1. Toxic substances can be described by their ability to cause unwanted health effects. Which of the following statements best describes risk?
a. Probability that a hazard will occur with specific exposure conditions
b. Weighing the various policy options and selecting the most appropriate regulatory action
c. A statistically derived probability that an adverse effect will occur at a defined exposure level
d. Capacity of a substance to cause an adverse effect in a specific target organ
2. The stages in Longest's policy-making systems model are similar to those in the ___ model commonly used in public health planning.
a. socioecological model
b. logic model
c. PRECEDE-PROCEED model
d. health belief model
3. Socioeconomic status is a social determinant of health that is directly influenced by all of the following except
a. educational attainment.
b. occupational position
c. financial income
d. race and ethnicity
4. Regarding a case-control design, all of the following are accurate, except
a. Recall bias is a potential problem
b. It is possible to have multiple comparison groups
c. Disease rates are compared for subjects with the factor of interest and for those without the factor of interest
d. The proportion of cases with exposure is compared to the proportion of controls with the exposure
e. The odds ratio is the measure of association
5. The following data are ages at death in years for a sample of people who were all born in the same year: 11, 34, 42, 44, 48, 50, 54 55,55,58, 59, 62, 65, 67, 68, 68, 69, 70, 70, 72, 74, 76, 76, 79, 81, 83, 85, 86. What is the mean age at death for these data?
a. 55 years
b. 62.8 years
c. 67 .5 years
d. 70 years
6. This test is used to compare the means from two or more independent groups
b. One-sample t-test
c. Paired 1-test
7. “The proportion of public health employees with formal training in public health" is a performance measure addressing system ...
8. A study investigated the effects of silicone breast implants used during the 1990s and subsequent development of rheumatoid arthritis among women exposed during their reproductive years_ Scientists used hospital data from the study area to trace and contact subjects to participate in the study. Screening consisted of sed rate, rheumatoid factor, and physical exam. An estimate of silicone exposure was determined by reviewing the surgical reports and subsequent patient history. As a result of screening, 27 subjects were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. Which of the following terms is most appropriate to describe the cases of rheumatoid arthritis identified during the first screening in this study?
9. Which of the following statements is inaccurate regarding behavioral interventions?
a. Maintaining behavior over time is a greater challenge
b. Short-term changes in behavior are encouraging, but improved health outcomes often require prolonged interventions and follow-up
c. Behavioral interventions are solely designed to potentiate risky behaviors
d. Behavioral interventions can successfully teach new behaviors
10. A community-based study of a program lo increase physical activity is conducted, and the findings are evaluated. A small p-value with an estimate is reported. Which of the following is the best interpretation of this result?
a. It is unlikely the estimate differs from the null value because of random variability
b. It is likely the estimate differs randomly and systematically from the norm
c. It is unlikely the estimate differs from the average because of chance
d. It is likely the estimate differs from the true value because of bias
11. Which individual developed the sophistification system for medical conditions that provided the foundation for today's international Classification of Diseases?
a. William Farr
b. Edward Jenner
c. John Graunt
d. John Snow
12. Exercise programs for weight loss are frequently used as an obesity intervention. These efforts may incorporate social and environmental measures, including public service announcements and total well-being. The health behavior model that best describes this approach is
a. Transtheoretical Model
b. Health Belief Model
c. Social Support Model
d. Ecologic Model
e. Information, Motivation, and Skill Building Model
13. What is the most abundant pollutant found in urban air? O
a. nitrogen dioxide
c. sulfur dioxide
d. carbon monoxide
14. Which of the following elements is characterized by a gaseous biogeochemical cycle?
15. A pilot study ls conducted to examine a 12-week weigh management program. Twelve overweight participants were enrolled, and weight was recorded before and after the 12-week program. Investigators plan to use a paired t-test to examine whether the program was effective in reducing weight. Which of the following are the degrees of freedom for this paired t-test?
