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Organizational Behavior

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Stephen P. Robbins —San Diego State University

Timothy A. Judge —University of Notre Dame

E D I T I o N

Organizational Behavior

17

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Robbins, Stephen P. organizational behavior/Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge.—17 Edition. pages cm Revised edition of organizational behavior, 2015. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-13-410398-3 1. organizational behavior. I. Judge, Tim. II. Title. HD58.7.R62 2017 658.3—dc23 2015035516

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 10: 0-13-410398-X ISBN 13: 978-0-13-410398-3

Acknowledgments of third-party content appear on the appropriate page within the text.

v

Brief Contents

The Group

9 Foundations of Group Behavior 274 10 Understanding Work Teams 310 11 Communication 342 12 Leadership 380 13 Power and Politics 420 14 Conflict and Negotiation 456 15 Foundations of organization Structure 490

Preface xxv

Introduction

1 What Is organizational Behavior? 2

1

2

3

The Individual

2 Diversity in organizations 40 3 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 72 4 Emotions and Moods 100 5 Personality and Values 134 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making 168 7 Motivation Concepts 206 8 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 242

vi BrIEF COnTEnTS

The Organization System

16 organizational Culture 524 17 Human Resource Policies and Practices 560 18 organizational Change and Stress Management 602

4

Appendix Research in Organizational Behavior 644

Comprehensive Cases 651

Glossary 665 Name Index 675 Organization Index 683 Subject Index 687

vii

Contents

Preface xxv

Introduction

1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 2 The Importance of Interpersonal Skills 5

Management and Organizational Behavior 6 Management Roles 7 • Management Skills 8 • Effective versus Successful Managerial Activities 9

Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 11 Big Data 11 Myth or Science? Management by Walking Around Is the Most Effective Management 12

Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field 15 Psychology 15 • Social Psychology 16 • Sociology 16 • Anthropology 16

There Are Few Absolutes in OB 16

Challenges and Opportunities for OB 17 Economic Pressures 18 • Continuing Globalization 18 • Workforce Demographics 19

Personal Inventory Assessments Multicultural Awareness Scale 20 Workforce Diversity 21 • Customer Service 21 • People Skills 21 • Networked Organizations 22 • Social Media 22 • Employee Well-Being at Work 22 • Positive Work Environment 23 • Ethical Behavior 24

An Ethical Choice Vacation Deficit Disorder 25 Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 26 An Overview 26 • Inputs 26 • Processes 27 • Outcomes 27

Career OBjectives What do I say about my termination? 29 Summary 32

Implications for Managers 32 Point/Counterpoint The Battle of the Texts 33

Questions for review 34 Experiential Exercise Managing the oB Way 34 Ethical Dilemma There’s a Drone in Your Soup 35 Case Incident 1 Apple Goes Global 35 Case Incident 2 Big Data for Dummies 36

1

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The Individual

2 Diversity in Organizations 40 Diversity 43 Demographic Characteristics 43 • Levels of Diversity 44

An Ethical Choice Affirmative Action for Unemployed Veterans 45 Discrimination 45

Stereotype Threat 46 Personal Inventory Assessments Intercultural Sensitivity Scale 47 Discrimination in the Workplace 47

Biographical Characteristics 48 Age 48 Myth or Science? Bald Is Better 49 Sex 50 • Race and Ethnicity 51 • Disabilities 52 • Hidden Disabilities 53

Other Differentiating Characteristics 54 Tenure 54 • Religion 54 • Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 55

Career OBjectives Is it okay to be gay at work? 56 Cultural Identity 57

Ability 57 Intellectual Abilities 58 • Physical Abilities 59

Implementing Diversity Management Strategies 60 Attracting, Selecting, Developing, and Retaining Diverse Employees 60 • Diversity in Groups 61 • Effective Diversity Programs 62

Summary 63

Implications for Managers 63 Point/Counterpoint Affirmative Action Programs Have outlived Their Usefulness 64

Questions for review 65 Experiential Exercise Differences 65 Ethical Dilemma Getting More Women on Board 65 Case Incident 1 Walking the Walk 66 Case Incident 2 The Encore Career 67

