Government 2306

Government and Politics in the Lone Star State

Tenth Edition

Chapter 1

The Social and Economic Environment of Texas Politics

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Learning Objectives

1.1 Assess major challenges facing Texas in

the twenty-first century.

1.2 Describe the political myths used to define and interpret the political culture of Texas.

1.3 Compare and contrast the political subcultures of Texas.

1.4 Describe the history and characteristics of the major population groups in Texas.

1.5 Assess the impact of demographic and economic changes on the political system of Texas.

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See 1.5: numbers need to be in different font color than the text of objective

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Challenges of the Twenty-First Century

Problems for an Urban State:

Population growth

Transformation of the economy

Increasing demands for services

Each Generation Must Address:

Role of government in society

Relationship of people to government

Government responsiveness

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3

The Myths of Texas’s Political Culture (1 of 3)

Political Myths

Stories used to describe the past

Common historical or cultural experiences

Pervasive in literature, symbols, rituals, and popular culture

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Title of slide is “A-head”

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The Myths of Texas’s Political Culture (2 of 3)

Sources of Texas Political Myths

Myth of origin

The Alamo

The Lone Star State

Frontier myth (individualism)

Cowboys

Individualism

Texas Rangers

Cultural myth of limited government and unlimited personal opportunity

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The Myths of Texas’s Political Culture (3 of 3)

Political Myths of the Majority

Myths belong primarily to the white, Anglo population.

Have little to do with African Americans and Hispanics and their experiences as Texans.

Since the 1970s, African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans have made significant political and economic gains.

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Meg (M) - Unlike previous, these are sentences so add periods.

The Political Culture of Texas (1 of 4)

Political Culture

Set of attitudes, beliefs, and sentiments

Give order and meaning

Assumptions and rules that govern behavior

Beliefs about proper role of government; about relationship of government to its citizens; and about who should govern

Daniel Elazar

Three political subcultures in the United States

Shaped by immigration patterns

Account for regional political differences in Texas

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The Political Culture of Texas (2 of 4)

The Individualistic Subculture

Politics and government as a marketplace

Purpose of government

Provide a stable political order in which private individuals and groups can pursue their specific interests

Politics

New policy initiatives are more likely to be initiated by interest groups or private individuals than by public officials.

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The Political Culture of Texas (3 of 4)

The Moralistic Subculture

Purpose of government

To serve the general interests or the general good

Politics

Sense of duty and responsibility to use power and resources to provide benefits for all segments of society

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The Political Culture of Texas (4 of 4)

The Traditionalistic Subculture

Purpose of government

Government and the political order are designed to serve the interests of a few.

Politics

Systematic efforts to reduce or eliminate the participation of the general public

Limited interest in expanding participation in the decisions of government

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10

The People of Texas (1 of 6)

Native Americans

Three small Native American groups

Alabama-Coushatta, Tigua, and Kickapoo

Population approximately 1% of the state’s total population

In recent years, the Kickapoos have opened a limited casino but the Alabama-Coushatta and Tigua had been denied the right to run casinos on their reservations until a ruling in 2015.

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11

The People of Texas (2 of 6)

Hispanics

In 2014, Hispanics comprised 38.6% of the state’s population.

This growth in population is steadily increasing the political power and influence of this group.

Eight Hispanics have been elected to statewide office.

Hispanics held some 2,536 elected positions in Texas in 2015, the highest number of any state.

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12

Figure 1-1 Ethnic and Racial Composition of Texas, 1860–2014

SOURCE: Terry G. Jordan with John L. Bean Jr. and William M. Holmes, Texas: A Geography (Boulder: Westview 1984), 81–83; U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Censuses, 1860–2010; and U.S. Census Bureau, 2014 American Community Survey.

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The composition of the state’s population has changed significantly since the 1960s with large increases in the Hispanic and Asian American populations.

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The People of Texas (3 of 6)

African Americans

In 2010, African Americans made up about 12% of the Texas population.

African Americans are expected to represent between 11% and 12% of the state’s population through the 2020 census.

The African American population is concentrated in the eastern counties of the state and in the large urban areas.

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14

The People of Texas (4 of 6)

Anglos

Anglos are the dominant population in Texas.

Anglo population of Texas originated in the states of the upper and lower South.

Anglos helped establish the individualistic and traditionalistic subcultures in Texas.

Anglos accounted for only 43.4% of the people of Texas in 2014.

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15

The People of Texas (5 of 6)

Asian Americans

In 2014, Asian Americans comprised 4.3% of the Texas population.

Several Asian Americans have been elected to public office in Houston.

Houston is home to the largest concentration of Asian Americans in Texas.

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16

The People of Texas (6 of 6)

Politics, Race, and Ethnicity

Polarized voting along ethnic lines

V. O. Key (scholar of American politics)

Voters in Texas “divide along class lines in accord with their class interests as related to liberal and conservative candidates.”

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17

Journal 1.4

What innovations or changes would help increase the graduation rates of Latino students in Texas?

