This publication is available at Army Knowledge Online (https://armypubs.us.army.mil/doctrine/index.html). To receive publishing updates, please subscribe at


*FM 6-22

Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.

*This publication supersedes FM 6-22, dated 12 October 2006.


Field Manual No. 6-22

Headquarters Department of the Army

Washington, DC,

Leader Development Contents


PREFACE............................................................................................................... v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .....................................

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... vi Chapter 1 LEADER DEVELOPMENT ................................................................................ 1-1

Tenets of Army Leader Development ................................................................. 1-1 The Challenge for Leader Development ............................................................ 1-2 Leadership Requirements .................................................................................. 1-3 Cohesive and Effective Teams ........................................................................... 1-5 Growth Across Levels of Leadership and by Cohorts ........................................ 1-7 Transitions across Organizational Levels ........................................................... 1-8

Chapter 2 PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................ 2-1 Unit Leader Development Programs .................................................................. 2-2 Evaluation of Leader Development Programs.................................................. 2-18

Chapter 3 FUNDAMENTALS OF DEVELOPMENT ........................................................... 3-1 Section I – Setting Conditions ........................................................................ 3-2 Learning Environment ........................................................................................ 3-3 Knowledge of Subordinates................................................................................ 3-6 Section II – Providing Feedback ..................................................................... 3-8 Observation Planning ......................................................................................... 3-8 Accurate Observations and Assessments .......................................................... 3-8 Feedback Delivery ............................................................................................ 3-11 Section III – Enhancing Learning .................................................................. 3-16 Leader Role Models ......................................................................................... 3-17 Mentorship ........................................................................................................ 3-17 Guided Discovery Learning .............................................................................. 3-22 Coaching........................................................................................................... 3-25 Study ................................................................................................................. 3-26 Section IV – Creating Opportunities ............................................................. 3-28 Challenging Experiences .................................................................................. 3-29 Leader Selection ............................................................................................... 3-30 Leader Succession ........................................................................................... 3-31 Career Development and Management ........................................................... 3-32


ii FM 6-22

Chapter 4 SELF-DEVELOPMENT ...................................................................................... 4-1 Strengths and Developmental Needs Determination ..........................................4-1 Goal Setting ........................................................................................................4-5 Self-enhanced Learning ......................................................................................4-9 Learning in Action .............................................................................................4-16

Chapter 5 UNIQUE ASPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT ....................................................... 5-1 Character ............................................................................................................5-1 Judgment and Problem Solving ..........................................................................5-2 Adaptability ..........................................................................................................5-7

Chapter 6 LEADER PERFORMANCE INDICATORS......................................................... 6-1 Accurate and Descriptive Observations ..............................................................6-1 Application of the Performance Indicators ..........................................................6-1

Chapter 7 LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES ............................................... 7-1 Capability Evaluation and Expansion ..................................................................7-1 Developmental Activities .....................................................................................7-2 Leads Others .......................................................................................................7-5 Builds Trust .......................................................................................................7-10 Extends Influence Beyond the Chain of Command ..........................................7-12 Leads by Example .............................................................................................7-15 Communicates ..................................................................................................7-23 Creates a Positive Environment/Fosters Esprit de Corps................................. 7-28 Prepares Self ....................................................................................................7-38 Develops Others ...............................................................................................7-46 Stewards the Profession ...................................................................................7-51 Gets Results ......................................................................................................7-53

GLOSSARY .......................................................................................... Glossary-1

REFERENCES .................................................................................. References-1

INDEX ......................................................................................................... Index-1

Figures Introductory Figure 1. Integrating diagram ............................................................................... vii Figure 1-1. Army leadership requirements model .................................................................. 1-4 Figure 1-2. Army team building process model ..................................................................... 1-6 Figure 2-1. Example unit leader development program outline ............................................. 2-8 Figure 2-2. Example unit leader development program ......................................................... 2-9 Figure 2-3. Example battalion NCO development program ................................................. 2-12 Figure 2-4. Example battalion platoon sergeant development program .............................. 2-13 Figure 2-5. Example battalion leader development program for lieutenants ....................... 2-15 Figure 2-6. Example unit leader development scorecard .................................................... 2-19 Figure 3-1. Fundamentals of developing leaders .................................................................. 3-2 Figure 3-2. Example IDP ........................................................................................................ 3-7 Figure 3-3. Example SOAR feedback notes ........................................................................ 3-10 Figure 4-1. Example of self-development goal development ................................................. 4-8


FM 6-22 iii

Tables Table 1-1. Principles of mission command linkage to Army leadership requirements ...........1-5 Table 1-2. Signs of ineffective and effective teams ................................................................1-7 Table 2-1. Goals and end states of the leader development plan ..........................................2-4 Table 2-2. Enablers for learning .............................................................................................2-5 Table 2-3. Developmental activities and opportunities ...........................................................2-6 Table 3-1. Learning principles ................................................................................................3-5 Table 3-2. Mentor roles and responsibilities .........................................................................3-18 Table 5-1. Examples of reflective questions ...........................................................................5-3 Table 5-2. Example questions to focus thinking .....................................................................5-5 Table 5-3. Skills and characteristics of adaptability ................................................................5-7 Table 6-1. Framing the Army Values, empathy, Warrior/Service ethos, and discipline .........6-3 Table 6-2. Framing presence ................................................................................................. 6-4 Table 6-3. Framing intellect ....................................................................................................6-5 Table 6-4. Framing leads ........................................................................................................6-6 Table 6-5. Framing develops ..................................................................................................6-7 Table 6-6. Framing achieves ..................................................................................................6-8 Table 7-1. Identification of developmental goal ......................................................................7-1 Table 7-2. Methods to implement developmental activities ...................................................7-2 Table 7-3. Evaluation model ...................................................................................................7-3 Table 7-4. Leadership competencies and actions listing .......................................................7-4 Table 7-5. Uses appropriate methods of influence to energize others...................................7-6 Table 7-6. Provides purpose ..................................................................................................7-7 Table 7-7. Enforces standards ...............................................................................................7-8 Table 7-8. Balances mission and welfare of followers ...........................................................7-9 Table 7-9. Sets personal example for trust ..........................................................................7-10 Table 7-10. Takes direct actions to build trust ......................................................................7-11 Table 7-11. Sustains a climate of trust .................................................................................7-12 Table 7-12. Understands sphere, means, and limits of influence ........................................7-13 Table 7-13. Negotiates, builds consensus, and resolves conflict .........................................7-14 Table 7-14. Displays Army Values .......................................................................................7-16 Table 7-15. Displays empathy ..............................................................................................7-17 Table 7-16. Exemplifies the Warrior Ethos/Service Ethos ...................................................7-18 Table 7-17. Applies discipline ...............................................................................................7-19 Table 7-18. Leads with confidence in adverse situations .....................................................7-20 Table 7-19. Demonstrates tactical and technical competence .............................................7-21 Table 7-20. Understands and models conceptual skills .......................................................7-22 Table 7-21. Seeks diverse ideas and points of view ............................................................7-23 Table 7-22. Listens actively ..................................................................................................7-24 Table 7-23. Creates shared understanding ..........................................................................7-25 Table 7-24. Employs engaging communication techniques .................................................7-26


iv FM 6-22

Table 7-25. Sensitive to cultural factors in communication .................................................. 7-27 Table 7-26. Fosters teamwork, cohesion, cooperation, and loyalty .................................... 7-29 Table 7-27. Encourages fairness and inclusiveness ........................................................... 7-30 Table 7-28. Encourages open and candid communications ................................................ 7-31 Table 7-29. Creates a learning environment ....................................................................... 7-32 Table 7-30. Encourages subordinates ................................................................................. 7-34 Table 7-31. Demonstrates care for follower well-being ....................................................... 7-35 Table 7-32. Anticipates people’s duty needs ....................................................................... 7-36 Table 7-33. Sets and maintains high expectations for individuals and teams ..................... 7-37 Table 7-34. Maintains mental and physical health and well-being ...................................... 7-39 Table 7-35. Expands knowledge of technical, technological, and tactical areas ................. 7-40 Table 7-36. Expands conceptual and interpersonal capabilities ......................................... 7-41 Table 7-37. Analyzes and organizes information to create knowledge ............................... 7-42 Table 7-38. Maintains relevant cultural awareness ............................................................. 7-43 Table 7-39. Maintains relevant geopolitical awareness ....................................................... 7-44 Table 7-40. Maintains self-awareness ................................................................................. 7-45 Table 7-41. Assesses developmental needs of others ........................................................ 7-46 Table 7-42. Counsels, coaches, and mentors ..................................................................... 7-47 Table 7-43. Facilitates ongoing development ...................................................................... 7-48 Table 7-44. Builds team skills and processes ...................................................................... 7-50 Table 7-45. Supports professional and personal growth ..................................................... 7-51 Table 7-46. Improves the organization ................................................................................ 7-52 Table 7-47. Prioritizes, organizes, and coordinates taskings .............................................. 7-54 Table 7-48. Identifies and accounts for capabilities and commitment to task ..................... 7-55 Table 7-49. Designates, clarifies, and deconflicts duties and responsibilities ..................... 7-56 Table 7-50. Identifies, contends for, allocates, and manages resources ............................ 7-57 Table 7-51. Removes work obstacles .................................................................................. 7-58 Table 7-52. Recognizes and rewards good performance .................................................... 7-59 Table 7-53. Seeks, recognizes, and takes advantage of opportunities ............................... 7-60 Table 7-54. Makes feedback part of work processes .......................................................... 7-61 Table 7-55. Executes plans to accomplish the mission ....................................................... 7-62 Table 7-56. Identifies and adjusts to external influences ..................................................... 7-63

FM 6-22 v

Preface FM 6-22 Leader Development provides a doctrinal framework covering methods for leaders to develop other leaders, improve their organizations, build teams, and develop themselves.

The principal audience for FM 6-22 is all leaders, military and civilian, with an application focus at the operational and tactical levels. Trainers and educators throughout the Army will also use this manual.

Commanders, staffs, and subordinates ensure their decisions and actions comply with applicable U.S., international, and, in some cases, host-nation laws and regulations. Commanders at all levels ensure their Soldiers operate in accordance with the law of war and the rules of engagement (see FM 27-10).

FM 6-22 uses joint terms where applicable. Selected joint and Army terms and definitions appear in both the glossary and the text. Terms for which FM 6-22 is the proponent publication (the authority) are marked with an asterisk (*) in the glossary. Definitions for which FM 6-22 is the proponent publication are boldfaced in the text. For other definitions shown in the text, the term is italicized and the number of the proponent publication follows the definition.

This publication incorporates copyrighted material.

FM 6-22 applies to the Active Army, Army National Guard/Army National Guard of the United States, and United States Army Reserve unless otherwise stated.

The proponent of FM 6-22 is Headquarters, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command. The preparing agency is the Center for Army Leadership, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center—Mission Command Center of Excellence. Send comments and recommendations on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) to Center for Army Leadership, ATTN: ATZL-MCV-R, 290 Stimson Avenue, Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-1293; by e-mail to [email protected]; or submit an electronic DA Form 2028.

LIVING DOCTRINE Bringing Doctrine to Life

The Army is committed to delivering doctrine to our Soldiers and civilians through the various media used in everyday life. FM 6-22 is available in an eReader format for download to commercial mobile devices from the Army Publishing Directorate (www.apd.army.mil). A platform-neutral application (LeaderMap) has also been developed to augment the content of the manual with additional multi-media material. LeaderMap is available thru the Central Army Registry (www.adtdl.army.mil) and can be found by typing LeaderMap into the search function after signing in. A fully enhanced interactive version of FM 6-22 for commercial devices will be available at the Army Training Network (https://atn.army.mil/). The fully enhanced interactive version integrates video, audio, and interactivity to enhance the overall learning and reading experience. An announcement will be made Armywide as soon as the interactive version is fielded.

Acknowledgements This manual contains copyrighted material as indicated:

Chapter 2, paragraphs 2-6, 2-7, and 2-28 and the example scorecard; Chapter 3, paragraphs 3-4–3-5, 3-7–3-9, 3-11–3-13,4, 3-20–3-34, 3-57–3-60, 3-106, 3-117–3-122, 3-124–3-126, 3-134–3-136, and special callout texts within these paragraphs; and chapter 4, paragraphs 4-57–4-59 and the personal after action review (AAR) on page 4-12 come from Commander’s Handbook for Unit Leader Development, Copyright © 2007 United States Government, as represented by the Secretary of the Army. All rights reserved.

Chapter 4, paragraphs 4-8–4-15, 4-19–4-57, and 4-61–4-74 and the analysis exercises on pages 4-4 and 4-5 come from Self-Development Handbook, Copyright © 2008 United States Government, as represented by the Secretary of the Army. All rights reserved.

vi FM 6-22

Introduction Army leaders are the competitive advantage the Army possesses that technology cannot replace nor be substituted by advanced weaponry and platforms. Today’s Army demands trained and ready units with agile, proficient leaders. Developing our leaders is integral to our institutional success today and tomorrow. It is an important investment to make for the future of the Army because it builds trust in relationships and units, prepares leaders for future uncertainty, and is critical to readiness and our Army’s success. Leader development programs must recognize, produce, and reward leaders who are inquisitive, creative, adaptable, and capable of exercising mission command. Leaders exhibit commitment to developing subordinates through execution of their professional responsibility to teach, counsel, coach, and mentor subordinates. Successful, robust leader development programs incorporate accountability, engagement, and commitment; create agile and competent leaders; produce stronger organizations and teams; and increase expertise by reducing gaps between knowledge and resources.

Leader development involves multiple practices that ensure people have the opportunities to fulfill their goals and that the Army has capable leaders in position and ready for the future. The practices include recruiting, accessions, training, education, assigning, promoting, broadening, and retaining the best leaders, while challenging them over time with greater responsibility, authority, and accountability. Army leaders assume progressively broader responsibilities across direct, organizational, and strategic levels of leadership.

FM 6-22 integrates doctrine, experience, and best practices by drawing upon applicable Army doctrine and regulations, input of successful Army commanders and noncommissioned officers, recent Army leadership studies, and research on effective practices from the private and public sectors.

FM 6-22 provides Army leaders with information on effective leader development methods by: Translating Army leader feedback into quick applications. Prioritizing leader development activities under conditions of limited resources. Integrating unit leader development into already occurring day-to-day activities. Integrating ADRP 6-22 leader attributes and competencies consistently across Army leader development doctrine.

FM 6-22 contains seven chapters that describe the Army’s view on identifying and executing collective and individual leader development needs:

Chapter 1 discusses the tenets of Army leader development, the purpose of developing leaders to practice the mission command philosophy, building teams, and development transitions across organizational levels.

Chapter 2 discusses the creation of unit leader development programs.

Chapter 3 addresses the fundamentals for developing leaders in units by setting conditions, providing feedback, and enhancing learning while creating opportunities.

Chapter 4 provides information on the self-development process including strengths and developmental needs determination and goal setting.

Chapter 5 discusses character, judgment and problem solving, and adaptability as situational leader demands.

Chapter 6 provides information on leader performance indicators to enable observations and feedback.

Chapter 7 provides recommended learning and developmental activities.

The References section includes pertinent links to recommended leader development readings and Web sites.

Introductory figure 1 illustrates how the information within this manual fits together.


FM 6-22 vii

Introductory Figure 1. Integrating diagram

FM 6-22 1-1

Chapter 1

Leader Development 1-1. The Army depends upon itself to develop adaptable leaders able to achieve mission accomplishment in dynamic, unstable, and complex environments. A robust, holistic leader development program is essential. Through a mix of education, training, and experience, Army leader development processes produce and sustain agile, adaptive, and innovative leaders who act with boldness and initiative in dynamic, complex situations to execute missions according to doctrine, orders, and training. Furthermore, it also produces leaders that possess the integrity and willingness to act in the absence of orders, when existing orders, doctrine or their own experience no longer fit the situation, or when unforeseen opportunities or threats arise. Properly designed leader development programs develop trusted leaders of character, competence, and commitment. The goal is to develop Army leaders who clearly provide purpose, direction, motivation, and vision to their teams and subordinates while executing missions to support their commander’s intent. Leaders at all levels need to be prepared to understand the strategic context for execution and success of any mission.

