 17 Tbe War Prayer Mark Truain 25 The House-Grey Memorandum 29

World War I- New Deal Fioal Address in Support of the

League of Nations Wloodrow \Vilson

Buck Versus Bell Roosevelt's Nomination Address

The Negro and Social Change EleaMr Roosevelt War is a Racker Major General Smedley D. Bmler

World War II-Cold War

33 35

49

55 67 71

75 Radio Address Delivered b)• President Roosevelt 77 Attack on Pearl Harbor As Seen From 81

High on BarrJeship Pennsylvania ·s Mainmast The Great Arsenal of Democracy Franklin Delano Roosevelt 91 Lend Lease Act, I 94 1 10 I Lener from President RooSE"velt co Stalin on an 107

Accepcable Compromise Regarding rhe Composition of che Posrwar Polis.h Government

Scace of the Union .Message co Congress Franklin D. Roosevelt

What Does American Democracy Mean co Me? Maryi McLeod Bethune

Chief Clerk, Toolroom /,,ez Sauer The Adanric Chaner

111

121

125

129

iii

iv AMERICAN SOCIETY SINCE 19c:>o

CHAPTER 4

CHAPTER 5

CHAPTER 6

CHAPTER 7

The Cold War 133 Truman Announces Hiroshima Atomic Bombing 135 Excerpts from Telegraphic Message from 139

Moscow George Kennan Sraremeot by General Marsha.II 155 Excerprs From Acheson's Speech To The Narional Press Club 159 US, Deparrmenr of Srare, lnrelligence Reporr Prepared in rhe 161

Office of Intelligence Resear;ch, '"Agrarian Reform in Guatemala .. Radio and Television Address on Communism 173

in GuacemaJa John Foster DuJ/es CIA Reporr on Overrhrow of Mossadegh 1 n Memorandwn From the Chief of \VH/4/PM, Cencral 183

Jncelligence Agency (Hawkins) ,o the Chief of WH/4 of the Directorace for Plans (Esterline)

Cuban Missile Crisis Address co che Nation Jolm F. Kennedy 193

Civil Rights 201 Power Anywhere Where There's People Fred Hampton 203 The Civil Righcs Movement: Fraud, 213

Sham, and Hoax George C. \'Ila/lace loving ET UX. V. Virginia 229 Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports On Intelligence Activities 247

and The Righ1s of Americans

Movements Of The 60S lnrerview With Hugh Hefner Testimony Of Ahbie Hoffman. Yippie Workshop Speech Abbie Hoffma11 Address at cbe Public Memorial Service

for Roberr F. Kennedy Edward M. Kennedy FBI Files on Black Panrhers in Norrh Carolina Bob Dylan's Lener co the INS Defending

John Lennon and Yoko Ono

Sex, Women, And Family

251 253 261 289

295

299 311

313 Speech Before Congress Carrie Chapma11 Catt 315 Testimony of Professor Anita Hill Regarding Clarence 11,omas 321 The Hope Speech Harvey Milk 325 Paul Farmer oo Structural Violence, AIDS and Health Care 331 FBI File on Alfred Kinsey 347 Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Ace of 2010 355

CHAPTER 8

CHAPTER 9

Conte nts v

The Rise Of The Right: 80S-OO 359 The Meaning Of Communism 361

To Americans Vice--Presid,em Richard Ni:.:011 Ronald Reagan Address on Behalf of Senaror Barry Goldwarer 381

Renden•ous wich Desriny Presidential Nomination Acceptance Speech Ricbard M. Nixon 393 Dictatorships & Double Standards Jeane]. Kirl'Patrick 405 Honduras: Dicracorships and !Double 409

Standards Revisited Daniel Lubau aud Jim Lobe The CIA's lmervemion in Afghaoisran 413

Sarah Palin Slams Obama Again on Ayers at 415 Florida Rally Transcript Lynn Sweet

9/11-Today Sraremenc of Principles

Narrative Niloofar Mina Transcript of Obama 's Speech Opposing the Iraq War Bush Makes Hisroric Speech Aboard Warship Summary of the Mueller Report on Obstruction of Justke

423 425 427 429 433 439

CHAPTER ONE

THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

AGITATION- THE GREATEST FACTOR FOR PROGRESS

Mother Jones, (March 24, 1903)

One of l/Je most extraordinary organizers of the labor movement in the

early lluentieth teltlury was Mary Ha"is1 who took the name "Mother Jones . .. Born in Ireland, she beGt1me an .:,rganizer for the Uniud Mine

\Vorkers., and, iu her eighties, organized miners iu West Virginia and Qi/orado. fo 1905. sl,e helped form rl,e I\VW. Upton Si11dair was so

inspt'red by her that he used her as a model for one of his characu,s in his novel The Coal \Va,; wbith chronicled the Ludlow strike and massacre.