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18

Growth and Changing Demographics (1 of 8)

Population Growth

In 2015, Texas had 27,469,114 people

Increase of 4.3 million people from 2000 to 2010

Texas growth rate of 20.6% was higher than the national growth rate of 9.7%

Texas is the second most populous state, second only to California, due to the following reasons:

High birth rates, migration, and immigration

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Growth and Changing Demographics (2 of 8)

The Aging Population

In 2014, Texas ranked forty-eighth among the states in median age.

Median age in Texas was 34.3 years, compared to 37.7 years for the entire country.

About 11.5% of the state’s population was older than 65 in 2014.

Aging population demands health care, long-term care, and increased Medicaid spending.

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Growth and Changing Demographics (3 of 8)

Urban Texas

89% of Texans live in urban areas of the state.

Three of the ten largest cities in the United States are in Texas.

There is an increase in demand for goods and services due to an urbanized population.

State government and its subdivisions are now forced to deal with this challenge.

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21

Figure 1-2 Urban-Rural Population of Texas, 1850–2014

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Censuses, 1850–2000; United States Department of Agriculture; Economic Research Service, “State Fact Sheets: Texas,” Data updated December 8, 2015.

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Texas’s population has become increasingly urban as this graph dramatically illustrates. Almost 90 percent of Texans now live in urban areas.

Figure 1-3 Texas Urban Triangle

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, “Estimates of Resident Population Change and Rankings: July 1, 2013 to July 1, 2014,” State, County/County Equivalent 2014 population estimates accessed at http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml#.

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Nearly three-fourths of Texans live within or near the Texas Urban Triangle, the shaded area shown here. Based on current population estimates, most of the state’s future population growth will occur in this area.

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Figure 1-4 Ten Largest Texas Cities, 1920–2014

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Censuses, 1920–2010; U.S. Census Bureau, 2014 American Community Survey.

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A strong indication of the urbanization of Texas is the growth of its ten largest cities. Three of the ten largest cities in the United States—Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas—are in Texas.

NOTE: Population of Plano and Arlington not show for early years: Plano was under 4,000 in 1920, 1940, and 1960; Arlington was under 5,000 in 1920 and 1940.

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Growth and Changing Demographics (4 of 8)

Wealth and Income Distribution

Wide disparity in the distribution of income among Texans

About 17.2% of Texans live below the poverty line.

Disproportionately, the poor are minorities, single heads of households, children, and the elderly.

These disparities in wealth have shaped partisan conflict and politics.

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Growth and Changing Demographics (5 of 8)

Education and Literacy

Education determines how Texas competes in a new global economy.

Service jobs will require a higher level of education.

Education not only helps determine a person’s employment and income potential but also affects his or her participation in politics.

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Table 1-2 Educational Attainment in the U.S. and Texas by Race and Ethnicity, 2014 (Persons 25 Years of Age and Older)

United States United States Texas Texas
High School Diploma College Degree High School Diploma College Degree
Anglo* 92.0% 33.6% 93.4% 36.3%
Hispanic 65.4 14.4 62.5 13.0
African American 84.4 19.7 87.9 21.8
Asian 86.3 51.5 86.9 57.9
All Persons 86.9 30.1 82.2 27.8
*White, not of Hispanic origin
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, 2014 American Community Survey.

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Growth and Changing Demographics (6 of 8)

The Size and Geographic Diversity of Texas

Texas is 261,231 square miles in area.

Candidates in statewide campaigns spend millions of dollars to communicate with and mobilize Texas voters.

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Growth and Changing Demographics (7 of 8)

The Economy of Texas

Texas had a $1.6 trillion gross state product in 2014.

Texas’s economy has diversified significantly since the 1980s.

Future growth will be in the service industries.

New high-tech and biotech industries are taking on more importance in this economic transformation.

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

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Growth and Changing Demographics (8 of 8)

Economic Regions of Texas

Texas has twelve economic regions.

Agriculture is huge in the High Plains region, the South Texas region, and the Upper East Texas region.

But these three regions, like the other nine regions, are all different in terms of economic recovery, growth, and development.

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Figure 1-5 Economic Regions of Texas, 2016

SOURCE: Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts.

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The office of the Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts has divided the state into twelve economic regions, which vary markedly in terms of population economic infrastructure, economic performance, and rates of growth.

Shared Writing 1.5

Consider the discussion in the “What Ethnic Diversity Looks Like: Fort Bend County” article. Fort Bend County, located to the southwest of Houston, has a population that now exceeds 600,000 and is one of the fastest-growing counties in the nation. Its racial and ethnic diversity is rather unusual in that 21 percent of the population is African American, 23 percent Hispanic, 19 percent Asian, and 36 percent Anglo or non-Hispanic white. How are Texans learning to accommodate the increased diversification that is occurring in many areas of the state? As these new groups are brought into the political system, do you anticipate significant changes in the state’s political culture? Or, in a more concrete example, do you see a person from China or Pakistan identifying with the culture of individualism that pervades the state?

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