Government 2306

Government and Politics in the Lone Star State

Tenth Edition

Chapter 3

Texas Government and Politics in the Federal System

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Learning Objectives

3.1 Explain three ways in which nations structure relationships among national, regional, and local levels of government and how the Constitution of the United States is used to navigate federal-state relations.

3.2 Outline the changing patterns in the relationship between the U.S. national government and the states.

3.3 Assess the impact of federalism on state finances.

3.4 Describe the increased interdependency between the United States and Mexico.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Structuring Regional and National Interests (1 of 3)

Over 90,000 governmental units in the United States, with over 500,000 elected officials

Texas has 254 counties, 1,214 municipalities, and 3,679 school and other special districts.

Three ways to organize a nation:

Unitary

Confederation

Federalism

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

3

Figure 3-1 Governments in Texas, Illinois, Florida, and Massachusetts, 2012

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2012 Census of Governments, Government Organizations, vol. 1, Table 3.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

People typically think of “the government” in terms of one or two levels, but as you can see, it is far more complex than that. The government of Texas is actually composed of more than 5,000 governmental units, each with different tasks to perform. Moreover, states approach local governance differently. Some states, like Texas and Illinois, have a large number of local governments, while other states, like Massachusetts and Florida, have fewer local governments even though they have larger populations. Understanding which governmental entity does what task in each setting is an important part of becoming an informed participant.

NOTE: The U.S. Census Bureau conducts a Census of Governments of all state and local governmental organization units every five years, for years ending in 2 and 7.

4

Structuring Regional and National Interests (2 of 3)

Defining Federalism

Federal-State Relationships from a Constitutional Perspective

Vertical federalism

Article I, Section 8, Paragraphs 1–17

Article I, Section 8, Paragraph 18

Supremacy Clause of Article VI

Powers denied to the levels of government

Tenth Amendment (reserved powers)

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Structuring Regional and National Interests (3 of 3)

Defining Federalism

Relationships among the states

Horizontal federalism

Full faith and credit

Privilege and immunities

Extradition

Interstate compacts deal with issues of mutual concern

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships (1 of 10)

Metaphors for Federalism

Dual federalism

Federal, state, and local government function independently of each other.

Layer-cake theory

Cooperative federalism

Governments coordinate, collaborate, and cooperate to meet shared goals and objectives.

Marble-cake or picket-fence theory

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships (2 of 10)

State-Centered and Dual Federalism

States take primary responsibility for domestic policy.

Adversarial relationship between the states and national government on some issues

State and federal powers demarcated through court cases and statutory laws.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships (3 of 10)

Cooperative Federalism

Expanded federal role in domestic policy

New Deal policies

Use of commerce and national supremacy clauses

Federal funding used to shape and implement domestic policies.

Categorical grant-in-aid

Project grant

Formula grant

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Taxes in Action

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Pictured here is construction on the Northwest Highway in Dallas. Many construction projects are undertaken with matching funds. Next time you are sitting in traffic, or enjoying a newly repaved road, remember that you are seeing your tax dollars at work!

10

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships (4 of 10)

Centralized Federalism

Kennedy and Johnson administrations

Referred to as coercive or regulatory federalism

Programs bypassed states and gave funding directly to local governments.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships (5 of 10)

The Multiple Phases of New Federalism

Republican opposition (Nixon and Reagan)

Nixon’s New Federalism

Consolidate categorical grants into block grants

Revenue sharing

Federal spending and regulatory powers actually increased.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships (6 of 10)

The Multiple Phases of New Federalism

Republican opposition (Nixon and Reagan)

Reagan Revolution

Committed to reducing federal programs and revitalizing the power of state and local governments

Reagan opposed revenue sharing, the program initiated under Nixon.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships (7 of 10)

The Multiple Phases of New Federalism

The Clinton years (1993–2001)

Deficit reduction

“Devolution Revolution”

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

Welfare reform (1996)

Motor-Voter Law of 1993

Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993

Defense of Marriage Act of 1996

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships (8 of 10)

The Multiple Phases of New Federalism

The Bush II years (2001–2009)

Centralization continued in the post-9/11 era.

Increased federal role in domestic security

Homeland Security Department

USA Patriot Act

Standardization of state driver’s licenses

No Child Left Behind

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships (9 of 10)

The Multiple Phases of New Federalism

Obama years (2009–2017)

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010

Twenty-six states (including Texas) objected to expanding Medicaid and requiring all Americans to get health insurance.

The law required the states to create health exchanges to assist individuals in shopping for insurance coverage.

The case has not been decided yet, but states argued that the law was an unconstitutional intrusion into state authority.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships (10 of 10)

The Role of the U.S. Supreme Court in Defining Federalism

Federal courts define power, authority, and jurisdiction in the federal system.

Conservative courts expected to promote a pro–states’rights viewpoint.

No consistent pro-state trend in recent court decisions

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Impact of Federalism on State Finances

Federal Funds Were $68.7 Billion (34.3%) of the $200.4 Billion 2014–2015 State Budget.

