PHIL 192: Final Exam
!Instructions: Select THREE out of four sets of questions. Two sets of questions have 30 points each, while one set has 40 points and another set with 35 points. Maximum number of possible points is 105 (with 5 points extra credit). You should have at least 100 points as the total number of possible points. Perfect score is 100 points. Your responses must be HANDWRITTEN.
1. What is Gould’s view on the relationship between science and religion? Did Pope Pius XII and Pope John Paul II agree with Gould’s view on science and religion? Based on Pope Pius XII’s second claim about evolution, was he fully in agreement with the theory of evolution? Explain your answer. What is the difference between Pope Pius XII and Pope John Paul II on their views about evolution? Give an account of Gould’s response to his scientific critics. [30 points]
2. Give an account of Dawkins’ response to Gould’s view on the relationship between science and religion. For Dawkins, can religion answer the moral questions? Explain your answer. For Dawkins, did the Catholic Church keep itself away from the turf of science? Explain your answer. In the explanation of your answer, you need to include at least three of the five reasons given by Dawkins for his view on the Catholic Church and science. [30 points]
3. For Ruse, is it the case that all methodological naturalists are metaphysical naturalists? Explain your answer. What is Ruse’s argument for methodological naturalism? Some critics of methodological naturalism claim that natural selection is inadequate. Give an account of one of the objections given by such critics and an account of Ruse’s response. Other critics of methodological naturalism claim that there are certain things that Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection cannot explain. Give accounts of two things that Darwin’s theory cannot explain (according to the critics) and accounts of Ruse’s responses to such critics. Why does Plantinga think that methodological naturalism is incoherent from a Darwinist standpoint? Give an account of Ruse’s response to Plantinga. Why does Ruse think that a methodological naturalist should be a metaphysical naturalist? Explain your answer. [40 points]
4. What is morality and how is it different from other action-guiding principles? Give an account of Euthyphro’s view on the relationship between morality and religion. Based on Socrates’ responses to Euthyphro, what is wrong with Euthyphro’s view? In Plato’s Euthyphro, what, for Socrates, is the relation between morality and religion? Explain the difference between the following claims: morality is independent of religion and morality is dependent on religion. [35 points]