"''All over the «mntry she had roamed, and wherever she went, the flame

of protest had leaped up in the hearts of men; her story was a veritable

Odyssey of revolt.. "' Here is a selettion from an addre.ss Mother Jones gave to a mass audience i11 Toledo's Memorial Haft in 1903., as reported by the Toledo Bee. -huroduction from Zinn and Amove's Voices of a Peopltr's Hiswry of r/Je United Stares

"Mother" Jones, known throughout the country and in fact throughout the world as "The Miners' Angel," addressed a motley gathering of about 1,200 persons in Memorial hall Dast night. The lower hall was packed. The gallery was full to overflowing and some even crowded the steps leading to the building.

It was truly a motley gathering. The society woman, attracted by mere curiosity to sc-c and hear the woman who has won such fame as the guardian spirit of the miners; the factory girl, the wealthy man and his less fornmatc brothers, the black man and the white man, old and young, sat side by side and each came in for a share o f criticism.

3

4 TIIE EARLY 2. 0TH CENTURY

"Mother" Jones is an eloquent speaker. There is just enough of the down-cast accent to her words ro make it attractive and she has the fac- ulry of framing pathetic and beautiful word pictures. Despite her sixty years and hex gray hairs, she is hale and hcaxty; has a voice that reaches to the furthermost corner of almost any hall but it is nevertheless any· thing but harsh ....

"Fellow workers," she lx.-gan, "'tis wdl for us co be here. Over a hun· dred years ago men gathered to discuss the vital questions and later fought together for a principle that won for us our civil liberty. Forty years ago men gathered to discuss a growing evil under the old flag and lacer fought side by side until cbattd slavery was abolished. But, by the wiping out of this black stain upon our country another great crime-wage slavery- was fas- tened upon oux people. I stand o n this platform ashamed of the conditions existing in this country. I rdus<.'d to go to England and lecture only a few days ago Ix-cause I was ashamed, first of all, to make the conditions existing here known co the world and second, because my services were needed here. 1 have just come from a God-cursed country, known as West Virginia; from a state which has produced some of our best and brightest Statesmen; a state where conditions arc coo awful for your imagination.

" I shaU cell you some things tonight that axe awful to contemplate; but, perhaps, it is best that you to know of them. They may arouse you from your lethargy if there is any manhood, womanhood or love of country left in you. I have just come from a state which has an injunction on every other foot of ground. Some months ago the president of the United Mine Workers Uohn Mitchell] asked me co take a look into the condition of the men in the mines of West Virginia. I went. I would gee a gathering of miners in the darkness of the night up on the mountain side. Herc I would listen to cheix talc: of woe; here I would try to encourage them. I did not daxc to sleep in one of those miner's houses. If I did the poor man would be called co che office in the morning and would be discharged for sheltering old Mother Jones.

" I did my best to drive into the downtrodden men a littlt spirit, but it was a task. They had been driven so long chat they were afraid. I used co sit through the night by a stream of water. I could not go to the miners' hovels so in the morning I would call tbe ferryman and he would take me across the river to a hotel not owned by the mine operarors.

"The men in the antbracite district finally asked for more wages. They were refused. A strike was called. I stayed in West Virginia,' held meetings

4 TIIE EARLY 2. 0TH CENTURY

"Mother" Jones is an eloquent speaker. There is just enough of the down-cast accent to her words ro make it attractive and she has the fac- ulry of framing pathetic and beautiful word pictures. Despite her sixty years and hex gray hairs, she is hale and hcaxty; has a voice that reaches to the furthermost corner of almost any hall but it is nevertheless any· thing but harsh ....

