1. How prevalent is the ostinato in the world?
2. Briefly discuss the construction of the kora.
3. Outline the flow of this Gambian Song (Minstrel’s song).
4. Describe the social aspects and musical techniques of pygmy polyphony.
5. Describe briefly how this composition (“Hunting Song for Chorus”) unfolds, particularly the appearance and presence of the ostinato.
6. Discuss the establishment of the court orchestra in Japan and its influences.
7. What makes the gagaku orchestras different from European orchestras?
8. Describe the tone color and the function of the following instruments: ryuteki, sho, tsuridaiko, and gakuso.
9. Briefly discuss the three characteristics of gagaku music that are heard in “Etenraku.”
10. Describe how the mood of “Etenraku” relates to the meaning of its name.
11. What happened to the gamelan orchestra when Indonesia was under the colonial rule of the Netherlands?
12. How does the sound of the gamelan orchestra differ from the sound of a European orchestra?
13. How did Classical composers like Mozart and Haydn create elaborate musical forms, and how is that similar to or different from a composer for the gamelan orchestra?
14. How is “stratified” polyphony achieved in a gamelan composition?
15. How is the formal structure of “Bopong” organized?
16. How is the almost “swing” rhythm effect created between the drums in African drumming?
17. Define polyrhythm in regard to West African drumming.
18. Discuss an important technology that has influenced mixed musical cultures in the twentieth century involving globalism/globalization.
19. Discuss the two opposing tendencies that have arisen from musical globalism.
20. Discuss the two opposing tendencies that have arisen from musical globalism.
21. Briefly explain the South African singing tradition isicathamiya, its origins and history.
22. Referencing Solomon Linda’s song “Anoku Gonda,” describe one of the distinctive stylistic elements heard in isicathamiya.
23. How is call and response demonstrated in “Anoku Gonda”? What two rhythmic characteristics occur in this piece?