1-2. Leader development is fundamental to our Army—leader development is the deliberate, continuous, sequential, and progressive process—founded in Army values—that grows Soldiers and Army Civilians into competent and confident leaders capable of decisive action. Leader development is achieved through the life- long synthesis of the knowledge, skills, and experiences gained through the training and education opportunities in the institutional, operational, and self-development domains (AR 350-1). A key component of leader development is remaining focused on the professionalism of our leaders and those they lead. By developing and promoting a professional force, the Army develops trust on several levels: between Soldiers; between Soldiers and leaders; between Soldiers and Army Civilians; between the Soldiers, their families and the Army; and between the Army and the American people. This is why the Army is committed to providing quality institutions of education and training along with challenging experiences throughout a career.

TENETS OF ARMY LEADER DEVELOPMENT 1-3. The tenets of Army leader development provide the essential principles that have made the Army successful at developing its leaders. The tenets also provide a backdrop for the Army principles of unit training (see ADRP 7-0). The overarching tenets of Army leader development are—

Strong commitment by the Army, superiors, and individuals to leader development. Clear purpose for what, when, and how to develop leadership. Supportive relationships and culture of learning. Three mutually supportive domains (institutional, operational, and self-development) that enable education, training, and experience. Providing, accepting, and acting upon candid assessment and feedback.

1-4. Development of people is an Army priority. Commitment represents intention and engagement from the individual, from supportive leaders, and from the Army. Beyond their directed responsibility to develop subordinates, leaders want to serve in an organization that values camaraderie and teamwork and improves the capabilities of others. Leaders have a directed responsibility to develop their subordinates; accountability for implementation follows responsibility. Leaders must be committed to the development of others and themselves. Teams change and organizations change when individuals choose to engage and improve.

1-5. Development depends on having clear purpose for what, when and how to develop. Good leader development is purposeful and goal-oriented. A clearly established purpose enables leaders to guide, assess, and accomplish development. The principles of leader development describe goals for what leaders need to be developed to do: leading by example, developing subordinates, creating a positive environment for learning, exercising the art and science of mission command, adaptive performance, critical and creative thinking, and knowing subordinates and their families. The core leader competencies and attributes identified

Chapter 1

1-2 FM 6-22

in ADRP 6-22 and the Army Leader Development Strategy (ALDS) provide additional detail of what leaders need to be able to do.

1-6. Supportive relationships and a culture of learning recognize that for development to occur a willingness to engage with others must exist. This tenet relates to two of the principles of leader development: creating a learning environment and knowing subordinates and their families (see ADRP 7-0). Leaders, organizations, and the entire Army must set the conditions for development to occur. Leader development is a mindset incorporated into all organizational requirements and mission accomplishment. Leaders must balance leader development against organizational requirements and mission performance. In operational units and other organizations, development can occur concurrently with training and mission performance, especially when leaders create an environment that places real value and accountability on leader development activities and the Soldiers and civilians to be developed.

1-7. Development occurs through both formal systems and informal practices. Reception and integration, newcomer training, developmental tasks and assignments, individual and collective training, educational events, transition or succession planning, and broadening are all activities where development occurs and should be encouraged. Development involves experiential learning that is consistent with the principle of train as you fight. The performance of duties is always an opportunity for learning while doing. Any experience that shapes and improves performance enhances development.

1-8. Feedback is necessary to guide and gauge development. Formal and informal feedback based on observation and assessment provide information to confirm or increase self-awareness about developmental progress. The Army established performance monitoring, evaluation reports, coaching, mentoring, and growth counseling processes to engage leaders and individuals. Each is essential for development.

THE CHALLENGE FOR LEADER DEVELOPMENT 1-9. The Army must develop leaders comfortable making decisions with available information and prepared to underwrite the honest mistakes subordinates make when learning. These same leaders must also be capable of developing others to be adaptive, creative, professional, and disciplined to execute any mission. Leaders should place emphasis on holistic programs that range across grades from enlisted through senior officers and the Army Civilian Corps.

1-10. Developing leaders involves a holistic, comprehensive, and purposeful group of activities. More than any set of activities, success stems from a culture where leaders with a mindset and passion for developing others use daily opportunities to learn and teach. Leader development occurs at home station, in offices, laboratories, depots, maintenance bays, during exercises, and while deployed. Limited day-to-day interaction with their units and subordinates challenges Reserve Component leaders. At the same time, they benefit from the civilian skills of their subordinates. Reserve Component leaders should use the experience and leadership acquired by their Soldiers from their civilian careers and develop strategies that can be executed on-duty and off, keeping in mind the balance that must be achieved between their subordinate’s Army duties, civilian position, and family life. For all cohorts, the Army must sustain the continuous development of future leaders.

1-11. Successful leaders recognize that they must continually develop their subordinates by maximizing opportunities in the institutional, operational, and self-development domains. It is critical to the long-term sustainment of the Army. Leaders are responsible for ensuring their organizations develop subordinates, perform missions, apply doctrinally sound principles in training, and exercise stewardship of resources. Along with responsibility comes accountability. Accountability speaks to two levels: leaders held accountable for how well they have developed their subordinates and individuals held accountable for their own professional development.

1-12. The ALDS lays out the Army's vision, mission, and framework for leader development. The strategic vision emphasizes competence, commitment, character, skills, and attributes needed by Army leaders to prevail in unified land operations and leading the Army enterprise. The Army's leader development mission relies on training, education, and experience components to contribute to the development of leaders. The ALDS also identifies the ends, ways and means for the leader development process. Will and time applied to development are the essential means for success, and this is why a professional culture and individual mindsets committed to development are important. The ALDS starts with leaders at all levels understanding their responsibility for developing other leaders and themselves and creating conditions that provide the

Leader Development

FM 6-22 1-3

opportunities for teaching, training, and providing developmental experiences. The ALDS integrates leader development domains with the training, education and experience lines of effort to show how leaders can be prepared through diverse, aligned activities. The desired ends are leaders developing and improving to meet the expectations identified in the Army leadership requirements model.

LEADERSHIP REQUIREMENTS 1-13. An Army leader, by virtue of assumed role or assigned responsibility, inspires and influences people to accomplish organizational goals. Army leaders motivate people both inside and outside the chain of command to pursue actions, focus thinking, and shape decisions for the greater good of the organization (ADP 6-22). These occur through leadership––the process of influencing people by providing purpose, direction, and motivation to accomplish the mission and improve the organization (ADP 6-22). The nation and the Army has articulated the expectations of leaders in the Army. The Army leadership requirements model (see figure 1-1 on page 1-4) illustrates expectations of every leader, whether military or civilian, officer or enlisted, active or reserve. This model aligns the desired outcome of leader development activities and personnel practices to a common set of characteristics valued throughout the Army. It covers the core requirements and expectations of leaders at all levels of leadership. Attributes are the desired internal characteristics of a leader—what the Army wants leaders to be and know. Competencies are skills and learnable behaviors the Army expects leaders to acquire, demonstrate, and continue to enhance—what the Army wants leaders to do.

1-14. The competency of getting results requires special mention to counter beliefs that only the end result matters. While the other elements in the model address enablers, conditions, and processes, the achieves category is where leadership is most direct and most challenging. The actions for gets results integrate all other components in a way that brings people, values, purpose, motivation, processes, and task demands together to make the difference in outcomes related to the mission. The integrating actions of this competency also affect all other attributes and competencies. Getting results must simultaneously address improvements to the organization, Soldier and civilian well-being and motivation, adjustments due to situational changes, ethical mission accomplishment, and so on. All the competencies and attributes together lead to trust between the leader and the led, trust that lays the foundation for mission command and effective teamwork.

Chapter 1

1-4 FM 6-22

Figure 1-1. Army leadership requirements model 1-15. The leadership requirements and principles of mission command are mutually supportive. Understanding and practicing the principles of mission command are imperative for all leaders: officers, warrant officers, noncommissioned officers (NCOs), and Army Civilians. Mission command is the exercise of authority and direction by the commander using mission orders to enable disciplined initiative within the commander’s intent to empower agile and adaptive leaders in the conduct of unified land operations (ADP 6-0). While commanders exercise mission command, the actions of subordinates influence effectiveness.

1-16. Through practices in all domains of leader development, the philosophy of mission command becomes ingrained in the Army’s ethos and culture. Army leaders, Soldiers, and Civilians at every echelon throughout the operating force and the institutional Army apply mission command principles in the conduct of routine functions and daily activities.

1-17. To best prepare leaders for the uncertainty associated with Army operations, leaders must develop and create opportunities to understand and become proficient in employing the mission command principles. This development requires continual assessment and refinement throughout the individual’s service. Leaders who fail to assess or develop their people or teams will not have prepared them to take disciplined initiative. Additionally, the leaders will not understand what individuals and teams are capable of doing and will not be in a position to capitalize on using mission orders.

1-18. Army leaders exercise mission command. Table 1-1 shows the linkage between the principles of mission command and the competencies and attributes of Army leaders in the leadership requirements model. Leader development activities must maintain the vision of developing leaders to execute mission command.

Leader Development

FM 6-22 1-5

Table 1-1. Principles of mission command linkage to Army leadership requirements

Principles of Mission Command Army Leadership Requirements (ADRP 6-22)

Build cohesive teams through mutual trust

Develops others—builds effective teams. Builds trust—sets personal example; sustains a climate of trust. Demonstrates the Army Values and decisions consistent with the Army Ethic. Leads others—balances subordinate needs with mission requirements. Extends influence beyond the chain of command—builds consensus and resolves conflict. Creates a positive environment—fosters teamwork.

Create shared understanding

Communicates—creates shared understanding. Demonstrates interpersonal tact—interaction with others. Leads others—provides purpose, motivation, and inspiration. Extends influence beyond the chain of command––uses understanding in diplomacy, negotiation, consensus building. Builds trust—uses appropriate methods of influence to energize others. Creates positive environment--supports learning. Gets results—designates, clarifies and deconflicts roles.

Provide a clear commander’s intent

Leads others—provides purpose. Communicates—employs engaging communication techniques. Gets results—prioritizes taskings.

Exercise disciplined initiative

Leads others—influence others to take initiative. Demonstrates the Army Values—duty. Demonstrates self-discipline—maintains professional bearing and conduct. Demonstrates mental agility—anticipates uncertain or changing conditions. Gets results—accounts for commitment to task.

Use mission orders Leads others—provides purpose without excessive, detailed direction. Develops others—expands knowledge. Gets results—executes plans to accomplish the mission the right way.

Accept prudent risk Leads others—assesses and manages risk. Gets results—identifies, allocates, and manages resources. Stewardship—makes good decisions about resources.

COHESIVE AND EFFECTIVE TEAMS 1-19. Teams are an essential configuration of how people come together to accomplish missions. In the Army, teams occur throughout every structure level of the organization. The Army as a whole is teams of teams. It begins with buddy teams––two military members who look after each other in a variety of positions and environments. The missions of the Army demand that leaders and teams be developed and ready. It is proven that a team is more effective than an individual when members work together, using their unique skills, experiences, and capabilities. The Army leadership competency categories cover how Army leaders lead; develop themselves, their subordinates, and organizations; and bring efforts together to achieve results. Army leaders are charged with developing others and conducting team building. Holistic leader development programs contribute to unit cohesion, resilience, and agility by producing leaders and teams that are creative, life-long learners, adaptable, and capable of exercising mission command.

1-20. The mission command philosophy helps to set the conditions for developing teams. Creating a shared understanding is the first step and most important in developing a team. It gives the team a unifying purpose. The leader sets the tone; in a team-focused climate, members understand how they contribute to the overall success of the organization. Knowing the ‘why’ drives each action taken. Developing an overall sense of team and building an effective high quality team are two separate actions that should be parts of the overall leader development program. The goal of team building is to improve the quality of the team and how it works together to accomplish the mission.

Chapter 1

1-6 FM 6-22

1-21. The Army relies on effective teams to perform tasks, achieve objectives, and accomplish missions. Building and maintaining teams that operate effectively is essential to both internal and external organizations. To do this, Army leaders employ Army team building, a continuous process of enabling a group of people to reach their goals and improve their effectiveness through leadership and various exercises, activities, and techniques. Figure 1-2 outlines the Army team building process.

Figure 1-2. Army team building process model 1-22. Three qualities measure good teamwork: identity, cohesion, and climate. Team identity develops through a shared understanding of what the team exists to do and what the team values. Cohesion is the unity or togetherness across team members and forms from mutual trust, cooperation, and confidence. Teamwork increases when teams operate in a positive, engaging, and emotionally safe environment. An engaging environment is one where team members desire to work together on required missions; they feel a sense of self-worth and they are accomplishing something more important than they are. A safe environment occurs when team members feel they can be open and are not threatened by unwarranted criticism.

Team building From a first sergeant: Team building is a vital part of the Army because Soldiers need to feel as though they are a part of a team if they are going to be willing to fight and die for a teammate and their country. Soldiers need to learn their position and responsibility within that team.

1-23. Teamwork fosters open communication, improves professional relations, and contributes to unit motivation and building trust. Teamwork pulls together the knowledge and experience of a diverse group of people to accomplish the mission. Knowing the elements of effective teams and developing teamwork helps leaders assemble the team, orient them, create an identity, cultivate trust, engage in solving problems, manage processes, regulate team dynamics, and deliver results to other organizations and stakeholders. High performing teams enforce high standards and hold each other accountable for their actions and their level of performance or output. Motivation and discipline are keys to teams that surpass normal expectations. Table 1-2 compares characteristics of effective teams and ineffective teams. Time management and prioritization of effort are important for self and team discipline. Teams that find themselves continually operating in a crisis management mode need to break out of the cycle with better prioritization, effective delegation and

Leader Development

FM 6-22 1-7

dedicated time for planning. See Army doctrine on team building and the Virtual Improvement Center for specific techniques.

Table 1-2. Signs of ineffective and effective teams

Ineffective Teams Effective Teams Fail to listen to relevant input of a team member. Speak despairingly about other members. Fail to enforce or encourage discipline in the team. Compete, rather than cooperate, with other team

members. Argue with other team members in front of

counterparts or other individuals. Fail to act or make decisions on issues that have

implications for the team. Focus more on self-interest than the well-being of

the team. Give less than full effort because of low morale or

lack of confidence in other team members.

Emphasize what is common among members rather than focus on characteristics that could cause subgroups to form.

Hold a shared vision about operating as a team. Share information that may be useful to other team

members. Ensure team members periodically engage in

group activities (such as sports, meals, or other off-duty activities).

Act quickly to promote togetherness when schisms in the group appear or morale drops.

Show appreciation and concern for team members. Act as a team instead of individuals; take pride in

team accomplishments.

1-24. The mental dimension is an often overlooked part of teaming and team building. Shared cognition of teamwork includes learning, situational understanding, and critical thinking; motivation is common to all. The leader has a role in building team capacity in each area.

1-25. Teams that have a positive learning culture are eager to understand new areas and current situations. High performance teams are motivated to be inquisitive, to find better ways of doing their work, to acquire new information, and to create new knowledge. Leaders can establish a culture of learning by making learning part of the team's goals. Leaders can build up beliefs in the power of learning by how they demonstrate the value of learning to them personally and how they make learning interesting. Leaders can trigger learning by calling for reflection on shared events and individual experiences.

1-26. Teams that thoroughly engage in active situation assessment and understanding will have the best information available to work on required tasks. Asking questions and sensemaking are valuable processes for teamwork. Sensemaking is a process of creating meaning of an experience through discussion. Individual experiences and insights have greater value through a collaborative situation assessment. The depth of understanding achieved is pivotal in how the team handles complex problems. Developing accurate assessments and the ability to make precise distinctions comes from teams that are motivated to practice at discussing problems critically.

