One who is forgiven much is likely to respond more warmly than one who is forgiven little. So much is clear. The difficulty is in determining how it applies to the two characters. The woman is demonstrating her love. Is this because she has already been forgiven which is what the parable would imply? ‘The woman’s actions can only be accounted for by reference to something the story does not itself contain’ (Evans1990). On the other hand, v.47, on a first reading at any rate, does not appear to support this but rather suggests that she has been for-given because of her love. This is how RSVtranslates the verse. More recent translations, assuming a consistency in the story as awhile, take the Greekhotito mean, not ‘because’ but ‘with the result that’. So, REB trans-latest, ‘her great love proves that her many sins have been forgiven.’ v.48then proclaims her forgiveness which such a translation assumes has already been pronounced to her. Perhaps however we are trying to force into time sequence something that cannot be so easily ordered. The woman hears of Jesus and of his proclamation of the outreaching redemption of God. God’s recreating acknowledgement of the outsiders is being enacted in him, the one who accepts the title of ‘the friend of tax-col-lectors and sinners’. She responds with love and warmth which is accepted. The story says nothing about her penitence in any formal sense and to assume this is to assume too much. What she brings is rather a response to lack of condemnation, to an outreach, to recognition. It is that response of love that Jesus acknowledges, accepts, and meets with a declaration that God has forgiven her. ‘The woman does not love because she has been forgiven, but vice versa’ (Lampe1962). She loves, because in Jesus she meets with acceptance. In turn, her love receives the forgiveness for which hestands.The parable is addressed to Simon and is looking at them both from Jesus’ own point of view whilst engaging with Simon’s own stance. It is a condemnation of his judgmental attitude and of his lack of openness. Is it suggesting more and saying that he was discourteous to Jesus? On the whole, this is unlikely. Though the lack of provision for the washing of feet is ‘surprising’ (Evans1990) the other omissions would seem to be additional courtesies rather than requirements of the host. The story does not suggest that Jesus was singled out from the other guests; that would have meant a hostility that Simon’s address to Jesus (v.40) does not imply. The contrasts are caused by the woman’s actions rather than by Simon’s discourtesies. What the contrast emphasizes is Simon’s lack of response to Jesus and his message of the gracious approach of God. Simon feels no great need but is rather, if not content, then at least comfortable with the position at which he has arrived. Comparatively, he does need to be forgiven little, but it is that little need that has made him miss out on Jesus’ message. His act-ally needs to learn from the incident. (8:1–21)Proclaiming the Good News After a fairly static period, Jesus now resumes his itinerant role of proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God (cf.4:43; 9:6). The Twelve are with him and some women ‘who had been cured of evil spirits and infirmities’. They had been psychologically or physically distressed.Mk15:41mentions a group of women who had come to Jerusalem from Galilee with Jesus. Luke brings the mention forward to this point so as to link them with the Twelve in their accompanying Jesus. Mary Magdalene is men-toned first, probably because of her role at the tomb which is noticed in all four gospels. Jesus had cast out ‘seven demons’ from her—a wit-ness to the severe nature of her illness, though not a pointer to any immorality; she is not to be brought into connection with the woman of the previous episode. Joanna the wife of Herod’ssteward Chuza, a woman of some social stand-in, is also mentioned at the tomb. Susanna is not found elsewhere. With other women, they provided for Jesus and the Twelve out of their resources. Women of means are found frequently in Acts. The most significant instances the mention of Lydia who in Acts16:15actedas host for Paul and his companions at Philippian the first of the ‘we’ passages in Acts. It is not beyond the bounds of possibility that Luke himself lodged there and perhaps even stayed there after the rest of the party had left (Acts20:6). Luke may have been looking at the part women played in the ministry of Jesus in terms of his own later experience. He is anxious to point to their presence at the cross (23:49), the burial (23:55), the empty tomb (24:10), and when the community waits for the gift of the Spirit (Acts1:14). He has no appearance of the risen Jesus to them as does Mt27:9and Jn20:18, but this would seem to be because of his concern to have Peter be the first witness of the risen Lord(24:34).It is in this setting of Jesus’ preaching ministry that Luke places the parable of the sower which MLA (Modern Language Assoc.) Barton, John, and John Median. The Gospels. Vol. Updated selection, OUP Oxford, 2010. APA (American Psychological Assoc.) Barton, J., & Median, J. (2010). The Gospels (Vol. Updated selection). Oxford: OUP Oxford.