3 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 72 Attitudes 75

Attitudes and Behavior 76

An Ethical Choice office Talk 77 Job Attitudes 78 Job Satisfaction and Job Involvement 78 • Organizational Commitment 78 • Perceived Organizational Support 78 • Employee Engagement 79 • Are These Job Attitudes Really All That Distinct? 80

2

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Job Satisfaction 80 Measuring Job Satisfaction 80 • How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? 81

What Causes Job Satisfaction? 83 Job Conditions 83 • Personality 84

Personal Inventory Assessments Core Self Evaluation (CSE) Scale 84 Pay 84 • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 85

Outcomes of Job Satisfaction 86 Job Performance 86 • Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) 86 • Customer Satisfaction 87 • Life Satisfaction 87

Career OBjectives How can I make my job better? 88 The Impact of Job Dissatisfaction 88 Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) 89

Myth or Science? Happy Workers Means Happy Profits 91 Managers Often “Don’t Get It” 91

Summary 92

Implications for Managers 92 Point/Counterpoint Employer–Employee Loyalty Is an outdated Concept 93

Questions for review 94 Experiential Exercise What Satisfies You about Your Dream Job? 94 Ethical Dilemma Tell-All Websites 94 Case Incident 1 The Pursuit of Happiness: Flexibility 95 Case Incident 2 Job Crafting 96

4 Emotions and Moods 100 What Are Emotions and Moods? 103 The Basic Emotions 103

Myth or Science? Smile, and the Work World Smiles with You 104 Moral Emotions 104 • The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect 105 • Experiencing Moods and Emotions 106 • The Function of Emotions 107

Sources of Emotions and Moods 108 Personality 108 • Time of Day 109 • Day of the Week 109 • Weather 109 • Stress 112 • Social Activities 112 • Sleep 112 • Exercise 112 • Age 112 • Sex 113

Emotional Labor 113

Affective Events Theory 115

Emotional Intelligence 115

An Ethical Choice Should Managers Use Emotional Intelligence (EI) Tests? 117 Personal Inventory Assessments Emotional Intelligence Assessment 117 Emotion regulation 118 Emotion Regulation Influences and Outcomes 118 • Emotion Regulation Techniques 118 • Ethics of Emotion Regulation 120

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OB Applications of Emotions and Moods 121 Selection 121 • Decision Making 121 • Creativity 122 • Motivation 122 • Leadership 122 • Negotiation 123 • Customer Service 123 • Job Attitudes 123

Career OBjectives How do I turn down the volume on my screaming boss? 124 Deviant Workplace Behaviors 124 • Safety and Injury at Work 125

Summary 125

Implications for Managers 125 Point/Counterpoint Sometimes Yelling Is for Everyone’s Good 126

Questions for review 127 Experiential Exercise The Happiness Test 127 Ethical Dilemma Data Mining Emotions 127 Case Incident 1 Crybabies 128 Case Incident 2 Tall Poppy Syndrome 129

5 Personality and Values 134 Personality 137 What Is Personality? 137

Career OBjectives How do I ace the personality test? 138 Personal Inventory Assessments Personality Style Indicator 139 Personality Frameworks 139 The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 140 • The Big Five Personality Model 140 • The Dark Triad 144

Other Personality Attributes relevant to OB 146 Core Self-Evaluations (CSEs) 146 • Self-Monitoring 147

Myth or Science? We Can Accurately Judge Individuals’ Personalities a Few Seconds after Meeting Them 148

Proactive Personality 148

Personality and Situations 149 Situation Strength Theory 149 • Trait Activation Theory 150

Values 151 The Importance and Organization of Values 151 • Terminal versus Instrumental Values 152 • Generational Values 152

An Ethical Choice Do You Have a Cheating Personality? 153 Linking an Individual’s Personality and Values to the Workplace 153 Person–Job Fit 154 • Person–Organization Fit 154 • Other Dimensions of Fit 155

Cultural Values 156 Hofstede’s Framework 156 • The GLOBE Framework 158 • Comparison of Hofstede’s Framework and the GLOBE Framework 159

Summary 159

Implications for Managers 159 Point/Counterpoint Millennials Are More Narcissistic Than Their Parents 160

