FINAL PAPER the combination of the my four phases APA FORMAT RUBRIC ATTACHED . The four phases are attached and feedback

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Phase4ResultsIdalmisLopez.docx

Running head: RESEARCH PAPER 1

RESEARCH PAPER 15

Phase # 4 Results

Infection Prevention

Results

Socio-demographics features of the research population

Infection prevention is amongst the challenges faced in many healthcare institutions in the entire world. This study assessed the knowledge, practice, and associated factors aimed at reducing or preventing healthcare-acquired infections among healthcare workers. In this particular study, a total of 250 healthcare professionals were interviewed and yields a response rate of 95 percent majorities. There were many individuals i.e. 150 (60 percent) were in the age bracket of 26 to 3o years old. The majority of the respondents were from Orthodox Christianity at 72 percent of the population. A higher percentage of the individuals who participated in this study was diploma holders at 40 percent (100 participants).

Overall, based on this particular study, it is clear that the majority of healthcare providers were knowledgeable about the prevention of healthcare-acquired infections. Many of these healthcare providers were having sufficient knowledge required to make a contribution towards helping in reducing healthcare-acquired infections. This study, therefore, shows that the outcomes are in line with many other research works which have shown that healthcare providers are knowledgeable enough to help in the prevention of infection; nevertheless, the issue of controlling or preventing such infection is affected by the attitudes or the socio-demographic factors or lack of adequate resources to accomplish this mission.

.

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Age

20 to 25

80

32%

26 to 30

150

60%

Over 31 years

20

8%

Sex

Male

150

60%

Female

100

40%

Marital Status

Single

140

56 %

Married

110

44%

Religion

Muslim

30

12%

Orthodox

180

72%

Protestant

40

16%

Educational Status

Master and Above

80

32 %

Bachelors

70

28 %

Diploma

100

40 %

Work Experience

Over five years

170

68%

5 to 10 years

70

28%

Over 10 years

10

4%

Profession

Physician

30

12%

Nurse

82

32.8%

Midwifery

60

24%

Health officials

18

7.2%

Laboratory Technician

40

16%

Other healthcare providers

20

8%

Involved in the training

Yes

90

36%

No

160

64%

There is availability of IP guideline

Yes

100

40%

No

150

60%

Knowledge concerning the infection prevention

In this particular study, a total of 220 (88 percent) and 210 (84 percent) believed that healthcare-acquired infections are prevented using disinfection and antiseptic respectively. A total of 190 respondents (76 percent) believed that equipment requires the process of decontamination prior to the sterilization procedure. More than half of the participants (56 percent) are not well informed regarding the [preparation of 0.5 percent of chlorine solution.

Variables

The level of knowledge

Frequency

Disinfection is helpful in the prevention of the acquired infections

Ye

220

88 %

No

30

12%

Antiseptic is helping in the prevention of healthcare-acquired infection

Yes

210

84%

No

40

16%

The is sterilization of the equipment using chemical

Yes

100

40%

No

150

60 %

There is physical sterilization of equipment through the use of heat and radiation occasionally

Yes

70

28 %

No

180

72%

All pathogens are destroyed through autoclaving

Yes

170

68%

No

80

32%

There is a decontamination of equipment before the sterilization process

Yes

190

76%

No

60

24%

Protective devices are important when it comes to the reduction of the infections

Yes

185

74%

No

65

26%

Wearing of gloves is used as a replacement of hand washing

Yes

90

64%

No

160

36%

There is a preparation of o.5 percent chlorine solution

Yes

110

44%

No

140

56%

There is the use of PEP for HIV after being exposed to blood

Yes

230

92%

No

20

8%

The practice of healthcare providers in an effort to prevent healthcare-acquired infections

In this particular study, the percentages of the healthcare providers believed it was important to wash hand before starting to provide healthcare and after completion of healthcare provision were 140 (56 percent) and 200 (80 percent) respectively. There was almost equal proportional with regard to the number of respondents who said there is use of soap to wash the hands before patient care i.e. 120 (48 percent) and the individuals who believed that there was no washing of the hands after provision of healthcare services i.e. 130 (52 percent) based on the responses given by the study participants, majority of the respondents believe that there is no use of any type of protective equipment such as mask, gloves, and gowns among others. Only 42 participants (16.8) believed that there is the use of personal protective equipment.

The length of working experience is associated with the knowledge score based on the outcome of this study. According to the result of the study, healthcare providers who have been in the medical field for not less than ten years are more likely to be knowledgeable about the issues related to the prevention programs. The increase in the knowledge in relation to the number of experience is likely to be related to the increase in the number of years of practice which increases exposure to different healthcare settings. Such healthcare providers are exposed repeatedly and are becoming more experienced through interacting and taking part in working with senior healthcare providers.

Variable

Response

Figures

Frequency

There is washing of the hands using soap before prior to the start of healthcare

Yes

140

56%

No

110

44%

There is a habit of washing hand using soap after providing care to the patient

Yes

200

80 %

No

50

20%

There is washing of the hands without soap prior to or after patient care

Yes

120

48%

No

130

52 %

There is the use of all categories of personal protective equipment

Ye

42

16.8

No

208

83.2

Aspects related to the knowledge of the healthcare professionals regarding the issue of preventing healthcare-acquired infections

Some of the major factors which were associated with the knowledge in relation to the healthcare-acquired prevention included age, education attainment, the work experience of the healthcare providers, sex of the respondents, profession, and training received in relation to the techniques used in the prevention of healthcare-acquired infections. Healthcare providers who are over 31 years were three times more knowledgeable as compared to individuals or healthcare providers whose age bracket was 21 to 25 years. Male healthcare employees were twice likely to be more knowledgeable as compared to their female counterparts.

This study also reveals that the working experience strongly influenced the practices towards prevention of healthcare-acquired infections. Individuals with experience of more than ten years of work within healthcare sector were four times likely to possess the knowledge required to help in the control or prevention of healthcare-acquired infections as compared to individuals or healthcare provider who had work experience of fewer than five years in the field of healthcare.

This study also indicates that the level of education greatly impacted on the knowledge acquired to help in the prevention of healthcare-acquired infections. In this case, healthcare providers whose education level was in the Master level or above Masters level were more knowledgeable as compared to other levels of education i.e. Bachelors and Diploma. Healthcare providers with a master level of education were thrice more likely to be knowledgeable about the issues related to healthcare-acquired infections. Healthcare workers with Bachelor level of education were twice more likely to be more knowledgeable as compared to the healthcare providers who had a diploma level of education.

The infection training program is also playing an important role in increasing the level of experience and knowledge required to help in the reduction of healthcare-acquired infections. Healthcare providers who have not yet received training on the techniques required towards prevention and control of healthcare-acquired infections are less knowledgeable about the infection prevention as compared to those who had undergone through the training program related to the prevention of healthcare-acquired infection. The result from this study indicating that healthcare providers with higher education appear to be having more knowledge score as compared to the low educational level is an indication that these healthcare providers have acquired more educational information related to the prevention of healthcare-acquired infections.

Limitation of the study

Healthcare-acquired infections are considered to be a very broad topic, therefore, it has not been possible to cover all aspects of the healthcare-acquired infections in this one research paper. This, therefore, implies that I have been selective in choosing the major factors in the present argument with regard to the healthcare-acquired infections which is causing major concern in the public healthcare sector. Another limitation of this study is that it was restricted to a specific healthcare facility.

This, therefore, implies that it does not reveal the real situation in the entire world, however, it shows that the clear picture of what is happening in a major healthcare facility in relation to the lack of knowledge, poor practices, and other factors such as socio-demographic aspects. These factors are considered to be playing a major important role in with regard to the issue of healthcare-acquired infections. Another limitation in this study is that it was specifically restricted to the healthcare providers as the key individuals who are playing a role in the increase in the reduction or increase in the healthcare-acquired infections. Even though patients are contributing to the spread of healthcare-acquired infections this study was mainly focused on the healthcare providers as the major key players that can be targeted with policies aimed at controlling healthcare-acquired infection in many healthcare facilities.

References

Batran, A., Ayed, A., Salameh, B., Ayoub, M., & Fasfous, A. (2018). Are standard precautions for hospital-acquired infection among nurses in the public sector satisfactory? AMHS , 6 (2), 223-227. Desta, M., Ayenew, T., Sitotaw, N., Tegegne, N., Dires, M., & Getie, M. (2018). Knowledge, practice and associated factors of infection prevention among healthcare workers in Debre Markos referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Health Serv Res, 18, 465. Haque, M., Sartelli, M., McKimm, J., & Bakar, A. M. (2018). Healthcare-associated infections – an overview. Infection Drug Resist, 11, 2321-2333. Imad, F., Ayed, A., Faeda, E., & Lubna, H. (2015). Knowledge and Practice of Nursing Staff towards Infection Control Measures in the Palestinian Hospitals. ERIC, 6 (4), 79-90. Jahangir, M., Ali, M., & Riaz, M. S. (2017). Knowledge and Practices of Nurses Regarding Spread of Nosocomial Infection In government Hospitals, Lahore. J Liaquat Uni Med Health Sci, 16 (3), 149-153. Moyo, G. (2013). Factors influencing compliance with infection prevention standard precautions among nurses working at Mbagathi district hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi. Stone, P. (2017). Economic burden of healthcare-associated infections: an American perspective. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res, 9 (5), 417-422. Teshager, A. F., Engeda, H. E., & Worku, W. Z. (2015). Knowledge, Practice, and Associated Factors towards Prevention of Surgical Site Infection among Nurses Working in Amhara Regional State Referral Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia. Surgery Research and Practice.