"Fellow workers," she lx.-gan, "'tis wdl for us co be here. Over a hun· dred years ago men gathered to discuss the vital questions and later fought together for a principle that won for us our civil liberty. Forty years ago men gathered to discuss a growing evil under the old flag and lacer fought side by side until cbattd slavery was abolished. But, by the wiping out of this black stain upon our country another great crime-wage slavery- was fas- tened upon oux people. I stand o n this platform ashamed of the conditions existing in this country. I rdus<.'d to go to England and lecture only a few days ago Ix-cause I was ashamed, first of all, to make the conditions existing here known co the world and second, because my services were needed here. 1 have just come from a God-cursed country, known as West Virginia; from a state which has produced some of our best and brightest Statesmen; a state where conditions arc coo awful for your imagination.

" I shaU cell you some things tonight that axe awful to contemplate; but, perhaps, it is best that you to know of them. They may arouse you from your lethargy if there is any manhood, womanhood or love of country left in you. I have just come from a state which has an injunction on every other foot of ground. Some months ago the president of the United Mine Workers Uohn Mitchell] asked me co take a look into the condition of the men in the mines of West Virginia. I went. I would gee a gathering of miners in the darkness of the night up on the mountain side. Herc I would listen to cheix talc: of woe; here I would try to encourage them. I did not daxc to sleep in one of those miner's houses. If I did the poor man would be called co che office in the morning and would be discharged for sheltering old Mother Jones.

" I did my best to drive into the downtrodden men a littlt spirit, but it was a task. They had been driven so long chat they were afraid. I used co sit through the night by a stream of water. I could not go to the miners' hovels so in the morning I would call tbe ferryman and he would take me across the river to a hotel not owned by the mine operarors.

"The men in the antbracite district finally asked for more wages. They were refused. A strike was called. I stayed in West Virginia,' held meetings

6 TIIE EARL Y 2.0TH CENTURY

You'd all better put on petticoats. If you like those bullets vote to put them into your own b<)dics. Don't you think it's about rime you b,gan ro shot)t ballotS inst<ad of voting for capitalistic bullets.

" I hate your political parties, you Republicans and Democrats. I want you to deny if you can what 1 am going to say. You want an office and must necessarily get into the ring. You musr do what that ring says and if you don't you won't be elected. There you arc. Each rime you do that you are voting for a capitalistic bullet and you get it. I want you ro know that this man [Samuel Milton) Jones who is running for mayor of your b<autiful city is no relative of mine; no, sir. He belongs t<) that school of reformers who say capital and labor must join hands. He may be all right. He prays a good deal. But, I wonder if you would shake hand~ with me if 1 robbed you. He builds parks ro make his workmen contented. Bur a contented workman is no good. All prngress smps in rhc contented man. I'm for agitation. It's the greater factor for progress[.]"

Herc the Spt-a ker changed her attention to the society woman. " I sec a lot of society women in this audience, attracted here our of a mere curiosity ro sec that old Mother Jones.' I know you better than you do yourselves. I can walk down the: aisle and pick every one of you out. You probably think I am crazy bur I know you. And you society dudes-poor creatures. You wear high collars to support your jaw and keep your befuddled brains from oozing our of your mouths. While this commercial cannibalism is reaching into the cradle; pulling girls into the factory to be ruined; pulling children into the factory ro be destroyed; you, wht) arc doing all in the name of Christianity, you are at home nursing your poodle dogs. It's high time you got our and worked for humanity. Christianity will rake care of itself. I Started in a factory. I have traveled through milts and miles of factories and there is nor an inch o f ground under that flag that is not stained with the blood of children.•

1906: RUMBLE OVER 'THE JUNGLE'

Jon Blackwell

Upton Sinclair was a desperately p,o<>r, young s<>cialisthoping to remake the world when he settleddown in a tarpaper shack in Princeton Township and penned his Grca.t American Novel.

He called it "The Jungle,• filled it with page after page of nauseating detail he had researched about the me-at-packing industry, and dropped it on an astonished narion in I 906.

An instant best-seller, Sinclair's book reeked with the stink of the Chicago stockyards. He told how dead rats were shoveled into sausage- grinding machines; how bribed inspectors looked the other way when discascdcows were slaughtered for beef, and how filth and gurs were swept off the floor and packaged as "potted ham. •

In short, "The Jungle" did as much as any animal-rights activist of today co turn Americans into vegetarians~

But it did more than thaL Within months, the aroused-and gagging- public demanded sweeping reforms inthc meat industry.