GROWTH ACROSS LEVELS OF LEADERSHIP AND BY COHORTS 1-27. Leaders develop the confidence, leadership, and the competence needed for more complex and higher- level assignments through education, training, and experience gained throughout a career. The Army balances education, training, and experience to develop leaders at all ranks and in all cohorts (officer, warrant officer, NCO, and Army Civilian). While the core leader competencies and attributes remain the same across levels, fine points in application and of expectations change. See ADRP 6-22 for discussions on leadership at the direct, organizational, and strategic levels.

1-28. The processes and expectations for each cohort are similar, while the outcomes are slightly different. Grounded in the Army Values, the Army expects all cohorts to be resilient, adaptive, and creative throughout careers of service to the Nation.

1-29. The Army develops officers, at all echelons, to understand and practice the mission command philosophy to lead and execute unified land operations. The Army expects officers to integrate leader development practices with collective and individual training to accomplish the Army’s missions and develop subordinates for future responsibilities. They routinely operate at direct-level interactions with others and work at the organizational and strategic levels to plan, prepare, execute, and assess leader development policies, systems, and practices. Warrant officers serve at all echelons as the primary integrators and

Chapter 1

1-8 FM 6-22

managers of Army systems. They bring an unequalled depth of knowledge, experience, and perspective in their primary areas of expertise. Warrant officers, at all echelons, understand and practice the mission command philosophy to execute unified land operations. See DA PAM 600-3 for descriptions of the full spectrum of developmental opportunities throughout a career.

1-30. NCOs are responsible for setting and maintaining high-quality standards and discipline while conducting daily missions and making intent-driven decisions. NCOs serve as standard-bearers and role models vital to training, educating, and developing subordinates. Through training, coaching, mentoring, counseling, and informal interaction, they guide the development of Soldiers in an everyday basis and play a role in the development of junior officers. NCOs, at all echelons, understand and practice the mission command philosophy to execute unified land operations. NCOs advise officers at all levels and are an important source of knowledge and discipline for all enlisted matters. See DA PAM 600-25 for professional development opportunities.

1-31. Army Civilians provide crucial continuity that complements the roles of Soldiers. Army Civilian leaders require a broad understanding of military, political, and business-related strategies, as well as, high levels of managerial, leadership, and decision-making skills. Army Civilians create and practice leader development for other Army Civilians and support the development of military personnel while serving as supervisors, mentors, and instructors. At all echelons, Army Civilians should understand and exercise the mission command philosophy while providing mission-based capabilities to support Army missions. See DOD Instruction 1430.16 and AR 690-950 for specifics.

TRANSITIONS ACROSS ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELS 1-32. Cultural and individual mindsets that promote continuous learning are the cornerstone for creating and sustaining an agile Army. Through activities in the institutional, operational, and self-development domains, personnel obtain education, training, and experiences in order to grow and be able to succeed at positions of greater responsibility. As Army leaders progress in leadership responsibilities, it is necessary for them to develop new mindsets and to refine how they will lead at the next level.

1-33. Understanding key shifts in requirements across the progression of levels, helps individuals prepare for what may be ahead of them and helps prepare others to acquire capabilities for their next level. For the Army, the refinement of requirements across levels helps with management of talent. The Army provides opportunities for developmental experience before assigning leaders to positions of greater responsibility.

1-34. The timing of development is especially important in the military because personnel join and move through a series of alternating and progressive education, training, and operational experiences. The approach applies to Army Civilians as well; however, Army Civilians understand that federal service does not program advancement opportunities for most positions. Army Civilians move across positions based on the governing regulations and laws relating to applying for and filling vacated or newly created positions. Ideally, the best of the direct-level leaders are developed into organizational level leaders and ultimately into strategic and enterprise level leaders.

1-35. A clear framework of leadership requirements provides leaders the basis to assess their strengths and developmental needs and to determine goals for improvement. Created through lengthy study and practice, the Army’s leadership requirements model (see figure 1-1) specifically provides leaders with an enduring set of attributes and competencies expected of them. The model provides a consistent reference point throughout the progression of professional and personal development. Leaders must improve in all the leader competencies, become more knowledgeable about the way the military operates, and understand how to operate in complex geopolitical situations. In addition to the leadership requirements model, leaders must grow in their ability to understand, visualize, describe, direct, lead, and assess under differing conditions that change at each level of leadership. As leaders progress, they will experience greater challenges based on the scope of the situation, the consequences and risks involved, and the time horizon. As the scope increases, the number of people and outside parties involved also increases. The consequences of decisions increase, as do the risks that leaders must address. The length of time that leaders’ decisions apply tend to increase at higher levels as well as the time over which leaders can apply influence.

1-36. Transitioning to the next stage in a career can be difficult, regardless of demonstration of performance and potential at prior levels. When moving into new positions with different demands, individuals may not

Leader Development

FM 6-22 1-9

perform at a previous high level. Individuals must have a developmental mindset to improve what is within their capability and be motivated to do their best. The Army endorses a culture where individuals continually strive to learn, broaden personal skills, and improve regardless of whether such efforts lead to promotion.

1-37. For military leaders there are six transition points spanning the full range of organizational levels. The changing requirements across levels are illustrative of the relative amount of emphasis needed on certain skills or attributes. Not all levels and transitions apply to all cohorts, military fields, or functions and there will be positions that do not fit neatly into the model. For Army Civilians, there are similar transition points, each of which requires additional leadership skills at progressive levels of responsibility. Personnel begin by managing themselves. Leading and preparing self is something that remains through the entire process no matter where one enters and exits the leadership continuum. In this role of leading self, the individual is primarily a follower. Self-management and self-preparation are important steps in preparing for the initial leadership responsibilities. Six transitions that apply to Army organizations are––

Leading at the direct level. Initial-entry Soldiers and civilians transition from a focus on self to providing direct leadership to others. Junior leaders learn how to plan daily tasks and activities, understand organizational constructs, and how to interact with subordinates, peers, and superiors. Leading organizations. The second transition occurs when leaders begin to lead at the organizational level. This level begins at company, battery, troop, staff, and similar organization levels for Army Civilians. Direct level leadership still occurs at this level, but the leaders become leaders of leaders and will rarely be performing individual tasks, unless out of emergency or in undermanned organizations. Coaching subordinate, direct-line leaders and setting a positive example as a leader are two characteristics that stand out for managers. Leading functions. The third transition is from leading an organization (as a leader of direct-line leaders) to leading functions. This level involves directing functions beyond a single individual’s experience path. Operating with other leaders of leaders and adopting a longer-term perspective are key characteristics of this phase. Functional leaders typically include majors, mid-level warrant officers, and mid-level NCOs. Leading integration. A fourth transition occurs when leaders assume command and leadership responsibility for battalion and similar sized generating force organizations. These leaders must become more adept at establishing a vision, communicating it, and deciding on goals and mission outcomes. They need to find more time for reflection and analysis and value the importance of making trade-offs between future goals and current needs. Positive attitudes related to trust, accepting advice, and accepting feedback will pay dividends during this phase and into the future. Leading large organizations. A fifth transition happens when leaders operate at the brigade- equivalent and higher levels of operational and institutional organizations. These leaders develop strategy for organizational and strategic-level operations. They are operating outside of their experience paths while leading others operating beyond theirs as well. Leaders in this phase will only be successful by valuing the expertise and success of others and operating within the multiple layers of their organization. Humility is a desired characteristic of organizational and strategic leaders who should recognize that others have specialized expertise indispensable to success. A modest view of one's own importance helps underscore an essential ingredient to foster cooperation across organizational boundaries. Even the most humble person needs to guard against an imperceptible inflation of ego when constantly exposed to high levels of attention and opportunities. Leading the enterprise. A final step occurs in the transition to serving as an enterprise leader. Enterprise leaders must be long-term, visionary thinkers who spend considerable time interacting with agencies beyond the military. This level of leader must be willing to relinquish control of the pieces of the enterprise to strategic and lower-level leaders.

FM 6-22 2-1

Chapter 2

Program Development 2-1. Leader development occurs for the benefit of both individuals and the organization. The Army is known for its success in developing leaders rapidly. Multiple leader development opportunities occur in organizations, though not always used for their learning value. Without intent, plans, or a program for leader development, organizational emphasis on learning is based on commander interest and unit climate. Leader development programs leverage the opportunities for development to address individual and organizational goals for development.

2-2. Commanders are responsible for training and leader development in their units and for providing a culture in which learning takes place. They must deliberately plan, prepare, execute, and assess training and leader development as part of their overall operations. Commanders and leaders must integrate leader development into their organizational training plans or leader development programs.

2-3. Developing Army leaders at all levels, military and civilian, is the best means to ensure the Army can adapt to the uncertainties the future holds. Individuals who feel that the Army and their leaders are interested in them are motivated to demonstrate greater initiative and to engage fully in leader development. Leader development programs that are individualized and that have a multi-leveled aspect are the most effective. The content of leader development programs need to account for the individual’s levels of competence, character, and commitment.

2-4. Organizational leader development plans must nest in purpose and guidance of the higher organization’s plan. Plans should be consistent with Army enterprise concepts, strategy, and guidance on leader development. Leader development plans should provide guidance to subordinate units yet allow them freedom to determine practices and schedules most conducive to their missions. Plans up and down an organizational structure need to align to create synergy and unity of effort. A battalion leader development plan or equivalent-sized unit will identify specific processes supporting leader development. Generating force organizations headed by a colonel or similar ranking Army Civilian are a good target for leader development plans that detail specific processes. The battalion plan should anticipate the needs of and execution by its subordinate units.

2-5. Variations in programs will occur across echelons depending on the type and size of the organization. For example, a division has greater latitude in selecting leaders for special assignments than does a battalion due to the wider scope of opportunities and larger number of leaders. A Reserve Component unit has fewer training days to plan and schedule team building events, so there may be a greater role for self-development and mentoring. Detached and dispersed units have fewer organic assets to prepare and conduct special events but may have access to external opportunities, such as a training detachment on a university campus.

2-6. The Army holds commanders accountable for unit leader development by regulation (see AR 350-1). Accountability can be included as part of the organizational inspection program (see AR 1-201). Responsibility for leader development cuts across all leader and staff roles. Some examples of roles and responsibilities for developing leaders are—

Each leader develops subordinates. The senior warrant officer, noncommissioned officer, and civilian leaders take ownership for their cohorts’ leader development in the organization. Each leader (as well as those who aspire to positions of leadership) takes responsibility for their own leader development.

2-7. The next-higher echelon commander, human resources and operations staff, and senior cohort leaders must clarify leader development roles and responsibilities. These individuals directly and indirectly affect the efficiency and effectiveness of leader development.

Chapter 2

2-2 FM 6-22

DELINEATING RESPONSIBILITIES Efficient implementation of leader development programs depends on a clear definition and allocation of responsibilities across leaders and staff both in and outside the organization. Develop a matrix to document notes on the roles and responsibilities for developing leaders in the organization.

UNIT LEADER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS 2-8. Leader development is a mindset and process, not merely an event, reflected by everything leaders do. An opportunity for leader development exists in every event, class, assignment, duty position, discussion, physical training formation, briefing, and engagement. Leader development is a continuous and purposeful process. It is an ongoing process intended to achieve incremental and progressive results over time. Chapter 3 covers the fundamentals of implementing the process to create a leader development culture and to promote a mindset for leader development.

PLAN CREATION 2-9. Various types and echelons of commands and organizations label their leader development guidance with different descriptions such as strategy, philosophy, policy, memorandum, plan, or standing procedure. The title and format are less important than having a good plan—one that aligns with the tenets of leader development: committed organization; clear purpose; supportive learning culture; enabler of education, training, and experience; and feedback. The plan helps to inspire and guide the organization to engage in leader development. Plans that incorporate leader development into daily operations without creating extra events will be well received and have the greatest chance for effective implementation. The imperative of having a plan is to bring attention to leader development, provide focus and purpose, encourage the mindset, set the conditions, show how development should occur, and coordinate efforts across the organization.

2-10. Developing a leader development plan follows the same steps used in the operations process (see ADP 5-0). Planning involves understanding a situation, envisioning a desired future, and planning effective ways of achieving that future. The plan should allow for disciplined initiative by subordinate units and individual leaders. A leader development plan is specific because the outcomes need to address both organizational and individual goals as well as both short-term and long-term goals. The long-term focus extends beyond a military commander’s tour and beyond the military personnel’s time in the unit. Most Army Civilian leaders are not reassigned based on time, though leader development plans similar to those in operational units can serve their needs. Once the commander’s visualization is described and the plan is developed, it directs preparation and execution of the unit’s leader development program. The commander and unit leaders lead the execution of the program and assess its progress. The leader development program will create change in the organization and in individuals—it is a living document. As the program creates change and as leaders develop, the plan can be updated.

Understand 2-11. To aid in understanding, command teams can use formal assessments such as command climate surveys, unit Multi-Source Assessment and Feedback (MSAF) 360 assessments, training center after action review (AAR) take-home packages, and command inspection program results to focus on conditions indicating unit strengths and developmental needs. The command team takes these various sources of information along with their own observations and discussions with subordinates and colleagues to determine an appropriate focus.

Program Development

FM 6-22 2-3

ASSESSMENT CONSIDERATIONS Planning a holistic leader development program starts with an assessment. Leaders gain the information needed to shape and inform an assessment from multiple external and internal sources. These are some sources for leaders to consider when developing an assessment:

External: Review the Army Leader Development Strategy, Army Campaign Plan, and command guidance. Meet with personnel who focus on the organization’s well-being such as the higher headquarters’ chaplain, Staff Judge Advocate, Inspector General, other staff, and support agencies. Review higher headquarters’ leader development guidance, programs, and plans. Review prior command inspection program results.

Internal: Mission essential task list assessment. Exercise or deployment results and after action reviews. Operational and training exercise performance records. Upcoming events or training calendars. Organizational climate surveys. Multi-Source Assessment and Feedback unit rollup report. Personnel roster and personnel qualification records. Personal assessment of subordinates’ education and experience. Social media. Tour work areas and facilities. Evaluations and support forms. Initial counseling feedback. Individual development plans.

2-12. The leadership team may not always have existing formal assessments to use. Additionally, the unit mission or composition may change so those sources may no longer apply. In these cases, leaders align goals with their observational assessments and any changes to organizational mission and goals.

One source to determine an organizational developmental baseline is to schedule and complete a unit-level MSAF event. The unit rollup report provides information on organizational leadership strengths and developmental needs that can focus planning and identifying developmental priorities. In addition, assessed leaders receive an individual feedback report highlighting personal leadership strengths and developmental needs. Individuals can use this information to develop their individual development plan (IDP). During periodic developmental counseling sessions, leaders can review subordinate IDPs to gain insight on current developmental priorities and possible program improvements.

Visualize 2-13. There are several sources to inform decisions about setting the desired future end states for leader development. For the philosophy aspects, the team can examine the ALDS, Army Campaign Plan, and the intent in higher and sister organization’s leader development plans. The most important and enduring outcomes are stated in a statement of vision or intent, depending on the preference of the commander.

2-14. An organizational leader development plan establishes the goals for specific end states. Each leader development plan has four mutually supporting purposes. The leader of each organization has a designated

Chapter 2

2-4 FM 6-22

responsibility to 1) accomplish the mission, 2) improve the organization, 3) enable personnel to be prepared to perform their current duties and 4) develop leaders for future responsibilities and other assignments. Different from unit training plans, the leader development plan addresses long-term outcomes for individuals and the organization (see table 2-1).

Table 2-1. Goals and end states of the leader development plan

Individual Organization

Short-term outcomes Improve personnel capabilities for unit duties Accomplish the mission Long-term outcomes Increase personnel capabilities beyond current

assignment Improve the organization

2-15. Outcomes should address at least these four areas. The planning and execution of the leader development program is a responsibility of the leaders in the organization and the individual. The vision or intent helps to focus and synchronize the leader development actions across the organization to achieve the greatest effects.