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Questions for review 161 Experiential Exercise Your Best Self 161 Ethical Dilemma Millennial Job Hopping 162 Case Incident 1 on the Costs of Being Nice 162 Case Incident 2 The Power of Quiet 163

6 Perception and Individual Decision Making 168 What Is Perception? 171

Factors That Influence Perception 171

Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others 172 Attribution Theory 173

Career OBjectives So what if I’m a few minutes late to work? 175 Common Shortcuts in Judging Others 175 • Specific Applications of Shortcuts in Organizations 177

Myth or Science? All Stereotypes Are Negative 178 The Link Between Perception and Individual Decision Making 178

Decision Making in Organizations 179 The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition 179 • Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making 181

Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences and Organizational Constraints 185 Individual Differences 185 • Organizational Constraints 187

What About Ethics in Decision Making? 188 Three Ethical Decision Criteria 188 • Lying 190

An Ethical Choice Choosing to Lie 191 Creativity, Creative Decision Making, and Innovation in Organizations 191 Creative Behavior 191 • Causes of Creative Behavior 193

Personal Inventory Assessments How Creative Are You? 194 Creative Outcomes (Innovation) 195 Summary 196

Implications for Managers 196 Point/Counterpoint Stereotypes Are Dying 197

Questions for review 198 Experiential Exercise Good Liars and Bad Liars 198 Ethical Dilemma Cheating Is a Decision 198 Case Incident 1 Too Much of a Good Thing 199 Case Incident 2 The Youngest Billionaire 200

7 Motivation Concepts 206 Motivation and Early Theories 209

Early Theories of Motivation 210 Hierarchy of Needs Theory 210 • Two-Factor Theory 211 • McClelland’s Theory of Needs 212

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Career OBjectives Why won’t he take my advice? 214 Contemporary Theories of Motivation 214 Self-Determination Theory 215

Myth or Science? Helping others and Being a Good Citizen Is Good for Your Career 216

Goal-Setting Theory 216

Other Contemporary Theories of Motivation 219 Self-Efficacy Theory 220 • Reinforcement Theory 221 An Ethical Choice Motivated by Big Brother 222 Equity Theory/Organizational Justice 224 • Expectancy Theory 229 Personal Inventory Assessments Work Motivation Indicator 230 Job Engagement 231

Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 231

Summary 233

Implications for Managers 233 Point/Counterpoint Goals Get You to Where You Want to Be 234

Questions for review 235 Experiential Exercise organizational Justice Task 235 Ethical Dilemma The New GPA 235 Case Incident 1 The Demotivation of CEo Pay 236 Case Incident 2 The Sleepiness Epidemic 237

8 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 242 Motivating by Job Design: The Job Characteristics Model 245

The Job Characteristics Model 245

Job redesign 247 Job Rotation 247

Myth or Science? Money Can’t Buy Happiness 248 Relational Job Design 248 Personal Inventory Assessments Diagnosing the Need for Team Building 250

Alternative Work Arrangements 250 Flextime 250 • Job Sharing 252 • Telecommuting 253

Career OBjectives How can I get flextime? 254 Employee Involvement and Participation 256

Examples of Employee Involvement Programs 256

Using rewards to Motivate Employees 258 What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure 258 • How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees through Variable-Pay Programs 259

An Ethical Choice Sweatshops and Worker Safety 263

Using Benefits to Motivate Employees 264 Flexible Benefits: Developing a Benefits Package 264

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Using Intrinsic rewards to Motivate Employees 265

Employee Recognition Programs 265

Summary 266

Implications for Managers 266 Point/Counterpoint “Face-Time” Matters 267

Questions for review 268 Experiential Exercise occupations and the Job Characteristics Model 268 Ethical Dilemma Inmates for Hire 268 Case Incident 1 Motivation for Leisure 269 Case Incident 2 Pay Raises Every Day 269

3 The Group 9 Foundations of Group Behavior 274

Defining and Classifying Groups 277 Social Identity 277 • Ingroups and Outgroups 279 • Social Identity Threat 279

Stages of Group Development 279

Group Property 1: roles 280 Role Perception 281 • Role Expectations 281 • Role Conflict 282 • Role Play and Assimilation 282