16. Primary prevention of disease is best described as
a. early detection and treatment of disease
b. control of causal factors of disease
c. increasing host resistance to disease
d. Control of acute disease
17. The following data are ages at death in years for a sample of people who were all born in the same year: 11, 34. 42, 44, 48, 50, 54 55,55,58, 59, 60, 65, 67, 68, 68, 69, 70, 70, 72, 74, 76, 76, 79, 81, 83, 85, 86. What is the mean age at death for these data?
a. 55 years
b. 62.8 years
c. 67 .5 years
d. 70 years
18. No Question
19. If a pesticide label indicates the product is "EPA -registered; what does this mean in practical terms?
a. use of the product according to label directions will not harm the environment
b. it has been proven effective at killing target pests
c. it has been tested and proven safe to use according to label instructions
d. the product is legal to sell and use in the United States
20. The following data are ages at death in years for a sample of people who were all born in the same year: 11, 34. 42, 44, 48, 50, 54 55,55,58, 59, 60, 65, 67, 68, 68, 69, 70, 70, 72, 74, 76, 76, 79, 81, 83, 85, 86. What is the median age at death for these data?
a. 62.8 years
b. 67 years
c. 67.5 years
d. 68 years
21. Which of the following illustrates the influence of policy in behavior change?
a. Raising tobacco taxes
b. Company's reduction in cigarette pricing
c. Restriction of advertising and promotion
d. A and C only
e. None of the above
22. In 1842. Edwin Chadwick published the General Report on the Sanitary Condition of the laboring Population of Great Britain. An important part of his report included
a. the creation of local sanitary boards
b. description of the prevalence of disease among foreign laborers in the U.K.
c. recommendation to teach personal and public health principles to children in the schools
d. plans for the establishment of the first school of public health & hygiene.
23. Which foodborne disease has the most rapid time of onset following consumption of the tainted food item, with symptoms generally appearing 2-7 hours after eating?
a. Campylobacter infections
b. Staphylococcus intoxications
24. The US and other countries are seeing a strong push for evidence-based practice in health care. Evidence-based medicine is meant to:
a. Ensure better and maintain acceptable medical outcomes through the adherence to specific
treatment and practice guidelines
b. Ensure better and more equitable medical outcomes through the adherence to specific treatment and practice guidelines
c. Ensure better and more equitable medical outcomes through the creative application of specific treatment and practice guidelines
d. None of these are correct
25. In reference to ranges of tolerance for limiting factors, which of the following population groups is most sensitive to adverse environmental conditions?
b. Babies and young children
c. The elderly
26. Who was Thomas Malthus?
a. Population biologist who formulated the S-curve from his experiments on paramecia
b. Chairman of the Presidential Commission on World Hunger who warned that international tensions due lo food shortages could led to armed conflict
c. British economist who warned that population growth will always outstrip food supply
d. Research chemist whose work led to the development of oral contraceptives
e. The 'Father of the Green Revolution’
27. What is considered to represent the single most frequent cause of lead poisoning among American children?
a. eating vegetables grown in lead-contaminated soil
b. eating lead-contaminated seafood
c. swallowing paint chips or paint dust
d. drinking water from lead-containing plumbing system
e. inha1ation of emissions from city incinerators
28. The sharp increase in skin cancer rates during the past few decades in the U.S. has largely been attributed to excess exposure to:
a. ultraviolet light
b. infrared waves
c. visible light
e. alpha radiation
b. Stem leaf
e. AII the above
a. one of the social determinants of health
b. one of the management competencies of leadership.
c. an assessment function of public health.
d. a part of the World Health Organization's perspective on systems thinking.
e. part of the mission of Healthy People 2020
a. The maximum
b. The 3rd quartile
c. The minimum
d. The median
e. The 1st quartile
e) All the above
33. A dataset with a higher median relative to the mean suggests that the distribution
a. is skewed to the left
b. is skewed to the right
c. cannot be evaluated for statistical significance
d. ls biased
34. Community constituencies of a local health department (LHD) include
a. the land mass in the geographic region served by the LHO.
b. public school teachers in the local school district
c. laws and policies governing the county.
d. all of the above.