Leaders who recognize and approach leader development as a process are able to balance the long- term needs of the Army, the short-term and career needs of their subordinates, and the immediate needs of their organizations to determine how and when to integrate leader development opportunities in already-busy schedules

Plan 2-16. To start a plan, the leadership team goes through a conceptual process to consider how to achieve its desired end state. The end state and enduring purpose help guide the detailed phase of planning that involves the selection of activities to emphasize in the unit’s program.

Leaders with a mindset, clear-cut vision, and a passion for developing others, themselves, and teams are the most important elements of a successful leader development program. They capitalize on every opportunity.

2-17. The activities cover both unit and individual development for short-term and long-term development. The following factors provide ways to structure a plan:

Phases of a leader’s cycle within a unit. Reception. Integration. Utilization. Assignment rotation within the unit. Transition.

Unit cycles. Sustainable readiness model. Deployment schedule. Green-amber-red time management and training cycles.

Cohort programs. Sergeant’s time. Preparation for Soldier and sergeant excellence boards. NCO professional development. Warrant officer professional development. Officer professional development. Command team. Civilian leader development seminars. Combined leader development programs.

Program Development

FM 6-22 2-5

Developmental focus—common core for the team and all leaders. Essential characteristics of the profession (see ADRP 1). Command climate (see AR 600-20). Mission command principles (see ADRP 6-0). Core leadership competencies (see ADRP 6-22). Core leader attributes (see ADRP 6-22). Performance qualities, such as adaptability, resilience, versatility, creativity. Core unit mission and functions.

Developmental focus—career paths for groups of leaders. Career leadership responsibilities (see DA PAM 600-3, DA PAM 600-25, Army Civilian

Training, Education, and Development System (ACTEDS)). Career Management Field. Functional area. Army Civilian Career Programs.

2-18. Successful programs integrate formal, semiformal, and informal practices. Policy or regulation direct formal techniques. Addressed in doctrine, semiformal activities are commonly practiced and may be required, but failure to conduct them does not carry punitive consequences. Informal leader development consists of opportunities with a focus on learning. Table 2-2 lists ways to enable learning. Setting conditions for development, goal setting, assessments, and advice and counsel all contribute to improved learning. Table 2- 3 on page 2-6 provides additional opportunities and developmental activities. Both tables separate various techniques into formal, semiformal, and informal categories.

Table 2-2. Enablers for learning

Learning enablers Formal Semiformal Informal

Setting conditions

Integration and reception counseling. Initial performance counseling.

Understand individual differences in strengths, interests, potential, and development methods.

Getting to know and understand subordinates. Build rapport to enable supportive development.

Goal setting IndividualDevelopment Plan. 5-year plan.

Short-term and long-term personal and professional goals. Stretch goals.


Performance evaluation. Certifications. Inspection program. Command climate. Commander 360° assessment. General Officer 360° assessment.

Organizational certifications. Unit acculturation program. Core unit mission and functions review. Multi-Source Assessment and Feedback-Leader 360° for self-assessment. Unit 360° assessment.

Day-to-day observations. Asking others about a leader. Sensing sessions.

Advice and guidance

Performance counseling. Professional growth counseling.

Mentoring. Coaching. Training center counterpart feedback. Instructor feedback.

5-minute feedback. Peer discussions. Indirect questioning (What have you planned or done for your development lately? What have done to help a Soldier today?).

Chapter 2

2-6 FM 6-22

Table 2-3. Developmental activities and opportunities

Developmental opportunities Formal Semiformal Informal

Challenging experiences

Broadening assignments.

Unit succession planning/ Talent management: Stretch assignments. Developmental assignments. Rotational assignments.

Opportunities to operate in unfamiliar situations. Broadening tasks, casualty assistance, staff duty, food service duty.

Group leader development

Leader Training Program. After action reviews.

Officer professional development. Noncommissioned officer professional development. Combined events. Team building events.

Professional reading and writing program. Sharing experiences. Excellence competitions.


Professional military education courses. Functional, branch, career program, or special training.

Scheduling or supporting leaders to attend institutional education

Encourage utilization of new skills and knowledge of recent graduates.

Self- development

Structured self- development. Guided self-development.

Self-assessment. Reflective journaling. Personalized self- development. Study and practice.

Collective training

Incorporate leader development goals and processes into training objectives.

Team building exercises. Shared stories ofdevelopment.

2-19. From considering the learning enablers and developmental opportunities, the command team will create a plan for scheduling events. The schedule assists those leading and supporting the execution. The schedule maintains a reasonable number of activities and direction of emphasis to help ensure quality. Some events are required, such as performance evaluations and professional growth counseling, and the plan’s emphasis triggers other activities. The plan should encourage a mindset where leaders take the initiative to incorporate development into daily activities. Such activities include raising questions in an AAR about what was learned about leadership or asking leaders what self-development they are doing.

2-20. The leader decides the best method to describe the leader development program, such as annual concept, quarterly concept with specific events, or theme based. The plan needs to be synchronized with the overall unit schedule considering the training calendar, significant higher headquarter events that need to be supported, and other significant events.

Execute 2-21. Once completed, the leaders distribute the plan throughout the unit to direct program preparation and execution. Depending on the echelon, the leaders will review subordinate unit plans for leader development. The leadership team sets, directs, and leads the organizational goals, shaping the conditions for individual development. Individual leader development is based on the interest and the effort of individuals who develop others and themselves. It is up to each individual to learn, grow, and develop as an Army professional. An individual's IDP is a personal version of a unit leader development plan. Ideally, individuals and their raters work together to develop the IDP. Execution of the leader development plan can become a regular reported item in reviews, situation reports, and training briefs.

2-22. Leaders must ensure the plan affects development positively. The plan is a way to emphasize leader development and desired outcomes for individuals and for units. Leaders develop the plan with an intent to

Program Development

FM 6-22 2-7

seeing it through. Reviewed, assessed, and updated periodically, the plan is a living document. Leaders commit to creating an open learning environment where leader development becomes second nature. This occurs when leaders integrate leader development into daily administrative and training events, as well as deployed operations.

Assess 2-23. The leadership team needs to ensure that individual development stays the main effort and that the focus does not become the plan or running events. The documented plan can be either an enabler or a detractor to successful execution and achievement of the desired outcomes depending on the degree of mission command and disciplined initiative.

2-24. Leaders assess implementation and execution against the established vision and end states. Just as assessments help set goals for the unit leader development plan, assessments focused on implementation and execution provide useful information on how well the end states are being achieved and areas for adjustment. The leadership team can also assess whether the vision and end states were adequate or need improvement (see Section IV in Chapter 3).

2-25. Leaders must conduct required leader development activities such as performance evaluations, professional growth counseling, IDPs, and command climate surveys. Assessment of a leader in developing others can occur through reviewing how leaders used formal, semi-formal, and informal activities in the program. The leadership requirements model establishes the expectations for these functions and performance evaluations have provided the mechanism for checking. The 360° leader assessments provide personal feedback to the leader on what they have done to establish a positive climate, engage in developing others, and steward the profession. The 360° feedback provides an opportunity to leaders to address and improve their approaches before evaluation.

2-26. Leader development is a holistic process that occurs every day aligning training, education, and experience to prepare leaders to improve. Leader development is critical to all cohorts—enlisted, officer, and civilian—the source of the Army’s future leaders. The process balances long-term Army needs, short-term and career needs of subordinates, and immediate needs of the organization.

EXAMPLE PROGRAMS 2-27. Figures 2-1 through 2-5 provide examples of leader development guidance and programs for units. Figure 2-1 on page 2-8 is a sample battalion plan template followed by an example using that template (see figure 2-2 starting on page 2-9.). Program guidance may have annexes for special events or specific cohort programs. Figures 2-3 through 2-5 (see pages 2-12 through 2-18) show example development programs for battalion NCOs, platoon sergeants, and lieutenants. These example programs illustrate the necessity of developing leaders through daily events and not relying solely on a singular program for development.

Chapter 2

2-8 FM 6-22

Figure 2-1. Example unit leader development program outline

Program Development

FM 6-22 2-9

Figure 2-2. Example unit leader development program

Chapter 2

2-10 FM 6-22

Figure 2-2. Example unit leader development program (continued)

Program Development

FM 6-22 2-11

Figure 2-2. Example unit leader development program (continued)

Chapter 2

2-12 FM 6-22

Figure 2-3. Example battalion NCO development program

Program Development

FM 6-22 2-13

Figure 2-4. Example battalion platoon sergeant development program

Chapter 2

2-14 FM 6-22

Figure 2-4. Example battalion platoon sergeant development program (continued)

Program Development

FM 6-22 2-15

Figure 2-5. Example battalion leader development program for lieutenants

Chapter 2

2-16 FM 6-22

Figure 2-5. Example battalion leader development program for lieutenants (continued)

Program Development

FM 6-22 2-17

Figure 2-5. Example battalion leader development program for lieutenants (continued)

Chapter 2

2-18 FM 6-22

Figure 2-5. Example battalion leader development program for lieutenants (continued)

EVALUATION OF LEADER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS 2-28. Developing a set of formal and informal indicators that accurately assess the health of unit leader development in the organization is essential. Leaders can use these locally developed indicators to develop a leader development scorecard (see figure 2-6). Indicators may be different for different types of units, such as operational vice institutional. Employing a red/amber/green status suggests indicators requiring further

Program Development

FM 6-22 2-19

investigation, which may or may not relate directly to unit leader development efforts. The purpose is to identify trends over time and not react adversely to a single occurrence of an indicator.

Add locally-developed leader development indicators to the unit training brief for subordinate units to track and report on indicators of leader development like other key unit systems (such as training, maintenance, or budget). Refine the measures to those that accurately indicate the health of leader development.

Figure 2-6. Example unit leader development scorecard

FM 6-22 3-1

Chapter 3

Fundamentals of Development 3-1. Every part of the Army is vested in maximizing its human capital to prevent, shape, and win in the land domain. Every individual that makes up this capital is—or can become—a pivotal leader. While the Army employs many strategies in the development of leaders, the most influential of these coincide with the time spent in operational assignments for Soldiers and while at work for Army Civilians. Working in real settings—solving real problems with actual team members—provides the challenges and conditions where leaders can see the significance of and have the opportunity to perform leadership activities. Leaders encourage development and learning in their subordinates in every aspect of daily activities and should seek to learn something new every day. Self-development can occur anywhere, so it is an important aspect of development in organizations. Other settings, such as education, can apply the principles that are effective and efficient for development in units. Units and organizations operate in a more decentralized manner than educational and training centers. Decentralization makes the sharing of effective practices necessary and beneficial. Educational institutions and training centers are organizations that can adopt these same leader development principles for their own staffs, students, and trainees.

3-2. The fundamentals of development simplify and span the formal leader development activities that the Army has advocated, such as assessing, counseling, coaching, mentoring, broadening, and team building. The fundamentals are common across formal and informal leader development activities and serve to reinforce an Army developmental culture and a developmental mindset. Other sources provide guidance on techniques associated with the formal activities, such as AR 350-1 on MSAF assessments, AR 623-3 on the evaluation process, ATP 6-22.1 on the counseling process, ADRP 6-22 and MSAF resources on coaching, AR 621-7 and DA PAM 600-3 on broadening, and emerging doctrine on team building.

3-3. Efforts to implement leader development will yield better results if the focus is on methods that have already proven effective. Army leadership requires the establishment of interpersonal relationships based on trust and setting the example for everyone––subordinates, peers, and superiors. In leader development surveys, leaders ranked leading a unit, personal examples, and mentoring as the three most effective ways to develop their leadership qualities. Integrating the fundamentals of leader development into the organization creates a positive, learning climate and builds a mindset among leaders that development is a priority. Experience is a powerful learning tool, however, learning from experience is not guaranteed. As the tenets of leader development convey, learning requires commitment and purpose. For learning to occur, experiences need to be interpreted. This chapter covers setting the conditions for development, gathering and providing feedback, enhancing learning, and creating opportunities where experiential learning thrives.

3-4. The following sections focus on the fundamentals of leader development (see figure 3-1 on page 3-2): Setting conditions for leader development. Leaders personally model behaviors that encourage leader development, create an environment that encourages on-duty learning, apply principles that accelerate learning, and get to know the leaders in the organization. Providing feedback on a leader’s actions. Provide opportunities for observation, assessment, and feedback. Immediate, short bursts of feedback on actual leader actions enhance leader development in operational assignments as well as regular counseling. Enhancing learning. Use leaders as role models in the organization. Encourage mentoring, training, reflection, and study. Learning from other leaders is one of the most effective and efficient methods of development. Creating opportunities. Modify position assignments to challenge leaders. Be deliberate about the selection and succession of leaders. Integrate leader development across day-to-day activities. Evaluate its effectiveness.

Chapter 3

3-2 FM 6-22

Figure 3-1. Fundamentals of developing leaders

Shared Commitment to Development From a battalion commander: Coming into command, I told myself I was going to do it right. I was going to spend seventy-five percent of my time on training and leader development and twenty-five percent on admin. Once in command, no matter how hard I tried, seventy-five percent was admin. To make the change, I had to spread my intent for informal leader development throughout the formation so all understood and were practicing it. Tell those going into command that they have to be deliberate about having a plan for leader development. Then from day one in command, they have to integrate and implement day-to-day, informal leader development or else it will fall by the wayside.


3-5. Establishing a culture that promotes leader development throughout the organization is necessary. The organizational culture needs to embrace leader development to reinforce it as an expected part of daily operations. The culture is affected by leaders who share a mindset that leader development is important and is achievable as part of what they do each day. Leaders need to designate and protect time for leader development and develop a culture that encourages and rewards professional development.

3-6. Leaders create a pro-development culture through the same behaviors they use for any task. Individuals will accomplish what leaders view as important. How leaders react under pressure or during organizational crises will shape what the organization views as important. Leaders’ assignment and prioritization of resources also speaks to what is valued and important. What coaching, teaching, mentoring, and counseling that leaders do sends a message of what is important. Leaders’ treatment of others through rewards, recognition, and feedback is another sign of what is important. Leaders who demonstrate behaviors supportive of learning and development create a learning environment for the whole organization. ADRP 6- 22 describes the importance of leaders setting the example.

3-7. Two other keys are addressed as part of setting conditions: Leaders establish a learning environment by encouraging subordinates to take reasonable risks, grow, and develop on their own initiative. Leaders gain knowledge of subordinates in the organization as individuals with unique skills, abilities, backgrounds, and goals.

Fundamentals of Development

FM 6-22 3-3

LEARNING ENVIRONMENT 3-8. Leaders set the conditions for leader development by performing their tasks and missions in ways that signal to subordinates throughout the organization that leader development is important. It can have a big effect in return for minimal personal time and resource investment.

Be receptive to individuals input, recommendations, and advice. Be receptive and shut down others who belittle someone’s suggestion to take a different or creative approach. Good leaders back subordinates trying to do the right thing and learn something new at the same time. A positive leadership climate encourages a learning environment.

3-9. Being a role model—setting the example—for leader development is essential. Leaders who model these leader actions encourage effective development in others and signal that leader development is valued:

Encourage development. Are you actively and directly engaged in the development of others. Are leaders visibly present and actively engaged in the development of others? Are leaders inspiring others through genuine concern for their growth? Are leaders readily available to provide guidance and answer questions? Do leaders defer to others to develop their subordinates?

Encourage learning. Do leaders feel free to ask themselves what went right and wrong in planning and executing

an operation? Is there tolerance for discussing mistakes? Do others observe you engaged in learning? Do you develop yourself? Are you prepared to

meet mission challenges as they arise? Do you actively listen to what others have to say? Are followers encouraged to provide candid

feedback? Do you create a positive environment? Do you enjoy being a leader and does your example

motivate subordinates to emulate you? Do you develop subordinates? Do you know their strengths, developmental needs, goals, and

life activities that extend beyond the workday? Are you serving as a teacher and mentor? Promote learning from mistakes.

When mistakes occur, is the focus on assigning blame or on why the mistakes occurred and how to reduce the likelihood of a reoccurrence? Do you avoid criticizing individuals publicly?