President Theodore Roosevelt was sickened after reading an advance copy. He called upon Congress to pass a law establishing the Food and Drug Administration and, for the first time, setting up federal inspection Standards for meat.

Sinclair, all of 28 years old, had gone overnight from literary failure to the man wh<) rook on the mighty "becftrust"- and won. Visions of ridding America of all its capitalist evils came floating into his head.

Source: The Trenronian

7

8 TIIE EARLY 2.0TH CENTURY

"It seemed to me that the walls of the mighty fortress of greed were on the p<)inc of cracking,• he later wrote. " le nt-edcd only one rush, and then another, and another.~

Reporters flocked to the author's farmhouse at Province Line Road t<) find out: who was this skinny, smiling young man with the pale face and intense eyes?

Upton Beall Sinclair was, for all his socialise thought,the very model of the all-American kid. He grew up in New York City, the son of poor but proud parents. Barely inrohis teens, he b<.-camc a freelance~ writing boy's adventure talcs. He cvcmually pounded our 30,000 words of dime-novel drama every week, even while he attended City College of New York.

Sinclair aspired co be a great writer of serious books,but he admit- ted that all his hack work l.ed him to use too many cliches and exaggerations.

Even Sinclair's biographer, \Villiam Bloodwonh, said the overwrought Sinclair style can be too much to take.

"'It's not what I would consider great literature," said Bloodworth, the prtsidcm of Augustil State University in Georgia. "There isn't much character devc1opmcnt in his works or subtlety. What he was good at was descriptions ... of turning real-life situations into fiction."

Sinclair's first novel, "Springtime and Harvcsc,"publishcd in I 901, did not sell. Neither did his st-<:ond,third or fourth novels.

Literary society ignored him. His only child, David,nearly died of pneumonia. He grew increasingly distant from his newlywed wife, Meta, and demanded that the two practice celibac.y.

Frustrated, Sinclair wrote a "'letter co the world" with almost hysrerical self-pity: "You may sneer ... bur you will live to blush for that sneer.•

The young writer needed something to give him hope. He found it in the revolutionary doc·t:rine of socialism.

Sinclair wrote socialist propaganda and made socialist friends, among them writer Jack London and w~-althy eccentric George Herron. \Vi th the help of an a llowance from Herron, Sinclair went off to work on his latest project- a Civil War novel.

"The place selected was Princeton," Sinclair wrote, "because that university possessed the s«ond-largcsrCivil War collection in the coun- try. So in J\'1ay 1903, the migration took place and for three years and a half Princeton was home."

1906: Rumble Over 'The Junglt! " 9

Sinclair never liked Princeton. He hated the cold and the mosquitoes and the " ignorance" of his farmer neighbors. "The families . .. contained drunkards, degenerates, mental or physical ddecrivcs, sc:mi-idiots, victims of tuberculosis or venereal disease and now and thrn a pctry criminal, n he later wrote.

StiU, Sinclair was full of hope as he pitched a canvas tent on a farm on Ridge View Road and wrote his novel., "Manassas.• It was a modest success, enabling him to buy a 60-acte fa,rn of his own on Province Linc Road and move into an actual house with his wife and son.

Sinclair then read of a meat-packing strike in Chicago, and knew he had a good plot for the first great socialist novel.

For two months in 1904, Sinclair wandered the Chicago stockyards- a place he would write of as "Packingtown." He mingled with the foreign-born "wage slaves" in their tenements and heard how they'd been mistreated and ripped off. He saw for himself the sloppy practices in the packing houses and the mind-numbing, 12-hour-a-day schedule.

Theo it was back to the quictwoods of Princeton to writt "The Jungle." Sinclair hunkered dc)wn in a hand-built, 18-by-16-foot cabin and rook pen ro papcr.

"For three months I worked incessantly," Sinclair latcrsaid . "I wrote with tears and anguish, pouring into the pages all the pain that life had meant t() me. "'

"The Jungle" was the story of Jurgis R.udkus, a Lithuanian immigrant working in Packingtown.

Jurgis secs his American dream of a decent life dissolve into nightmare as his job hauling steer carcass<"S in the stockyards leaves him bone- weary and unable to support his family.