Myth or Science? Gossip and Exclusion Are Toxic for Groups 283 Group Property 2: norms 284 Norms and Emotions 284 • Norms and Conformity 284

An Ethical Choice Using Peer Pressure as an Influence Tactic 285 Norms and Behavior 286 • Positive Norms and Group Outcomes 287 • Negative Norms and Group Outcomes 287 • Norms and Culture 289

Group Property 3: Status, and Group Property 4: Size and Dynamics 289 Group Property 3: Status 289 • Group Property 4: Size and Dynamics 291

Group Property 5: Cohesiveness, and Group Property 6: Diversity 293 Group Property 5: Cohesiveness 293 • Group Property 6: Diversity 293

Personal Inventory Assessments Communicating Supportively 294 Group Decision Making 295 Groups versus the Individual 295 • Groupthink and Groupshift 296

Career OBjectives Can I fudge the numbers and not take the blame? 297 Group Decision-Making Techniques 298

Summary 299

Implications for Managers 300 Point/Counterpoint People Are More Creative When They Work Alone 301

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Questions for review 302 Experiential Exercise Surviving the Wild: Join a Group or Go It Alone? 302 Ethical Dilemma Is Social Loafing Unethical? 303 Case Incident 1 The Calamities of Consensus 304 Case Incident 2 Intragroup Trust and Survival 305

10 Understanding Work Teams 310 Why Have Teams Become So Popular? 313

Differences Between Groups and Teams 313

Types of Teams 314 Problem-Solving Teams 315 • Self-Managed Work Teams 315 • Cross- Functional Teams 316 • Virtual Teams 317 • Multiteam Systems 317

An Ethical Choice The Size of Your Meeting’s Carbon Footprint 318 Creating Effective Teams 319 Team Context: What Factors Determine Whether Teams Are Successful? 320 • Team Composition 321 Myth or Science? Team Members Who Are “Hot” Should Make the Play 322 Career OBjectives Is it wrong that I’d rather have guys on my team? 325 Team Processes 326 Personal Inventory Assessments Team Development Behaviors 330 Turning Individuals into Team Players 330 Selecting: Hiring Team Players 330 • Training: Creating Team Players 330 • Rewarding: Providing Incentives to Be a Good Team Player 330

Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer 331

Summary 332

Implications for Managers 332 Point/Counterpoint To Get the Most out of Teams, Empower Them 333

Questions for review 334 Experiential Exercise Composing the “Perfect” Team 334 Ethical Dilemma The Sum of the Team Is Less Than Its Members 334 Case Incident 1 Tongue-Tied in Teams 336 Case Incident 2 Smart Teams and Dumb Teams 336

11 Communication 342 Functions of Communication 345

Direction of Communication 347 Downward Communication 347 • Upward Communication 347 • Lateral Communication 348 • Formal Small-Group Networks 348 • The Grapevine 349

Modes of Communication 350 Oral Communication 350

Career OBjectives Isn’t this disability too much to accommodate? 353 Written Communication 354

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Myth or Science? Today, Writing Skills Are More Important Than Speaking Skills 357

Nonverbal Communication 358 Personal Inventory Assessments Communication Styles 359 Choice of Communication Channel 359 Channel Richness 359 • Choosing Communication Methods 360 • Information Security 362

An Ethical Choice Using Employees in organizational Social Media Strategy 363 Persuasive Communication 363 Automatic and Controlled Processing 364

Barriers to Effective Communication 365 Filtering 365 • Selective Perception 365 • Information Overload 366 • Emotions 366 • Language 366 • Silence 367 • Communication Apprehension 367 • Lying 368

Cultural Factors 368 Cultural Barriers 368 • Cultural Context 369 • A Cultural Guide 370

Summary 371

Implications for Managers 371 Point/Counterpoint We Should Use Employees’ Social Media Presence 372

Questions for review 373 Experiential Exercise An Absence of Nonverbal Communication 373 Ethical Dilemma BYoD 374 Case Incident 1 organizational Leveraging of Social Media 375 Case Incident 2 PowerPoint Purgatory 375