Do you speak openly about personal leadership mistakes and lessons learned? Encourage innovation.

Are leaders restricted to operating strictly according to standing operating procedures? Do leaders dismiss new ideas in favor of tried and true practices?

Do you promote innovation? Can leaders debate with you, exchange issues, or challenge each other’s perspectives? Allow for risk taking and encourage exercise of disciplined initiative.

Do you delineate the boundaries or prioritize the areas where subordinates can take risk? Is it clear what is or is not acceptable?

Are leaders willing to accept the challenges in unit performance that come with new ideas? Do you show empathy? Do you consider the situations of others relating to their challenges?

Encourage effective decisionmaking. Are leaders well informed when they make important decisions? Do they consider and

understand the relevant consequences for Soldiers, Army Civilians, and the mission?

Chapter 3

3-4 FM 6-22

Be aware of personal reactions during times of crisis. Easily remembered, leader behavior sends a strong message about beliefs and values. Before making off-the-cuff remarks, leaders should collect their thoughts and ask themselves what they want less-experienced leaders to learn from this reaction to a crisis. What should subordinates do when they face a similar situation?

Approachability Enables Development From a battalion staff officer: An open door policy is critical for demonstrating approachability to subordinates. However, it is not enough just to say you have an open door policy. I think my commander is nonjudgmental and seems levelheaded on any issue, which makes it easy to bring issues to his attention. He is humble, genuine, and patient. At unit functions, I watch him and his wife circulate. He drops down to eye level with the kids and gets a laugh from them for some remark. They both give their full time and attention to whomever they are talking to. Because of his style, laid-back but concerned and competent, he elicits open communication from subordinates. He starts out by asking about the individual and their family before getting to unit issues by asking, “How’s it going?” I noticed that people open up when he uses this approach. He puts them at ease and they know he is genuinely concerned. His approach had a positive effect throughout the battalion.

TECHNIQUES FOR CREATING CONDITIONS CONDUCIVE TO DEVELOPMENT 3-10. Subtle actions on the leader’s part build trust and communicate the role of trainer and developer. Experienced leaders use the following techniques to create a developmental culture:

Be present to observe enough key activities without smothering the leader. After initial observations, give them time and space to exercise leadership without being under the observation spotlight. This helps establish the leader’s role as a supportive resource rather than an evaluative note taker. It also builds trust, self-confidence, and creativity in the follower. Take an indirect approach. Start by providing descriptions of observations along with positive and negative outcomes. Allow the subordinate to understand what is going well and what needs improvement. The opposite of an indirect approach is to be micromanaging and overly prescriptive, outlining specifics for completion. Give each leader a fresh, objective start. Make comparisons between subordinates and an objective standard. Avoid subjective comparisons to past leaders or units (including personal experiences). It is appropriate to reflect on and use personal experience. The bottom line is to observe and assess each leader on individual merit. Avoid thinking of the observation process to grade leaders.

Mistakes occur in all organizations and operational environments. Leaders foster a learning environment by acknowledging that honest mistakes come with challenging missions. Tell leaders about a time you took on a risky, challenging mission. Recount the mistakes made in trying to accomplish it. Wrap up the discussion with the lessons learned from the experience.

Fundamentals of Development

FM 6-22 3-5

Taking an Indirect Approach From a battalion commander: I do not walk around the unit with my list of goals to check them off, but I informally encourage leaders to strive for and achieve goals, for both themselves and the unit. For example, during a conversation with a subordinate, I will ask a question like, “What have you done lately to improve yourself?” That catches some by surprise, but it lets everyone know I am serious about leaders setting personal goals and taking action on them. I also ask questions like, “What have you done for a Soldier today, or what have you done to improve the unit?” It is just one question, but it sets an achievement expectation. Sometimes leaders get into a rut where they are executing for the sake of executing; I want leaders to avoid going through the motions since this kills morale.

LEARNING PRINCIPLES 3-11. Development is a process of change. Developmental growth is the same as learning. Learning is gaining knowledge or skill through study, practice, experience, or instruction. Knowing ways to promote learning is key to those who set up and conduct leader development. Applying learning principles throughout leader development practices will accelerate and improve learning. Table 3-1 presents common principles used to design instruction to promote effective, efficient, and appealing learning.

Table 3-1. Learning principles

Principles How each principle works to encourage development Being task- or problem-centered

Learners are engaged in solving real-world problems. Intellect is stimulated with learning that will affect leader and unit performance.

Activation Existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge. Demonstration New knowledge is demonstrated to the learner. Application The learner applies new knowledge. Repetition and practice across varying

conditions enhances application—through interaction with role models and mentors, from feedback and reflection, and by studying other leaders.

Integration New knowledge is integrated into the learner’s world.

3-12. These principles are important for Army leader development because they are compatible and supportive of learning that occurs while completing duties or during professional development sessions or other modes of learning. Opportunities that challenge the individual and allow learning to occur enhance development in operational assignments, as well as in generating force assignments. Learning best occurs when the area to be learned has real-world relevance; what an individual learner already knows related to the subject is activated; new knowledge and skills are demonstrated to the learner; the skills are actually tried and applied by the learner; and the learner has the opportunity to integrate, absorb, or synthesize new insights or create their own take on the knowledge. Training and developmental projects enhance learning when the learner has an interest in the material and sees its relevance. Learning can accelerate when existing, related knowledge that an individual has comes to mind. Providing an example and using new knowledge enhance learning. The mind absorbs knowledge better when there is time for integration by the learner.

Survey subordinates on the top three skills they need to improve unit performance or review their IDPs to determine what they need to learn. In doing so, subordinates are motivated and increase their reception to the leader skills they need to learn.

3-13. Purposeful learning starts when learners are challenged to know more and do better. Purposeful learning occurs when practice at mastery of tasks and skills are integrated into leaders’ day-to-day activities. Applying the learning principles will result in leaders who actively engage in learning, quickly retain and recall information, and transfer learning to novel situations.

Chapter 3

3-6 FM 6-22

KNOWLEDGE OF SUBORDINATES 3-14. For effective leader development, individual relationships with each subordinate are necessary. Leaders who interact with subordinates on-and off-duty better understand their subordinates’ backgrounds and experiences. This may enable discovery of special skills and experiences to support specific mission requirements. Likewise, leaders must avoid establishing or being perceived as having improper relationships. Generally, getting to know subordinates communicates a genuine interest in them as individuals. This builds confidence and generates trust. Trust is key to having candid talks with leaders about their development needs.

There are boundaries to what leaders should know about the personal lives of organization members. Some personal issues may be sensitive and leaders must be aware and understand the sensitivity. Interacting with subordinates in varied on- and off-duty situations enables leaders to build appropriate relationships and develop the trust necessary to discuss sensitive situations.

TEAM TRUST AND UNIT COHESION 3-15. An initial and ongoing objective of a leader is to create a culture that supports leader development. A key accomplishment is for subordinates to accept you as part of the team. This means they trust you as an advisor and coach who facilitates their success. Starting with the first encounter, leaders position themselves as trusted advisors by communicating and modeling attributes and competencies to create a developmental culture. Initial communications might start like this—

“The only thing I want out of this is to help you (or your staff or unit) maximize capability.” “I am a developmental resource. The measuring stick for success here is for you to look back when it’s all over and see the progress you have made” “Tell me a little about yourself—what have you been going through leading up to this assignment? How much experience do you have in your current leadership role? What comes next for you?

3-16. The objective of engaging in this communication with subordinates is as much about listening to their response and understanding their situation as it is about clarifying your role and willingness to be a developmental resource. It is important to build rapport by sharing something about yourself.

From a master sergeant: Without trust, Soldiers will not level with you––at best, you learn either non-truths or part truths. The best way to start building trust is to take the time and talk to your Soldiers from the first day that you become their leader.

3-17. Early in interactions with subordinates, briefly share personal experiences—including areas of specialized expertise and areas of less experience. Candor helps build credibility while at the same time role modeling that it is okay to bring up personal leader developmental needs. It is important to establish trust and a developmental culture. Subordinates have to be receptive, engaged, and ready to develop. With some individuals, it may take extra interaction time to build the necessary level of rapport. Some individuals will seek additional attention and feedback and some will want less.

INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (IDP) 3-18. Counseling and feedback provide clear, timely, and accurate information concerning individual performance compared to established criteria. As a part of professional growth counseling and feedback sessions, leaders should help subordinates in identifying strengths and developmental needs. As part of this process, leaders should help subordinates design an IDP. IDPs enable developing an objective approach to professional development. Army Career Tracker (ACT) provides the central location to develop and track IDPs over a service career for both military members and Army Civilians. Reserve Component IDPs should include career development plans that relate to the individual’s civilian career as well as Army career and focus on balancing Army careers with civilian careers and family life. Figure 3-2 provides an example IDP.

Fundamentals of Development

FM 6-22 3-7

Figure 3-2. Example IDP

INSPIRATION SOURCES 3-19. To maintain the momentum of leader development activities, leaders need to reinforce purpose and provide inspiring examples. The Army promotes three reasons for leader development:

To sustain and improve the immediate performance of the organization. Better leaders translate into better performing teams and units, and better units accomplish their mission. To improve the long- and short-term performance of the Army. Better-prepared leaders will be better equipped to fulfill the Army’s leadership needs in the future. For the well-being of the individual leader. Leader development will let good leaders know that the Army values them and fulfill their desire to learn and to meet personal goals.

3-20. Personal experiences with leaders and leader development that provide inspiration are— An exceptional leader, peer, or subordinate who deliberately puts you in challenging situations to grow and learn. A leadership challenge where prior experiences prepared you. An exemplary professional role model who inspires and motivates others. Leaders who, at their own initiative, took responsibility for their own development.

PERSONAL INSPIRATION Note sources of personal inspiration for investing in leader development. Use these notes to communicate with others and personally understand the importance of developing leaders when distractions threaten implementation.

Chapter 3

3-8 FM 6-22

SHARING EXPERIENCES Learning from the experiences of others can be invaluable. The purpose of this discussion is to give leaders the opportunity to share their experiences in terms of the leader competencies (see ADRP 6-22).

Discussion Questions:

Choose a competency. Discuss the listed behaviors that support it. Describe a situation where you or someone you observed demonstrated the competency well. What actions did they take? What was the outcome? Why do you consider this a good demonstration of the competency? Describe a situation where you or someone you observed did not demonstrate this competency well, but could have. What actions did they take? What was the outcome? What actions would have been more effective?


3-21. Leaders need to learn how to observe subordinates and provide developmental feedback. Using multiple methods of assessment and feedback provides a robust and more accurate picture of the individual and provides better developmental opportunities.

3-22. A leader’s ability to provide feedback to subordinates will significantly contribute to their development. It will enhance and accelerate learning from the day-to-day work experience—the most valued and effective environment for leader development. Timely, accurate feedback should translate into better leader performance, which will in turn have an effect on unit performance and mission success. Providing accurate feedback starts with planned observation and accurate observation and assessment.

OBSERVATION PLANNING 3-23. The first step to having a legitimate role in a subordinate’s leader development process is to observe them. To use available time productively, plan to—

See them challenged by a developmental need. See them excel by applying a personal strength. Observe their actions during critical times of unit performance. See them reach their limits of strength and endurance. Observe decisionmaking and conduct. Observe their effect on subordinate leaders and Soldiers. See them relaxed and available for conversation.

Do not draw a lasting impression of a leader from a single observation. It usually takes multiple observations before a pattern of behavior emerges. Take time to gather information from others observing the same leader, as different people focus on different aspects.

ACCURATE OBSERVATIONS AND ASSESSMENTS 3-24. Observing other leaders may seem like a difficult task. However, it is a valuable outcome once a leader is familiar with the methods for making accurate observations and providing feedback.

Fundamentals of Development

FM 6-22 3-9

3-25. The Army possesses tools and measures for unit readiness and performance. Training briefs are full of these metrics and leaders generally receive continual feedback on their units’ performance. This performance assessment and feedback, however, does not provide leaders with an assessment of their leadership behaviors. Leadership assessment—

Speaks to the leader behaviors that contributed to the unit’s performance. Combines perception and reality, with reality best confirmed by multiple sources. Occurs through two-way communication between leader and the led. Has a common language defined by the doctrinal language of ADRP 1 and ADRP 6-22.

3-26. Effective commanders observe training, participate in operations, and interact with subordinates and their units. Personnel other than the commander or rater make observations contributing to leader development. Peers, trainers, operations officers, first sergeants, and others can all make accurate observations that can contribute to assessment and coaching.

Accurate, Descriptive Observations 3-27. Observing leadership requires an understanding of leadership, ability to discern the quality of behaviors, and practice. Observing leader behaviors occurs by watching how a leader interacts with and influences others. These observations focus on what was done well, what was not done well, and what could be done differently. Written directives, verbal communications, and leader actions all provide indications of how a leader influences others. Leaders learn about their subordinate’s leadership by observing reactions by peers, subordinates, and superiors.

3-28. Three key components ensure observations are accurate and descriptive: Observations are planned around key events. Observations for patterns of behavior. Recording important observations immediately.

Use words that depict action. Link to effects and outcomes.

Observations Planned around Key Events 3-29. Leaders can use the training calendar to identify events that are likely to compel a leader to demonstrate a considerable number of leadership competencies and attributes.

Observations for Patterns of Behavior 3-30. With time and frequent observation, leaders gain confidence and start to see a consistent pattern of behavior. It is a judgment call as to when to consider an observation as a pattern of behavior. To observe for a pattern, make a note of how often a leader exhibits the same behavior in a given time. The frequency of behavior may indicate a pattern. If sufficient time has passed and the observer can predict the leader’s actions, then a pattern of behavior has likely emerged.

3-31. When observing leadership, it is important to frame observations in a context consistent with Army doctrine. Chapter 6 provides performance indicators for the competencies and attributes in ADRP 6-22. A way to capture observations and assessment is to use a quick, accurate, and complete way to take notes that makes for an effective feedback session such as a situation, observation, associate and assess, and reinforce and recommend (SOAR) format. Figure 3–3 on page 3-10 provides an example of SOAR feedback notes. Details for the SOAR elements are—

Situation—Describe the situation and conditions of the assessment. This should include the time, location, event, or other context of the situation. If known, capture the prevailing leadership relationship or climate between the leader and the led. In later discussions, this information will help leaders and subordinates recall the event and circumstances surrounding it. Observation—Describe the leadership behaviors that the leader exhibits. Focus on competencies within the lead, develop, and achieve categories. Likewise, note evidence of the attributes in the

Chapter 3

3-10 FM 6-22

character, presence, and intellect categories. Leaders use this section to note both strengths and developmental needs and the effect of the subordinate’s behavior on the mission or Soldiers. Associate and Assess—Identify and associate the competency or attribute that best describes the leader actions. Leaders assess the subordinate’s actions to determine whether they meet the standard or represent a strength or developmental need. Leaders record the competency and observed behaviors. Reinforce and Recommend—Record how to reinforce the leader’s behavior through praise or correction. The supervisory leader will identify actions for the subordinate to sustain or improve and other recommendations for change. Recording these notes help plan the feedback to discuss with the subordinate.

Figure 3-3. Example SOAR feedback notes

Fundamentals of Development

FM 6-22 3-11

Often a leader will not directly observe the leadership behavior of a subordinate, but will receive a report on unit performance. Leader assessment in this situation requires the leader to communicate the performance indicator to the subordinate. Then, together, move the discussion to the causes of the unit performance. Ask, “What part did your leadership play in the unit’s performance?”

Recording Important Observations 3-32. Important details of a leadership observation may be lost or be inaccurately recorded if not written down soon after they occur. Accurate and complete notes are useful when providing leaders with feedback. As described earlier, using the SOAR format is one way to record observations.

Use words that depict action

3-33. A leader needs to describe what the subordinate is doing when they are in the act of leading. By writing down an observation using action words, the leader can be sure the subordinate will be able to recognize it when communicating it back to them. An observation written down using action words appears like this:

Sergeant Jenkins’s voice was barely audible and monotone; Soldiers participating in the mission rehearsal could not hear him.