He loses bis his job when he beats up his boss, furious at discovering the cad seduced his wife; then he loses the wife to disease and his son to drowning.

But Jurgis finds rebirth upon joining che socialist movement, and the book closes with a socialist orator sh.outing: "Organize! Organize! Organize! ... CHICAGO WILL BE OURS!"

It was stirring, melodramatic stuff, but five publishers found it too politically hot to handle and rumcd the novel down. Sinclair persisted and got Doubleday topublish it in February 1906.

"The Jungle," in all its sordid dctai~ was soon acclaimed as the most revolutionary piece of fiction of the age. In London, future Prime Minister

10 THE EARLY 2.0TH CENTURY

Winston Churchill said the book "pierces the thickest skull and most leathery heart."

Mostly, however, the politicians ignored the anti-capitalist plot of the book and focused on cighr pages describing the sickening standards of meat packing.

Roosevelt sent his own agents toChicago to investigate whether meat packing was as bad as Sinclair described. The conditions were actually a hundred times worse, the agents reported back.

The president invited Sinclair to the White House and solicit<d his advice on how ro make inspections safer. By June 30, Congress had passed rhc Pure Food and Drug Act, cracking down on unsafe food and patent medicines, and the Meat Inspection Act. To this day,our hamburgers, chicken parties and other meats arc safeguarded by the same law.

Roosevelt was so rakcn with Sinclair that he coined the term "muck- rakers" to describe him and other reformist crusaders, even though the pr<-sidcnt's phrase was not meaar ro be wholly complimcnrary.

Yer Sinclair considered his triumph empty. He complained thar the tragedy of industrial life and his socialist preaching were being lost in the meat controversy.

"I aimed at the public's heart, and by accident I hir it in the stomach," he said.

Still, Sinclair was hardly done muckraking. He ran for Congress out of Mercer County on the socialist ticket that fall of 1906, finishing a distant third with 750 vorcs. He produced his own Stage version of "ThcJunglc," which premiered at Taylor Opera House in Trenton.

In the winter of I 906-07, with $30,000 in book royalties, he founded a cooperative colony at Helicon Hall on the Jersey Palisades. It drew 40 fami lies, but rhe would-be Utopia burned down rhc follow- ing March.

That was to be the panern for thercst of Sinclair's longlifc: success followed by failure. He divorced Meta and married rwice more. He wrote dozens of forgcnable novels but then won the Pulitzer Prize in I 945 for "Dragon's Teeth.•

After moving to California, he waged one of the more remarkable cam- paigns in political history in 1934, running for governor on a revolutionary Dcmocraticplatform called "End Poverty in California" or EPIC. Derided as a crank and a mystic, he still nl-arly won.

1906: Rumble Over 'The Ju11g[e • 11

Sinclair lived co be 90. In the last year of his life, in 1968, he came full circle-moving back to New Jersey to be near his son's family in Bound Brook.

Right up to his death, Sinclair would be taken in a wheelchair to talk about his life's struggles in high schools. At Bridgewater-Raritan High School, the original muckraker got one of his last tributes from a teen- aged girl. "You're cool, Mr. Sinclair," she told him.

REMEMBER LUDLOW! Julia May Courmey, May 1914

"REl'.ffi"1BER LUDLOW" the battle cry of the crushed, downtrodden, despised miners stifled at Calumet, in \Vest Virginia, in Cripple Creek, has echoed from coal camp tO coal camp in southern Colorado, and has served again to notify the world that Labor will not down.

Peaceful Colorado, slumbering in her eternal sunshine, has been rudely awakened. And her comfortable citizens, tremendously busy with their infinitely important little affairs, have been shocked into a mental state wavering between terror and hysteria. And the terrified and hys- terical community, like the individual, has grabbed for safety at the nearest straw. The federal troops are called ro the strike zone in the vain hope that their presence would intimidate the striking miners int<) sub- mission, and the first spasm of the acute attack has subsided_ But the end is nor ycr.