35. The limit at which a given environment can support a population is referred to as that environment's
a. Environmental resistance
b. Carrying capacity
c. Homeostatic control
d. Biotic potential
36. Organizational commitment typically involves the following three factors
a. Belief in the goals and values of the organization, unwillingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization, and desire to continue work with the organization
b. Belief in the goals and values of the organization, willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization, and desire to do the minimum for the organization.
c. Belief in the goals and values of the organization, willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization, and desire to continue work with the organization
d. Non-belief in the goals and values of the organization, willingness to exert considerable effort on bf of the organization. and desire to continue work with the organization
a. John Snow
b. John Graunt
c. Edward Jenner
d. William Farr
a. job description, recruiting, job analysis, performance appraisal
b. job analysis, recruiting, job description, performance appraisal
c. recruiting, job description, performance appraisal, job analysis
d. job analysis, job description, recruiting, performance appraisal
39. Molds are biologic pollutants associated and are commonly linked lo health issues in the United States. Which of the following conditions may be described as mold related?
a. Airway and conjunctiva! irritation
b. Hypersensitivity reactions such as asthma
c. Infections due to immunologic effects
d. A and B only
e. All the above
40. As an epidemiologist you are going to investigate the effect of a new IV drug suspected of causing neoplasms when used to treat a particular type of common infection in the emergency room setting. As your sample, you will use the next 200 patients treated for this infection in a given hospital. For tach case of the infection a medication history will be taken from the patient and from the treating physician; in addition, you will review medical records to verity use of the drug. The patients are considered to have been followed prospectively during the entire course of their illness, because a complete and accurate record of drug use was maintained for each patient. The resultant data are: Forty patients were given the suspected drug during their treatment. Of these patients, 35 developed the neoplasm. In addition, 10 other patients treated for the infection with a different medication developed neoplasms. What is the relative risk between exposure to the drug and the neoplasm?
41. Assume a researcher published a paper rejecting a null hypothesis at the 1% level of significance (that is, alpha = 0.01).
a. The finding may not be significant since it was not tested al an alpha level of 0.05
b. You win also reject the null hypothesis at the 5% level of significance since alpha level of 0.01 is a more stringent test
c. You cannot make any assumptions about the alpha at the 5% level without first calculating the value from the published data
d. It is 5 times as likely the null hypothesis would be accepted at the 0.05 alpha level
b. Paired 1-tesl
d. One-sample t-test
43. What is the unit for measuring intensity of sound (i.e loudness of a noise)?
44. Ethnic minorities tend to be disproportionately affected and bear the burden of disease. Which of the following demographic variations may explain the observed burden of morbidity and mortality of Blacks in the US relative to Whites?
d .A and Conly
e. All of the above
45. Health is strongly affected by biology but is also linked to other determinants of health Which of the following determinants contributes the greatest to overall health?
a. social and economic factors
b. Clinical care
c. physical environment
d. health behaviors
46. The following data are ages at death in years for a sample of people who were all born in the same year: 11, 34. 42, 44, 48, 50, 54 55,55,58, 59, 60, 65, 67, 68, 68, 69, 70, 70, 72, 74, 76, 76, 79, 81, 83, 85, 86. What is the interquartile range for these data?
b. 67 .5 years
c. 29 years
d. 20.5 years
47. A major health insurance company is considering nationwide implementation of a test using biomarkers to screen for colon cancer. The test is delivered in health clinics in two similar regions of the country, with the following results:
What is the most likely cause of the difference in the test's sensitivity and specificity between the two regions?
a. The prevalence of disease is different between the two regions
b. The test is detecting the disease earlier in its natural history in one of the regions.
c. length-biased sampling has occurred.
d. The test was not administered in similar conditions in the two regions
48. Scripturally we are meant to.
a. Make the most of the environment without regard to the consequences
b. Dominate the environment like a conquering army
c. Assume that environment will be exhausted by the end of lime
d. Be guardians and protectors of the environment
49. Secondary prevention of disease is best described as
a. control of causal factors of disease
b. early detection and treatment of disease
c. control of chronic disease symptoms
d. decreasing exposure to disease agents
50. The core public health functions of Assessment, Policy Development, & Assurance were originally published by the
a. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
b. institute of Medicine.
c. American Public Health Association
d. U.S. Public Health Service
e. World Health Organization.