CPT Rider looked directly into the eyes of each platoon leader as he issued the order.

Link to effects and outcomes

3-34. The immediate effect of a subordinate’s leadership may be observed in the verbal and nonverbal reactions of others in direct proximity. Leaders and Soldiers in subordinate echelons will feel the positive or negative consequences of a leader’s action. Leadership can affect task or mission accomplishment. Trace mission results and look for leader actions that contribute to success or lack of success. There could be a delay in time between the leader’s actions and their consequences. The effect may not be obvious for hours or days. The following is a correct example of an observation that includes an effect:

Observation: Sergeant Jenkins voice was barely audible and monotone, so that Soldiers participating in the mission rehearsal could not hear it.

Effect: One vehicle missed a turn on the convoy route; vehicle drove down a road banned from traffic due to IED’s. Vehicle attacked by IED. 2 wounded and 1 destroyed vehicle.

FEEDBACK DELIVERY 3-35. When experienced leaders reflect on their own leader development, they place high importance on day-to-day, two-way communication with their senior leaders because they do the same with their subordinates. Feedback is less effective if a leader waits until there is time for a formal sit-down counseling session to provide feedback. Leaders should provide feedback as soon as possible after observing a particular leader behavior to encourage positive effects.

3-36. Day-to-day informal feedback makes sitting down with subordinates for developmental counseling much easier. This informal feedback develops a shared understanding of the subordinate’s strengths and developmental needs. Still, many leaders find it difficult to sit down with a subordinate to engage in developmental counseling. ATP 6-22.1 provides extensive guidelines on the counseling process.

Chapter 3

3-12 FM 6-22

Providing feedback on every observed act, response, or behavior will overwhelm a subordinate. Provide feedback based on established competencies and attributes. Focus feedback on a few key behaviors that, if changed, will contribute the most to improved leader and unit performance. Having a focus for improvement will also motivate the subordinate to implement change.


Day-to-day feedback is important to ensure improved leader and unit performance. The following example can guide feedback delivery.

Situation: Commander walks in on a patrol debriefing that one of his company commanders is conducting. He approaches CPT Philips after the debriefing.

Commander provides brief description of the situation: “CPT Phillips, I was in the back of the room while you debriefed the platoon. Let’s talk for a minute.”

Commander describes the leader behavior observed: “When I came in, Sergeant Jones was describing the suspects he had detained. You listened intently to his general descriptions and asked some pretty probing questions to get details.”

CPT Phillips: “Yes sir, I want patrol leaders to understand how important their gathering information is to developing our intelligence efforts.”

Commander: “That’s a great technique to ask a few questions to confirm what Sergeant Jones is saying and probe for details. He said the suspects were not local. You noticed that. From the excitement in Sergeant Jones’s voice, I think he knows the suspects are up to something, but he wasn’t sure just what.”

Ask the observed leader for a self-assessment before providing personal views. Do this by first recounting back to the leader the situation and observation (the first two parts of the SOAR format). Then ask the leader to provide an assessment and recommendation. This reinforces three important leader development principles: leader self-assessment and self-awareness, individual leader responsibility for leader development, and leader ownership of the recommendation.

DELIVERY OF OBSERVATIONS FOR EFFECT 3-37. It is important to plan how a leader will deliver observations to a subordinate. The delivery methods that follow, when done correctly, provide a leader with an understanding of the effect behaviors have on consequences, all based on careful and planned observations. The two-way communication techniques used for delivering an observation should motivate subordinates to start acting in ways that improve leader and unit performance.

PREPARATION AND TIMING OF FEEDBACK DURING TRAINING 3-38. Before the start of training, leaders should explain the SOAR format or any feedback tool to the unit and its leaders. Leaders should emphasize the developmental nature of the feedback. Armed with this knowledge, unit leadership should be supportive of efforts to deliver of feedback.

3-39. The timing of a discussion of leadership observations can be critical and a deciding factor between whether perceiving a situation as evaluative or developmental. Ultimately, determining the appropriate time

Fundamentals of Development

FM 6-22 3-13

for the delivery of an observation is at the discretion of the leader. Consider whether delivery should occur during the action, at a break in action, or at the end of the day or event completion.

During the Action 3-40. Sometimes, leaders deliver observations as they occur. Part of guided discovery learning relies on “during the action” feedback. This is especially true when pointing out to the leader that actions must occur “in the moment” while they can be observed. However, care must be taken not disrupt the training exercise.

Finding a Break in the Action 3-41. Find the right ‘break’ in the action to deliver observations. This could be during a lull after a major event has occurred (a major success or a failure).

End-of-Day or at Completion of a Major Event 3-42. Consider waiting until the end of the day, especially if observations are lengthy and require discussion. To enable better collective learning, wait until after conducting the unit or team AAR. Then, deliver observations to the subordinate privately, as a mentoring session away from others. This also allows aligning the delivery of observations of the subordinate’s strengths and areas for improvement with those of the unit or team as identified in the AAR, assuming they are compatible.

3-43. If observation delivery is best done at the completion of an event, consider letting the subordinate set the time for the discussion. At a minimum, provide a “heads up” about a situation or circumstance to be discussed. This allows the leader an opportunity to reflect and psychologically prepare to listen and receive. This approach reduces the likelihood the subordinate will be preoccupied, nervous, or defensive. Examples of a leader employing this approach include—

“I’ll be back in about 30 minutes and I’d like to talk about how things went this morning. I’m going to ask about how you led the team through the scenario and some of the approaches you took during the decision-making task.” [SOAR, Situation] “The simulation you led the staff through this afternoon was successful, though I’ve noted some areas that you could work on. Is there a time you’d prefer to talk later today so I can share my observations and discuss with you?” [SOAR, Situation]

OBSERVATION DELIVERY 3-44. The following steps are an effective way to deliver an observation. These steps represent an indirect approach to providing leadership observations. Once the SOAR outline is completed, leaders are ready to discuss observations and reinforce and recommend actions. The following steps provide a framework for delivering observations, and flow in a logical sequence.

Confirm the Situation 3-45. Start by orienting the subordinate’s attention to the observed situation. State the situation and clarify that the observation is about leadership. Reiterate the information recorded: “I would like to discuss the actions you took in the battlefield simulation you just led with your staff.” [SOAR, Situation]

Ask for a Self-Assessment 3-46. Ask the subordinate for a self-assessment of the situation and personal leader actions. Guide questioning to the subordinate’s leadership during the given event or situation. The subordinate’s response should match the leader’s assessment. If it does not, the leader should ask additional specific questions:

“How effective was the communication between you and the subordinates you were leading? And how could you tell?” [SOAR, Associate and Assess] “What factors did you observe that may have contributed to miscommunication or a vague understanding among the troops?” [SOAR, Associate and Assess]

Chapter 3

3-14 FM 6-22

Clarify and Come to an Agreement 3-47. Leaders confirm the subordinate either agrees with the assessment or acknowledges a difference in opinion if the subordinate does not share the assessment. Confirm agreement or acknowledgement before proceeding to the assessment, linkages, and observations:

“That is what I saw as well” “Actually, in my observations I noted that you were directive in your message and didn’t ask for questions. Would you agree that this is the approach you took?” [SOAR, Observation]

Add your Observations 3-48. Leaders may include observations that the subordinate is not aware. Leaders build on what the subordinate has already said to increase personal self-awareness. Specific behaviors that had an effect on the consequence or outcome include—

“Your assessment is correct. When you asked for other viewpoints, a good sharing of information followed.” [SOAR, Observation] “It was clear some of the staff had differing opinions or other points to add, though the opportunity to share really didn’t arise.” [SOAR, Observation]

WAYS TO FURTHER ENGAGE LEADERS 3-49. Leaders raise questions that will prompt subordinates to think about how to act or respond in the future. Leaders should ask for recommendations about how the subordinate will take better actions in the future, avoid problems, and take advantage of an opportunity. Here are some possible questions—

“How will you handle a similar situation next time?” [SOAR, transition to Reinforce and Recommend] “What steps can you take to avoid this outcome in the future?” [SOAR, transition to Reinforce and Recommend]

Reinforce—Validate a Strength 3-50. Once the leader and subordinate agree on the behaviors that contributed to a consequence and a recommendation for the future, the leader should provide reinforcement on what the subordinate is doing correctly. Here are some examples—

”Your influencing strategies are working for you, keep it up.” [SOAR, Reinforce and Recommend] “Consider closing out staff meetings with opportunities for questions or discussion. Your pre- meeting planning and organizing is effective—you should continue that.” [SOAR, Reinforce and Recommend]

Additional Tips for Providing Feedback 3-51. There are several other items to consider when providing feedback:

Focus on the leader’s behavior and actions. Identify what the leader has control over to change. Use focused questions as a form of feedback to create discovery learning. Give the leaders the opportunity to come up with a recommendation to the observation. This promotes their taking ownership and responsibility for it. Be familiar with improvement actions described in appendix A and offer appropriate ones. Remind leaders that this source is available to guide development, including improving their understanding of positive and negative behaviors and underlying causes.

Fundamentals of Development

FM 6-22 3-15

Providing Feedback on Developmental Needs From a battalion sergeant major: It is tough to address or provide feedback on developmental needs, but you have to have a face-to-face conversation right away when someone is not meeting the standard. If not, they might think they are meeting the standard and that I am okay with substandard performance. In general, I make it about strengths and developmental needs of the organization and not a personal attack. This is a career that they have poured their life into, so I am sensitive about that.

Let me share step-by-step how I give people frank, in-the-moment feedback when they need it. How do you get them to engage in a candid two-way conversation and then actually make the changes needed? I start out positive, then talk about the developmental need, then go with something positive again (I term this the sandwich method). I communicate an understanding of the challenges and talk about what they are doing right as well as the shortcomings. Then I pause and ask them for their assessment. We may go back and forth on the issue, getting to what is really going on. Throughout this conversation, I am citing indicators, what I am using to assess them, what I see as a trend. Sometimes, I relate a story about a similar incident or situation to highlight what they can learn from what I saw. In the end, I say, “You own these problems. You can blame it other people, but there is a way ahead.” Then we transition to things they could and should be doing. I ask them how they ought to fix the issue, and sometimes they will come up with a better solution than I could have. At other times, I have to go into a “if you do this and this, you can get back on a path to success.” I tolerate a certain amount of venting on their part, but in the end, I emphasize that it is their problem to fix. I tell them, “Let’s talk about your way ahead, what right looks like, and let’s come to consensus on what you need to do.”

LESSONS FROM DELIVERING OBSERVATIONS 3-52. Leaders should avoid delivering some kinds of feedback to a subordinate. These are especially important to avoid—

Vague and general ideas: “You are a good leader.” Using absolutes or generalities, such as always or never: “You never follow-up after meetings.” Observations applied to general traits or the total person: “Your personality is that of an introvert.” Untimely feedback that the leader is unable to apply: “Two days ago you gave ambiguous instructions at the mission rehearsal.”

3-53. It is also important for leaders to learn from the delivery of their observations and realize it takes practice. It is helpful after an interaction for leaders to reflect on their delivery. Self-reflective questions include—

Was my subordinate receptive to what we discussed? Based on my questions, how easily did they identify the behaviors that needed to change? Did my subordinate ask for techniques or ideas on how to change or improve? Is there agreement on the next step of development and its timeframe? Is there evidence that my subordinate is taking action on the observations?

3-54. After delivering observations, leaders look for the next opportunity to observe the subordinate’s leadership. Then, gauge how well the subordinate received the observation, what steps the leader has taken to change behavior, and what effect the change is having on unit outcomes.

Chapter 3

3-16 FM 6-22

SUBORDINATE RECEPTIVENESS TO FEEDBACK 3-55. Trust and a developmental culture are critical to ensuring reception of leader observations. If subordinates perceive a leader to be genuinely interested in helping subordinates, the subordinate will be receptive to observations than if there is doubt or mistrust about motives.

3-56. To gauge receptiveness, leaders must remain attuned to verbal and nonverbal cues. These may occur as verbal disagreement or resistance, or nonverbal gestures such as folded arms, rolling eyes, or a lack of attentiveness. Refocus the subordinate by—

Reaffirming the intent of your feedback is to maximize the subordinate’s capabilities to achieve optimal unit performance. Reminding the subordinate that your observations are for development—not evaluation or judgment. You are a developmental resource for the leader and the unit. Reiterating what went well and note any incremental progress made thus far.

Overcoming Resistance to Feedback, Going the Extra Step From a battalion commander: I had one platoon leader who could not do anything right. Falling out of battalion runs was the least of his problems. Whenever you talked to him, he always had an attitude. He was also the one whose fire point you’d roll up to, only to find him and his platoon lying there with no gear on underneath a shade tree, and think, “Okay, enough of this. What is going on here?”

With this particular officer, I moved him from one battery to another thinking that with another commander he would be okay. He started to show little improvements, but then he would slip. He started having moments of brilliance followed by moments of misery. Regardless, I saw something in him. I said, “Okay, he’s beginning to get some momentum. How can I help him keep it up?” About that time, part of the unit was deploying. In one unit, the battery commander, first sergeant, and all the platoon leaders were going, and I needed a rear detachment commander for this unit. I could have given it to a senior staff sergeant, but I gave this young officer an opportunity. I sat him down in my office, and frankly said, “I’m going to give you a chance to hit a homerun here, and the good news is you have to hit a homerun. You cannot fail. If you fail, you’ll get a relief for cause report card as a commander and might as well find another job.” Maybe there was a little bit of a threat there, but he looked at me and said, “Sir, I’m up for the challenge and I’m not going to disappoint you.” For the past three months, he has been fantastic—I do not know where he came from.

My sergeant major and I had our fingers crossed for a month that everything would work out, because if he failed, we failed. We took extra steps and precautions to make sure this young man would be successful. We gave him a very strong NCO to be his rear detachment first sergeant. We spent a little more time with him. We tried to set him up for success, and I think it worked. We created a lot of confidence in this young man who was in the doghouse for a long time. Now he thinks, “Hey, I can do this and do it pretty well.”


3-57. Setting conditions and providing feedback and advice are two of the fundamentals of development. Applying practices to enhance learning will make development more effective. Enhancing learning draws on the developmental value from learning opportunities. Learning from experience can be enhanced by facilitating what an experience means. Making sense of an experience requires interpretation of the event to create personal understanding. This process requires observation, feedback, dialogue, and reflection. A leader-subordinate pair, coach, or mentor can use these four steps with a leader, any group, or adapted for an individual learner. This section focuses on how dialogue can bolster the process of reflection and

Fundamentals of Development

FM 6-22 3-17

understanding. Chapter 4 addresses how an individual uses this learning process. At the individual level, experiential learning is learning while doing. At the organizational level, experiential learning is improving while doing. Experiential learning is consistent with the principle of train as you fight.

3-58. Practical approaches to enhance learning include leader role models, mentoring, guided discovery learning, and individual and group study. These practices are not events that come up on a schedule. They are powerful ways to integrate and promote learning in the day-to-day operations of the organization.

LEADER ROLE MODELS 3-59. Because leaders vary in their skill and experience level, an effective way to learn is directly from unit role models. Positive role models exhibit leadership behaviors that others should emulate. Leveraging role models for leader development is an efficient use of time and resources. They are a resource right in the organization. Supervisors should identify role models for each key position (such as company commander or platoon sergeant) and may want to identify role models possessing special skills that other leaders need to master. Leaders should resource these role models appropriately for the responsibilities. Likewise they should create opportunities for less experienced individuals for interaction. For example, supervisors may assign—

A role model to new leaders for their reception and integration. A role model to coach a leader due to possessing a particular skill or special expertise. Role models to run leader certification programs. An inexperienced leader to shadow a role model for a specified period.

THE 5-MINUTE SHADOW Bring in a subordinate to observe or participate in an aspect of work that will make them a better leader. To maximize the experience–– - Communicate the situation, decision, or issue. - Convey the importance of acting appropriately or making the right decision. - Describe possible consequences, second- and third-order effects. - Discuss the decision or actions and reasoning behind them.