12 Leadership 380 Trait Theories 383

Career OBjectives How can I get my boss to be a better leader? 385 Behavioral Theories 385 Summary of Trait Theories and Behavioral Theories 386

Contingency Theories 387 The Fiedler Model 387 • Situational Leadership Theory 388 • Path–Goal Theory 389 • Leader–Participation Model 389

Contemporary Theories of Leadership 390 Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 390 • Charismatic Leadership 391 • Transactional and Transformational Leadership 394

Myth or Science? Top Leaders Feel the Most Stress 396 Personal Inventory Assessments Ethical Leadership Assessment 399 responsible Leadership 399 Authentic Leadership 399 • Ethical Leadership 400

An Ethical Choice Holding Leaders Ethically Accountable 401 Servant Leadership 402

Positive Leadership 402

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Trust 402 • Mentoring 405

Challenges to Our Understanding of Leadership 406 Leadership as an Attribution 406 • Substitutes for and Neutralizers of Leadership 407 • Online Leadership 408 • Selecting Leaders 408 • Training Leaders 409

Summary 410

Implications for Managers 410 Point/Counterpoint CEos Start Early 411

Questions for review 412 Experiential Exercise What Is Leadership? 412 Ethical Dilemma Smoking Success 412 Case Incident 1 Leadership Mettle Forged in Battle 413 Case Incident 2 Leadership by Algorithm 414

13 Power and Politics 420 Power and Leadership 423

Bases of Power 424 Formal Power 424 • Personal Power 424 • Which Bases of Power Are Most Effective? 425

Dependence: The Key to Power 426 The General Dependence Postulate 426 • What Creates Dependence? 426 • Social Network Analysis: A Tool for Assessing Resources 427

Power Tactics 428 Using Power Tactics 429 • Cultural Preferences for Power Tactics 430 • Applying Power Tactics 430

How Power Affects People 430 Power Variables 431 • Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace 432

Politics: Power in Action 433 Definition of Organizational Politics 433 • The Reality of Politics 434

Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior 435 Factors Contributing to Political Behavior 435 Career OBjectives Should I become political? 437 Myth or Science? Powerful Leaders Keep Their (Fr)Enemies Close 439 How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics? 439 • Impression Management 440

An Ethical Choice How Much Should You Manage Interviewer Impressions? 443 The Ethics of Behaving Politically 444 Personal Inventory Assessments Gaining Power and Influence 445

Mapping Your Political Career 445 Summary 446

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Implications for Managers 447 Point/Counterpoint Everyone Wants Power 448 Questions for review 449 Experiential Exercise Comparing Influence Tactics 449 Ethical Dilemma How Much Should You Defer to Those in Power? 449 Case Incident 1 The Powerful Take All 450 Case Incident 2 Barry’s Peer Becomes His Boss 451

14 Conf lict and Negotiation 456 A Definition of Conflict 459 Types of Conflict 459 • Loci of Conflict 461

The Conflict Process 462 Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility 462 • Stage II: Cognition and Personalization 464 • Stage III: Intentions 464 • Stage IV: Behavior 466 • Stage V: Outcomes 467

negotiation 469 Bargaining Strategies 470

Myth or Science? Teams Negotiate Better Than Individuals in Collectivistic Cultures 473

The negotiation Process 473

Individual Differences in negotiation Effectiveness 475 Career OBjectives How can I get a better job? 476 An Ethical Choice Using Empathy to Negotiate More Ethically 477 negotiating in a Social Context 480 Third-Party Negotiations 481

Summary 482

Implications for Managers 482

Personal Inventory Assessments Strategies for Handling Conflict 482

Point/Counterpoint Pro Sports Strikes Are Caused by Greedy owners 483

Questions for review 484 Experiential Exercise A Negotiation Role-Play 484 Ethical Dilemma The Lowball Applicant 485 Case Incident 1 Disorderly Conduct 485 Case Incident 2 Twinkies, Rubber Rooms, and Collective Bargaining 486

15 Foundations of Organization Structure 490 What Is Organizational Structure? 493 Work Specialization 493 • Departmentalization 495 • Chain of Command 496 • Span of Control 497 • Centralization and Decentralization 498 • Formalization 499 • Boundary Spanning 499

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Common …