In September the coal miners in the southern Colorado district went out on strike. Immediately the word went forth from No. 26 Broadway, the Rockefeller headquarters in New York City, and the thugs and gun- men of the Felts-Baldwin agency were shipped from the Virginia and Texas fields and sent by hundreds, inro the coal camps. With their wives and children the miners were evicted from their huts on the company's ground, and just as the heavy winter of the mountains settled down, the strikers put up their tents and prepared for the long siege. It was then that the puerile, weak-kneed Governor [Elias] Ammons, fawning on the representatives of the coal e<)mpanies, at ~he request of the Colorado Fuel and lzon Co., called our the militia co "keep order."

And the climax came when the first spring winds blew over the hiUs and the snows melted from the mountain sides. On the 20th of April the

13

14 THE EARLY 2.0TH CENTURY

cry was heard " Remember Ludlow!"- thc battle cry that every working- man in Colorado and in America will not forget. for on that day the men of the tent colony were shot in the back by soft-nosed bullets, and their women and children were offered in burning sacrifice on the field of Ludlow.

The militia had trained the machine guns on the miners' tent colony. At a ball game on Sunday between two teams of strikers the militia inter- fered, preventing the game; the miners resented, and the militia- with a sneer and a laugh-fired the machine guns directly into the tents, knowing at the time that the strikers' wives and children were in them. Charging the camp, they fired the two largest buildings- the Strikers' stores-and going from tent to cent, poured oil on the flimsy structures, setting fu-e to them.

From the blazing tentS rushed the women and children, only to be beaten back into the fire by the rain of bullets from the militia. The men rushed tO the assistance of thei, families; and as they did so, they were dropped as the whirring messengers of death sped surely to the mark. Louis Tikas, leader of the Greek colony, fell a victim tO the mine guards' fiendishness, being first clubbed, then shot in the back while he was their prisoner. Fifty-two bullctS ridd led his body.

Into the cellars- the pits of hell under their blazing tcntS-cr<pt the women and children, less fearful of the smoke and flames than of the nameless horror of the spitting bullets. One man counted the bodies of nine little children, taken frolDI one ashy pit, their tiny fingers burned away as they held to the edge in their struggle to escape. As the smoking ruins disclosed the charred and suffocated bodies of the victims of the holocaust, thugs in State uniform hacked at the lifeless forms, in some instances nearly cutting off heads and limbs to show their contempt for the strikers.

Fifty-five women and child ren perished in the fire of the Ludlow tent colony. Relief parties carrying the Red Cross flag were driven back by the gunmen, and for twenty-four hours the b,)dies lay crisping in the ashes, while rnscuers vainly tried to cross the firing line. And the Militiamen and gunmen laughed when the miners petitioned "Czar Chase" [General John Chase] and Governor Ammons for the right to erect their homes and live in them ....

[FJor the first time in the history of the labor war in America the people are with the strikers- they glory in their success. The trainmen

Rem e mbe r L,,dl o w! 15

have refused to carry the militia--<:nurc companies of the National Guard have mutinied- nea rly every union in the State has offered funds and support of men a nd arms co the strikers- ,md the governor has asked for federal troops.

The federal troops arc hcr<~the women who forced the governor to ask for them believe they have secured P(,acc-but it is a dead hope. for p,,..ce can never be built on the foundation of Greed and Oppression . And the federal troops cannot change the systcm~ nly the strikers can do that. And though they may lay down their arms for a time-they will "Remember Ludlow!"

FREDERICK TAYLOR-THE BIGGEST BASTARD EVER

A t the turn of the century many historians wrote cutesy fluff pieces in the media about who had been the most influential person of the 20th century. Many names were floated: Hider, Stalin, Churchill, Einstein, Ghandi, etc. One name that didn't appear on many lists was Frederick Tayloe While Taylor is a common name i0 labor history circles, his name is unfamiliar to most. Yet Taylor's impact on the 20th century was pro- found, so profound that his ideas continue to shape the day-to-day lived experience of mos t people today.

Taylor was a management theorist a theorist of the labor process. In an era where the capitalist firm was Ix-coming larger and larger, employing more and more workers, a fw1damental problem was emerging: How do we get workers to work more? Of course ·this had always been a problem for capitalists. But the rapidly expanding size of the factory was demanding more nuanced control over workers ro ensure maximwn output.

(When the length of the working day can' t be extended then one must turn ro the labor process itself. One must 6nd a way of increasing the intensity of labor so that it produces more per hour. Remember that the capitalist doesn't buy …