MENTORSHIP 3-60. Mentoring can benefit leader development efforts. Mentorship is the voluntary developmental relationship that exists between a person of greater experience and a person of lesser experience that is characterized by mutual trust and respect (AR 600-100). A mentor is a leader who assists personal and professional development by helping a mentee clarify personal, professional, and career goals and develop actions to improve attributes, skills, and competencies. A mentee is the individual receiving mentorship. Individuals are encouraged to participate in mentoring as a voluntary experience. Age or seniority is not a prerequisite for providing mentoring. A junior individual may mentor a senior individual based on experience or specialized expertise as a subject matter expert.

3-61. Mentoring will occur while individuals are in operational and institutional assignments; however, the mentor-mentee connections are best if they occur outside the chain of command. This is not contrary to the requirement that superiors have the responsibility to develop subordinates. It is differentiating between the role of a mentor and the role of a leader to develop, counsel, teach, and instruct subordinates. Supervisors should refrain from appointing mentors or formally matching individuals with mentors. Participant self- selection leads to the most effective mentoring relationship.

3-62. Leaders foster mentorship by— Educating leaders in the organization on mentor responsibilities. Participating as a mentor. Inviting experienced leaders to visit and share their mentoring experiences.

Chapter 3

3-18 FM 6-22

Senior experienced leaders will visit occasionally. Schedule time for them to meet with a less experienced group. Provide some structure to this group mentoring experience by having members generate questions in advance. Their experience and perspectives offer new ideas for focusing development. Communicate intent with the experienced leaders and provide the questions to them.

MENTOR ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES 3-63. Selection as a mentor is a compliment to one’s professional abilities and competence. Table 3-2 highlights the general roles and responsibilities of mentors.

Table 3-2. Mentor roles and responsibilities

Role Responsibility


Encouragement and motivation. Candid feedback about perceived strengths and developmental needs. Advice on dealing with obstacles. Guidance on setting goals and periodically reviews progress.

Shares Experiences that contributed to personal success. An understanding of the Army, its mission, and formal and informal operating processes.

Encourages Appropriate training and developmental opportunities. Sense of self-awareness, self-confidence, and adaptability. Efficient and productive performance.

Serves As a confidant, counselor, guide, and adviser. As an advisor for career development ideas or opportunities. As a resource for enhancing personal and professional attributes.

3-64. Mentoring is a powerful tool for personal and professional development. Mentoring generally improves individual performance, retention, morale, personal and professional development, and career progression. Mentoring offers many opportunities for mentors and mentees to improve their leadership, interpersonal, and technical skills as well as achieve personal and professional objectives.

3-65. It is not required for leaders to have the same occupational or educational background as those they coach or counsel. In comparison, mentors generally specialize in the same area as those they mentor. Mentors have likely experienced what their mentees are experiencing or will experience. Consequently, mentoring relationships tend to be occupation-specific, focused primarily on developing a better prepared leader.

MENTORING RELATIONSHIPS 3-66. The appearance of favoritism or creating conflict with raters or senior raters should keep leaders from mentoring subordinates within their chain of command. Subordinates should avoid approaching superiors in their chain of command to be mentors.

3-67. Mentoring relationships can be described by purpose and relationship: Traditional mentoring. Focuses primarily on the mentee, examining the career path through goal setting, with overall development of the individual as the focus. This mentoring is a process where the mentor and mentee join by their own volition. Peer mentoring. Occurs when a mentor has extensive knowledge and experience but not higher rank or grade than the mentee. Mentoring relationships may occur between peers and often between senior NCOs and junior officers. This relationship can occur across many grades or ranks.

3-68. Regardless of purpose, a successful mentoring relationship is based on several elements: Respect. Established when a mentee recognizes desirable attributes, skills, and competencies that the mentor has and when the mentor appreciates the attitude, effort, and progress of the mentee. Trust. Mentors and mentees should work together to build trust through open communication, forecasting how decisions could affect goals, frequent discussion of progress, monitoring changes, and expressing enthusiasm for the relationship.

Fundamentals of Development

FM 6-22 3-19

Realistic expectations and self-perception. A mentor may refine the mentee’s self-perception by discussing social traits, intellectual abilities, talents, and roles. It is important for the mentor to provide honest feedback. A mentor should encourage the mentee to have realistic expectations of their own capabilities, present and potential position opportunities, and the mentor’s offerings. Time. Set aside specific time to meet; do not change times unless necessary. Meet periodically to control interruptions. Frequently check in with each other via calls or e-mail.

MENTORING BENEFITS 3-69. Soldiers and Army Civilians who seek feedback to focus their development, coupled with dedicated, well-informed mentors, will embed the concepts of life-long learning, self-development, and adaptability into the Army’s culture. The benefits are threefold: for the mentor, the mentee, and the organization.

Mentor Benefits 3-70. Serving as a mentor can provide many benefits, such as—

Professional development. Becoming identified as someone who develops or mentors well-known performers can attract qualified, high-potential individuals who will look for opportunities to work for the mentor. Developing others to follow in a mentor’s footsteps can facilitate the mentor’s own personal and professional development and career progression. Knowledge. Mentees can be a source of general organizational data, feedback, and fresh ideas. Because higher-level positions isolate some executives and managers, mentees can serve as an important link in keeping communication lines open. While the mentor might possess facts about issues, mentees often provide important feedback about views at different levels of the Army. Personal satisfaction. Mentors generally report a sense of pride in watching mentees develop and a sense of contribution to the Army. It is an opportunity to pass on a legacy to the next generation. Sharpened skills. Mentors sharpen management, leadership, and interpersonal skills as they challenge and coach the mentee. Source of recognition. Good mentors are well respected. Expanded professional contacts. Mentors develop rewarding professional contacts by interacting with other mentors, supervisors, and contacts made through the mentorship relationship.

Mentee Benefits 3-71. Mentees gain tremendously from a mentoring relationship. Such benefits include—

Increasing self-awareness through candid feedback. Building confidence and encouragement to grow beyond usual expectations. Having a role model and a trusted advisor. Gaining better understanding of the Army and what is required to succeed and advance. Gaining visibility through opportunities to try advanced tasks and demonstrate expanded capabilities. Reporting greater career satisfaction with higher performance and productivity ratings.

Organizational Benefits 3-72. The organization and the Army as a whole benefit in the following ways—

Increased commitment and retention. Mentoring increases the understanding of how to reach the next level of responsibility––enhancing job satisfaction and reducing reasons to leave the organization. Improved performance. Both mentors and mentees have an opportunity to expand their technical, interpersonal, and leadership skills through the mentorship relationship. Mentoring helps mentees identify and prepare for positions which best fit their needs and interests. This benefits the Army by enabling it to fill positions with the most capable, motivated personnel. Mentoring is

Chapter 3

3-20 FM 6-22

functionally efficient, because instead of floundering on their own, mentors help mentees to develop career road maps. Leader development. Mentoring increases the effectiveness of leader developmental activities that occur within the chain of command and generally produces leaders comfortable with the responsibilities of senior level positions. Leadership succession. Mentoring facilitates the smooth transfer of Army Values, culture, traditions, Warrior Ethos, and other key components to the next generation of Army leadership. Recruitment. An Army-wide mentoring program makes the Army attractive to potential recruits because it shows the Army cares about its people and their development.

The Mentorship of George C. Marshall General of the Army George C. Marshall served as the U.S. Army Chief of Staff during World War II. As such, he played a leading role in the expansion of the Army during the war and the selection and advancement of key leaders. Long before assuming his duties as Chief of Staff, Marshall served in important positions during World War I at the division, corps, and American Expeditionary Force staff levels. From these vantage points, he witnessed the difficulties inherent in training large bodies of troops and selecting and developing leaders on a shortened timeline. In the interwar period, Marshall was determined to avoid the shortcomings that marked the American experience in World War I. He became the Assistant Commandant of the U.S. Army Infantry School at Fort Benning in 1927, a position from which he could instill lessons from World War I. During the next five years, he revamped the school curriculum, changing its focus from following rote formulas to stressing tactical improvisation and creativity based on experience. He chose officers like J. Lawton Collins, Joseph Stillwell, and Omar Bradley to be instructors at Fort Benning, mentoring these men to ensure his approach to training and tactics was passed to younger officers and thus across the Army. Marshall’s approach was important because during his tenure at Fort Benning, over 200 future generals passed through the school either as students, instructors, or both. His approach to training and leadership influenced them all. Marshall later reflected that the officers with whom he served at Fort Benning were the best he worked with during his career. In addition to his Fort Benning posting, his other interwar assignments, particularly several tours at the War Department and a posting to the Army War College, gave him a broad knowledge of the interwar Army officer corps. This was a key factor in his appointment of senior officers during World War II. Marshall either picked or recommended many of the American generals given top commands during the war, including European theater commander Dwight Eisenhower, China theater commander Joseph Stilwell, Army Ground Forces chief Leslie McNair, army group commanders Mark Clark, Omar Bradley, and Jacob Devers and army commander George Patton. Marshall’s mentorship of subordinates at Fort Benning allowed him to select or recommend officers for key positions that he had trained and prepared in practical tactics. This mentoring helped ensure that the Army fighting World War II was able to adjust rapidly to battlefield realities.

MENTORING RESPONSIBILITIES 3-73. Mentoring is a professional relationship. As such, mentors and mentees each have responsibilities to ensure the relationship is positive and productive. Both must consider their own, and the other person’s, interests and expectations. Mentors should follow standards for appropriateness expected of all Army leaders. While personal rapport and candid feedback are both characteristics of good mentoring relationships, mentors should try to focus on professional development advice. A mentee should never use a mentor to bypass normal and appropriate procedures or chains of command or to exert pressure or influence on an individual, such as the mentee’s supervisor, who is the appropriate decision authority for the mentee.

Fundamentals of Development

FM 6-22 3-21

3-74. Mentoring is crucial to development and retention. Once the relationship is initiated, the mentor has responsibility to—

Share organizational insight gained through knowledge and experience. Showing mentees how you have managed a certain situation is far more effective than just talking them through it. Expand the mentee’s network. Mentors give advice on a spectrum of topics, ranging from specific skills to broader issues of career goals. Mentees gain sound guidance, access to established networks, and enhanced personal and professional perspectives. Help with setting development goals. Mentees often seek mentors to enable professional growth, perhaps advancement in the organization or in changing career fields. Provide developmental feedback. Giving feedback increases the mentee’s self-awareness, particularly concerning strengths and developmental needs. If properly given, feedback results in greater rapport. Positive feedback comes as, “I think you did a good job with the meeting.” It tends to be from the perspective of the giver. Turn negative or constructive feedback into “you” statements: “You need to create an agenda for each meeting.”

Candor in Mentorship From a warrant officer: The best thing my mentor ever did for me was be brutally honest with me. I was a senior chief warrant officer 2 and thought I knew everything. Then there was a situation where my battalion commander and I did not see eye-to-eye. I explained the situation to my mentor, a senior warrant officer. I believed he would side with me and make me feel good. Instead, I got a reality check. He told me that I was the one screwing up. After the shock and being offended that he did not side with me, it jolted me to think. A good mentor has the candor to tell you the bad things you are doing as well as the good, and set you on the right path again. I appreciated this lesson that I still remember, and I use the same approach today with the Soldiers I mentor.

3-75. The mentee must be an active participant in the relationship. In particular, mentees must— Prepare. Complete appropriate preparations for meetings with the mentor. Develop. Work to achieve the best attributes, skills, and competencies. Be flexible. Listen to the mentor and consider all new options proposed. Take initiative. Seek the mentor’s advice when needed. Focus on the goal, not the process. If unclear, ask the mentor how the process leads to the goal.

MENTORING SKILLS 3-76. It is important to possess key mentoring skills to be effective as a mentor. These skills include—

Listening actively. Focusing on the mentee’s main points and whole meaning. Watch body language, maintain eye contact, and understand which topics are difficult for the mentee to discuss. Showing someone that you are listening is a valuable skill. It shows you value what the person is saying and that you will not interrupt them. This requires patience and a willingness to delay judgment. Holding back judgments. Reduce emotional reactions (such as anger or excitement) to the mentee’s comments. Do not immediately draw conclusions about whether the meaning is good or bad until you are sure you understand the comments. Asking the right questions. The best mentors ask questions that make the mentee do the thinking. However, this is not as easy as it sounds. Simply, think of what you want to tell the mentee and frame a question that will help the mentee come to the same conclusion on their own. To do this, try asking open questions that a simple yes or no cannot answer. Alternatively, ask direct questions that offer several answer options. Then ask the mentee why they chose that particular answer. Providing feedback. Do this in a way that accurately and objectively summarizes what you have heard, but interprets things in a way that adds value for the mentee. In particular, use feedback to

Chapter 3

3-22 FM 6-22

show that you understand what the mentee's thinking approach has been. This is key to helping the mentee see a situation from another perspective. Resisting distractions. Control the location and minimize outside noises or people as much as possible. Focus on the mentee.

GUIDED DISCOVERY LEARNING 3-77. Underpinning all developmental activity is the accurate observation of performance. Armed with accurate observations, the senior leader engages the subordinate in effective two-way communication to deliver observations on actions and behaviors. Effective delivery techniques foster leader acceptance, ownership, and action.

3-78. Besides directly delivering an observation, leaders can use indirect methods. Indirect methods place increased responsibility on the subordinate to identify personal strengths and developmental needs. Indirect methods employ the techniques of guided discovery learning. The techniques are designed to engage subordinates to discover their learning needs, supported by the senior leader.

3-79. Guided discovery learning is an advanced technique that experienced leaders employ to help the subordinate learn. The technique can be used in coaching, counseling, and mentoring situations. Guided discovery learning is effective because––

It is the subordinate’s responsibility to make sense of incoming information and integrate it with their personal base of experience and knowledge of relevant doctrine. It is a process of discovery for the leader. Subordinate learning and transfer of knowledge are maximized because the supervisor generally keeps the subordinate on track through hints, direction, coaching, feedback, or modeling. Guided learning enables deep understanding of targeted concepts, principles, and techniques.

3-80. Pure discovery learning is less effective than guided discovery learning. With discovery learning alone—

The subordinate merely executes based on personal experience or knowledge. The subordinate makes sense of incoming information using whatever criteria they feel is relevant. The supervisory leader is passive, providing no guidance or feedback concerning the rules or criteria that the subordinate is using for problem solving.

3-81. Guided discovery learning is more effective than prescriptive methods where the leader gives the subordinate the correct answer to a problem. Prescriptive methods require neither thinking nor deep learning by the subordinate. They merely execute the prescribed solution given by the supervisory leader.

GUIDED DISCOVERY LEARNING TECHNIQUES 3-82. Guided discovery learning techniques are an effective way to deliver leadership observations. These methods are commonly employed when developing the leadership skills of subordinates:

Positive reinforcement. Open-ended questioning. Multiple perspectives. Scaling questions. Cause and effect analysis. Recovery from setbacks. Use experience.

Positive Reinforcement 3-83. The first observations of a subordinate ought to focus on what they are doing right. Commenting on positive actions up front shows a commitment to balanced and fair observation. It also builds confidence and confirms performance that is productive and accomplishing an objective.

Fundamentals of Development

FM 6-22 3-23

Open-ended Questioning 3-84. Asking open-ended questions gets subordinates thinking about the situation and their leadership pertaining to unit performance. Broad questions maximize the potential for discovery. Leaders may need to ask additional specific questions if the subordinate is not identifying issues that need attention.

3-85. An advantage of this approach gives subordinates hints about what they may need to do differently, yet allow them to discover the actual issue on their own. In this way, responsibility for evaluation is with the subordinate, as is ownership for fixing the situation.

3-86. Open-ended questioning is useful when the leader has time to listen, reflect, and do something about the situation. Thus, the busiest part of mission planning or execution may not be the most appropriate time to ask an open-ended question—unless it has a critical connection to reflective thought.