Health and human services received over 30 percent of all federal funds allocated to Texas.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 3-2 Sources of Revenue for Texas, 2014–2015 Versus 2012–2013

SOURCE: Texas Legislative Budget Board, Legislative Budget Board Fiscal Size-Up: 2014–2015 Biennium, February 14, 2014, http://www.lbb.state.tx.us/Documents/Publications/Fiscal_SizeUp/Fiscal_SizeUp.pdf.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

As indicated by this chart, Texas government receives a large share of its funding from the federal government.

NOTE: All dollar amounts are in millions. Numbers may total to more than 100 percent due to rounding.

19

Reactions to the Expanded Role of the Federal Government (1 of 2)

Many Americans argue that economic, environmental, and social issues are national in scope and cannot be adequately addressed at the state and local level.

Government centralization has been a dominant fear throughout the country’s history.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Reactions to the Expanded Role of the Federal Government (2 of 2)

Mandates Meet State Agencies and Local Communities.

Today, the large number of federal mandates and preemptions restrict the policy options of state and local governments and often increase their costs.

Some federal programs have provisions that link different policy areas together.

Many federal assistance programs were designed to redistribute resources from wealthier Americans to those with lower incomes.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Transnational Regionalism (1 of 6)

Maquiladoras

Created by Mexico’s Border Industrialization Program (1964)

Created twin plants

Reduced tariffs, transferred technology, and created jobs on both sides of the border

Spurred population growth along the border region

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Maquiladora Program

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The interdependence between South Texas and Mexico is growing, partly as a result of NAFTA. Pictured here is a worker in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico), working at a factory that manufactures automobile parts and technology and chiefly exports products to the United States.

23

Transnational Regionalism (2 of 6)

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

Treaty among the United States, Mexico, and Canada to reduce tariffs and increase trade

Concerns about NAFTA

Low labor and capital costs in Mexico threaten U.S. markets as more jobs move to Mexico.

Safety problems related to highways and Mexican trucks

Worsening of environmental problems including air, water, and waste pollution

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

24

Figure 3-3 Texas and U.S. Exports to Mexico, 1993–2015

SOURCE: Massachusetts Institute of Social and Economic Research and the U.S. Census Bureau (based on “origin of movement to port” state-level data series); Texas Department of Economic Development, April 2000; and International Trade Administration, Trade Stats program, 2012–2014.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

This chart depicts the dramatic increase in exports from Texas and the United States to Mexico since the passage of NAFTA in 1993.

25

Transnational Regionalism (3 of 6)

Immigration

Federal government laws and policies

Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986

Made it illegal for U.S. firms to hire undocumented immigrants

Increased penalties for smuggling undocumented immigrants and using fraudulent documents, and made it easier to detain and deport undocumented immigrants

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Transnational Regionalism (4 of 6)

Immigration

State actions

Penalties for companies that hire undocumented immigrants, and restrictions on immigrants’ access to higher education, public services, and driver’s licenses

In 2012, the Supreme Court rejected key components on the restrictive Arizona law but upheld the authority of the federal government to set immigration law and public policy.

In 2014, President Obama moved to enact new immigration policies that would grant amnesty to five million undocumented immigrants.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Transnational Regionalism (5 of 6)

Border Drug Violence

Mexico’s inability to fight the drug problem

Mexican government estimates more than 164,000 homicide victims in war on drug cartels between 2007 and 2014.

Texans concerned about violence spreading across the border.

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Transnational Regionalism (6 of 6)

Common Borders, Common Problems

Economic interdependence

Health care and health problems

Colonias

Binational families

Environmental problems

Copyright, patent, and insurance issues

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Journal 3.4

How important is the immigration issue in your community? Do you think the government should grant citizenship to young people who were brought to the country as children, have graduated from American high schools, and are of good moral character, or do you think these individuals should be deported?

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Shared Writing 3.4

Consider the discussion in the “Perry Vows to Secure Border, Spread Red-State Policies” article. Antifederal government sentiment runs high, but when Governor Perry called for conservatives to “wage war” and referenced President Obama as a “hungry, oppressive ruler” and Washington as a “faraway place,” many said that he went too far. What do you think? Do Texans consider the national leadership in Washington to be too far out of touch with state values, or is this simply the campaign rhetoric of a politician preparing for a second presidential bid? How dangerous do you think it is when a governor of a state as large as Texas asserts that “a little rebellion now and then” is good?

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Photo Credits

Page 55: Braden Summers/Taxi/Getty Images; 58: Jim West/Alamy Stock Photo; 65: Joyce Marshall/Newscom; 66: epa european pressphoto agency b.v. /Alamy; 69: Brooks Kraft/Sygma/Corbis/Getty Images; 75: Foodfolio/Alamy Stock photo; 77: Keith Dannemiller/Alamy Stock Photo; 85: Andre Babiak/Alamy Stock Photo

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved