Answer a case study

Design for Special Populations

Design for Special Populations

Most design is done for “healthy” 20 - 50 year olds

Design for Special Populations

Men and Women

Generally:

Men are taller than women

Men are stronger than women

Leg strength is equal

Males have better visual acuity

Women detect Sweet, Sour, Salty, and Bitter at a lower threshhold than men

Women superior to men in perceptual and psychomotor skills

Men and Women react the same to biological circadian variations

There is no way to determine better performance due to individual variations

Design note: Adjustability of work environments is the only requirement to

assure equal performance opportunity.

Design for Special Populations

Designing for Pregnant Women:

Generally:

Change in size: German women-

Waist circumference increased 27% by 4th month

Chest circumference increased 6%

Hip circumference increased 4%

Increased spinal compression

Reference: Ergonomics, (2001) Karl Kroemer et al, Prentice Hall

Design for Special Populations

Designing for Pregnant Women:

Size change requires environmental design adjustments:

Work areas higher and tasks moved closer

Work tasks should require little force

Suitable, easily adjustable seating needed

Frequent rest periods

More space than usual for moving around

Reference: Ergonomics, (2001) Karl Kroemer et al, Prentice Hall

Design for Special Populations

Designing for Pregnant Women: Standing Recommendations

Design for Special Populations

Designing for Pregnant Women: Standing Recommendations

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Design for Special Populations

Designing for Pregnant Women: Sitting Recommendations

Design for Special Populations

Designing for Children:

Generally:

Change in size: Child to Adult - Trunk is

70% of a newborn but is 50% of the adult,

Body length increases 3 to 4 fold

Weight increases 20 fold

Growth differs for boy and girls

Reference: Ergonomics, (2001) Karl Kroemer et al,

Prentice Hall

Design for Special Populations

Designing for Children:

Secular Trends:

Growth rate for children has increased in the early years

Puberty is earlier

Adult stature has increased

Reference: Ergonomics, (2001) Karl Kroemer et al,

Prentice Hall

Design for Special Populations

Designing for Aging:

Generally:

Change in size: Adult - Elderly (after 40)

Longer life spans to 80 years

Shrinking stature (physically, but not politically or financially)

Body weight increases

Strength diminishes

Reference: Ergonomics, (2001) Karl Kroemer et al, Prentice Hall

Design for Special Populations

Designing for Aging:

Trends:

Bones more porous, subject to breakage

Osteoporosis (brittle) and curvature of the spine

Joints and muscles less elastic, less synovial fluid

Loss of Taste and Smell

Visual functions diminish

Baggy eye lids

Pupil gets smaller

Lens becomes hardened

Cataracts

Reference: Ergonomics, (2001) Karl

Kroemer et al, Prentice Hall

Design for Special Populations

Designing for Aging:

Design for Special Populations

IT IS HELL TO GET OLD...

Two medical students were walking along the street when they saw an old man walking with his legs spread apart. He was stiff-legged and walking slowly.

One student said to his friend, "I'm sure that poor old man has Peltry Syndrome. Those people walk just like that."

The other student says, "No, I don't think so. The old man surely has Zovitzki Syndrome. He walks slowly and his legs are apart, just as we learned in class."

Since they couldn't agree they decided to ask the old man. They approached him and one of the students said to him, "We're medical students and couldn't help but notice the way you walk, but we couldn't agree on the syndrome you might have. Could you tell us what it is?"

The old man said, "I'll tell you, but first you tell me what you two fine medical students think.”

Design for Special Populations

IT IS HELL TO GET OLD...

The first student said, "I think it's Peltry Syndrome."

The old man said, "You thought - but you are wrong."

The other student said, "I think you have Zovitzki Syndrome."

The old man said, "You thought - but you are wrong."

So they asked him, "Well, old timer, what do you have?"

The old man said, "I thought it was GAS - but I was wrong, too!"

Design for Special Populations

Designing for Aging:

Trends:

Hearing changes

Somesthetic Senitivity Changes - Touch, Temperature decreases

Reaction Times decrease to stimuli

Loss of Taste and Smell

Design for Special Populations

Designing for Aging:

Instrumental Activities of Daily Living - IADL

Managing Money

Shopping

Light Housework

Laundry

Preparing a Meal

Making a Phone Call

Taking Medication

Design for Special Populations

Designing for Aging:

Activities of Daily Living - ADL

Living

Transferring between Bed and Chair

Indoor and Outdoor mobility

Dressing

Bathing

Toileting

Design for Special Populations

Designing for Differing Abilities:

ADA- 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act

Definition of Disability: ” a physical or mental

impairment which substantially limits one or

more of an individual’s major activities of daily

living such as walking, hearing, speaking,

learning, and performing manual tasks”

Reference: Ergonomics, (2001) Karl Kroemer et al, Prentice Hall

Design for Special Populations

Designing for Differing Abilities:

Design Considerations:

Assistive Devices: ease a permanent impairment

Motorized wheelchair, an adjustable office chair

Rehabilitation Devices: Aid in the recovery from

an temporary impairment; Crutches, Splints, etc.

Design for Special Populations

Designing for Differing Abilities:

Design for Special Populations

Designing for Differing Abilities:

Design for Special Populations

THANK YOU!