Coaching through Open-ended Questions From an Army Civilian division chief: My boss had me write information papers and give presentations on various topics that expanded my knowledge of our organization and the role of my fellow division chiefs. He asked questions that led to shared expectations. He asked who I thought I could seek assistance from to help accomplish those goals. In general, his hands-off approach allowed me to make key decisions for my section and to learn from my mistakes. His approach was always more as a coach than a dictator.

3-87. Open-ended questioning is employed by— Identifying the outcome for the leader to realize. Asking general questions about factors related to that outcome. Asking specific questions and providing hints until the leader connects the outcome with actions. Listening closely to the leader’s response. Confirming and reinforcing what is heard as an accurate assessment. Probing further or offer outcome-based evidence if they are not accurately assessing the situation.

Multiple Perspectives 3-88. Employing multiple perspectives helps a leader see the situation they are in from another person’s perspective (or a different frame of reference). A complementary step to the decisionmaking process is to understand a problem and appreciate its complexities before seeking to solve it. Supervisors help subordinates reframe the current situation through open-ended questions or soliciting third party feedback from other stakeholders.

3-89. The purpose of multiple perspectives is to prompt subordinates to think creatively and innovatively in their approach. Leaders should use this technique when a subordinate appears to be stuck in a limited way of thinking or is unable to break away from a mental block.

Scaling Questions 3-90. The scaling questions technique is useful in facilitating a leader’s self-understanding of how difficult or challenging a problem is in relative terms. It also facilitates incremental improvement and helps an individual recognize that progress has occurred. Supervisors ask subordinates to use a 10-point scale (where 10 is highest or best and 1 is lowest or worst) to assess personal performance on an action or behavior (competencies). The subordinate could share what they could do differently to improve performance one or two points on the scale.

Cause and Effect Analysis 3-91. Leader actions are often several layers or processes removed from their consequences. The cause and effect analysis is a method to identify the root (or original) cause of consequences and outcomes.

Chapter 3

3-24 FM 6-22

3-92. It is not always obvious to leaders how certain behaviors affect outcomes further down the line. Cause and effect analysis is important because a leader and unit will continue to experience a negative outcome until identifying and resolving the actual root cause. Many times only subsequent effects (or symptoms) of a problem are addressed, leaving the root cause intact.

3-93. Leaders use cause and effect analysis when there is limited time and capability to address shortcomings. Identification of a root cause focuses on remedial actions that will fix the problem and change the consequence.

3-94. Cause and effect analysis is facilitated through— Asking “What (rather than why) causes it to happen? Show consequences or outcome data. Continuing to ask “What?” and “What else?” until identifying all causes. It helps to capture work on paper or a whiteboard. Depicting the relationships between causes and effect. Identifying which causes, if changed or isolated, would prevent reoccurrence of the outcome or consequence. Identifying solutions or changes to implement without causing other negative outcomes or consequences to occur. Coaching the leader on being proactive to avoid negative outcomes before they occur.

Recovery from Setbacks 3-95. When a subordinate experiences a difficult situation, setback, or seemingly insurmountable challenge, a supervisory leader can help restore confidence and prevent conditions from going from bad to worse. Employing the following enables recovery from setbacks—

Reinforcing a strength—a leadership behavior the individual is performing well. Helping the leader recognize that they are already successfully handling some part of the task. Asking open-ended questions to increase situational awareness and probe for solutions. Providing recommendations if or when the leader is unable to arrive at a suitable course of action. Increasing the percentage of positive reinforcement and support relative to negative reinforcement.

Use Experience 3-96. By virtue of position and experience, a leader often knows something is going wrong or right before the subordinate knows it. There is an art to knowing when to impart aspects of that experience to a subordinate. A great deal of learning can occur by providing leaders with hints and bits of information, well short of full understanding.

3-97. Leaders should carefully weigh the pros and cons of providing a subordinate with hints during training exercises. It is important to allow situations and events to unfold without premature intervention. If the leader provides information or solutions to the subordinate too soon, the situation’s development value diminishes, as situations of ambiguity and adversity compel leaders to adapt and problem-solve on their own.

3-98. Yet, leaders do not want to hold on to information that may inhibit learning during the exercise. Without hints, a subordinate may experience a situation and its consequences, but not effectively learn from it. With hints and additional information, the subordinate launches on a learning expedition while the situation is still evolving. The inquisitive subordinate will follow up on the leader’s hints and find out why systems or people did not perform to expectations, a valuable learning expedition.

Special Situation: Working with Non-responsive Indivdiuals 3-99. There will be times when a subordinate does not respond to any of the feedback or discovery learning methods. When this occurs, the leader might reflect on why this is occurring and if there is anything to do differently to trigger desired responses. Ultimately, the responsibility for learning lies with the subordinate. Even in difficult situations, there are techniques to use that may gain the subordinate’s attention and create learning opportunities.

Fundamentals of Development

FM 6-22 3-25

3-100. These are some ways to redirect a non-responsive subordinate— Redirect efforts to work with the subordinate leader’s subordinates and peers—they are likely feeling the consequences of the subordinate leader’s behavior. Support the subordinate leader’s adaptation to the identified developmental needs by providing solutions and taking action to mitigate effects on the unit’s mission. The subordinate leader should notice the change in mission performance and want to know why it is occurring. Resources permitting, have the non-responsive subordinate swap places with a peer or have another leader observe the non-responsive subordinate. Compare notes and see if your observations are consistent with that of the other leader. Use experience. Talk the situation over with other leaders skilled at observing leadership. Obtain their perspectives and ideas on how to work with non-responsive subordinates.

OBSERVATION, DELIVERY, AND DISCOVERY LEARNING INTEGRATION 3-101. Before observing a subordinate, leaders should review the performance indicators (see chapter 6) to associate observations with the various levels of proficiency under each competency and attribute. Before the observed event, leaders should record the situation and include information such as the date, time, place, and mission or task the subordinate is involved in. They should also note any other key players in the situation and the climate of their relationship (if known).

3-102. During and immediately following an event, leaders should record their observations. Referring to the behavioral indicators to associate observed behaviors with the competencies and attributes, leaders should indicate proficiency as either a developmental need, meeting the standard, or a strength.

3-103. Following the observation event, supervisors should record how to reinforce the observed behaviors and note recommendations. When delivering these observations to the subordinate, the leader should refer to the recorded notes. During delivery, the leader should be prepared to highlight the subordinate’s strengths, how they meet the standard, and developmental needs. The discussion should lead to reinforcement and recommendations for sustainment and improvement.

3-104. Leaders should engage in a guided discovery learning conversation with subordinates by asking open-ended questions to help them understand the effect their actions had on the mission and Soldier outcomes. Leaders should guide the subordinate toward the realization of strengths and improvement of developmental needs.

OBSERVATION STEPS REVIEW As a review of the process for delivering an observation, these steps help leaders deliver observations to subordinates—

Confirm the situation.

Ask for a self-assessment.

Clarify and come to an agreement.

Add observations.

Raise future-oriented questions; ask for recommendations.

Strengthen the leader—validate and reinforce positives.

COACHING 3-105. Coaching helps another individual or team through a set of tasks or with improving personal qualities. A coach gets the person or team to understand their current level of performance and guides their performance to the next level. A central task of coaching is to link feedback interpretation with developmental

Chapter 3

3-26 FM 6-22

actions. The role of the coach is to advise the individual or team on what levels can be reached and what to do to reach them.

3-106. Similar to other development processes, there are a number of components in coaching: Building rapport. The coach builds a strong rapport to facilitate trust and open communications. Gathering and analyzing information. Performance indicators or the leader or team’s perceptions are reviewed to determine an accurate picture of capabilities. Addressing the gaps. Specific issues are discussed in light of similarities and differences with what are normal expectations. Narrowing focus. The coach helps guide the leader to identify the directions to strengthen and develop. Setting goals. The coach assists the leader in establishing development goals. Planning development. Together the coach and leader determine paths of development, desired outcomes, and specific developmental actions. Promoting action. The coach sets conditions that help to sustain developmental action and establish accountability for development.

3-107. Coaches can draw on the guided discovery learning techniques to establish and maintain rapport and to build commitment. The coach tailors how directive feedback and guidance are depending on the situation of those being coached and the performance level. If coaches are involved in developmental actions, they look for a good balance between challenge and the learner’s perception of ability to achieve incremental improvement.

3-108. To prepare for coaching, leaders will study and apply the fundamental guidelines for leader development. They will be passionate learners in the area being coached. They will arm themselves with tips, techniques, and practice routines to advise subordinates. Developmental actions for leadership include observing other leaders, modeling what good leaders do, and practicing new techniques or approaches. Leaders can apply techniques in the conduct of their duties, look for different on-the-job opportunities, or identify outside opportunities. Other actions include reading, research, consulting, and formal coursework. Sometimes applying different mindsets and ways of thinking provide enough development to meet established goals. ADRP 6-22 provides guidelines for coaching (focus goals, clarify self-awareness, uncover potential, eliminate obstacles, develop action plans and commitment, and conducts follow-up).

STUDY 3-109. Leader development processes in the organization should establish an expectation for each leader to spend personal time seeking sources of knowledge and opportunities to grow and learn. If a supervisor’s personal involvement and unit resources were always prerequisites for leader development, it would be a limited effort indeed. Organization leaders should develop distinct ways of studying their chosen profession and identifying ways to improve the unit.

Encourage subordinates of the same position or similar grade to form a community-of-practice group that fosters excellence. Provide the groups reachback capability to Web-based forums. Provide each group with an opportunity to present recommendations or new methods to the leadership team.

PROFESSIONAL READING PROGRAMS 3-110. Professional reading programs broaden leader knowledge, understanding, and confidence. Leaders gain a refined understanding of the material and develop critical thinking skills through pertinent discussion with others. Discussing ideas and topics with peers, subordinates, and leaders who may offer significantly different perspectives exposes all participants to new ideas and potentially broadens their outlook.

Fundamentals of Development

FM 6-22 3-27

Successful reading programs depend on how they are structured—what readings are chosen and what purpose is integrated into the program. If you want to encourage tactics, then select readings on operational tactics. If you want to develop skills for which interesting readings do not exist, then design questions that trigger reflection about engaging material. For example, to stimulate critical thinking assign questions about the materials that require consideration of underlying assumptions, alternative courses of action, and application of lessons to other situations.

3-111. Organizations and individuals can implement professional reading programs; a wealth of materials are available to support topic determination, such as the U.S. Army Chief of Staff’s Professional Reading list or the U.S. Center of Military History Professional Reading List. Determining the frequency, such as monthly or quarterly, will be dependent on organizational missions, but the unit must allocate and protect time for effective implementation.

3-112. For personal professional reading, topics may come from established reading lists, stem from personal interests, or follow from determining strengths and developmental needs. As part of a personal reading program, leaders should maintain a reading journal to take notes and record key passages, insights, and reflections. Leaders who record thoughts on paper can gain clarity and develop new ideas. The journal could record titles of related books and articles for further investigation.

PROFESSIONAL WRITING PROGRAMS 3-113. Army leaders consider how they can contribute to the body of thought in their fields of expertise by researching and writing about topics that interest them. By writing and publishing papers, they can advance their profession, their mastery of their discipline, and their writing skills. Writers of scholarly papers study their topics in depth and in breadth. They take formal classes in research and in writing so they can master appropriate standards. They use appropriate writing processes. Before submitting papers to professional or academic journals, they ensure their submissions meet the publications’ requirements. In addition, the unit security office should screen items for publication to prevent the spillage of classified information. Writers scrupulously adhere to intellectual property rights rules and shun plagiarism.

3-114. For developing leaders, a developmental writing program serves as a significant complementary companion to a professional reading program. Length and time given for completion should vary based on the requirement. Some ideas and suggested lengths for professional writing include:

Leadership philosophy—an opportunity to codify what you believe as a leader such as expectations, what is important, and what is non-negotiable (2-3 pages). Personal experiences:

Significant experience, whether good or bad, and how it affected you including lessons learned (5-7 pages). Routine experiences, describing how you handle them and possible improvements for consideration (2-3 pages).

Historical person or event related to your branch, regimental affiliation, or organization (5-7 pages). Opinion piece explaining changes affecting your branch through a particular person, policy, or equipment (5-7 pages).

3-115. Individuals should consider writing for publication as a complementary element to the professional reading program. Writing increases self-development as well as develops others who gain from the lessons learned and stimulated thought. Papers created through the writing program could be considered for publication in branch journals or as blog entries. This shares ideas and gathers feedback for the author, which could be beneficial in further developing the original ideas.

Chapter 3

3-28 FM 6-22

CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROFESSIONAL READING A reading program is one way to foster self-study by making the reading relevant, provide a purpose, and follow up. Leaders can use this format to present a short lesson on leadership and leader development to others.

Book/Article/Reference Name of leader and position Describe the leader’s environment and situation. Who was the leader leading? How did the leader attempt to influence the situation or people? What were the positive and negative outcomes? What were the leader’s strengths and development needs? What lessons from this leader’s experience can we apply immediately or later?

Additional questions may be used to focus readers on specific aspects: What is the significance of the title? Would you have given the work a different title? If yes, what is your title? What were the central themes? Do you feel they were adequately explored? Were they presented in a cliché or in a unique manner? What did you think of the structure and style of the writing? What part was the most central to the work? What resonated positively or negatively with you personally? Why? Has anything ever happened to you like the examples cited? How did you react? What surprised you the most? What were notable historical, economic, racial, cultural, traditional, gender, sexual or socioeconomic factors brought up in the book? How did they affect the presentation of the central idea? Was it realistic? Were there any particular quotes that stood out? Why? Did any of the situations remind you of yourself or someone you know? Did you disagree with the author’s views? If so, what specifically and why? Have any of your views or thoughts changed after reading this? Are there any works that you would compare with this one? How does this compare? Have you read any other works by this author? Were they comparable to this one? What did you learn from, take away from, or get out of this work? Did your opinion change as you read it? How? Would you recommend a peer, subordinate, or supervisor read it? Was anything confusing or contradictory about what the author presented? Why do you think the author included some of the stories? What is your rating for the work? How do you feel about reading it?


3-116. Creating opportunities for development or using existing experience opportunities is a fourth way of creating a culture of development. An organizational culture develops based on shared values, beliefs, and learning. These cultural values, when consistent with the mission, affect an organization’s performance. Leaders foster a positive culture by providing a supportive command climate that values member involvement and learning. Likewise, the selections for and responsibilities of key positions of leadership will

Fundamentals of Development

FM 6-22 3-29

have implications for developing leaders far into the future. Integrating these efforts into a holistic program will establish lasting operating norms. Developing leaders to this level requires an investment of time and effort, but leaves a lasting legacy of trained and ready leaders for the Army of tomorrow.

3-117. Selection and screening of leaders can be useful in leader development efforts. Forming leadership teams where strengths in one complement developmental needs in another is a common selection goal. Developing leaders is often about preparing them for responsibilities in the next position. Creating opportunities for leader development involves—

Creating challenging experiences. Sharpening leader selection. Planning leader succession. Tracking career development and management.

CHALLENGING EXPERIENCES 3-118. Experience is a developmental tool. leaders can create learning opportunities by placing subordinates into challenging assignments to stretch their thinking and behavior. Challenging experiences are characterized by pressure, complexity, novelty, and uncertainty. Challenge creates learning situations that are interesting and motivating. Leaders can also create these experiences or ensure opportunities are used as learning experiences.

3-119. All Army assignments inherently provide a degree of developmental challenge. Leader development will happen even if supervisors do nothing at all. Creating the right challenges in a position for a particular leader can dramatically increase development.

3-120. Some missions or circumstances may not offer key developmental opportunities. Supervisors may need to shape position responsibilities to allow a subordinate to enhance personal leadership skills. Before adjusting a position’s requirements, leaders should consider unit and mission demands.

3-121. Leaders should be deliberate placing subordinates in special missions and organizational assignments. Experienced leaders implicitly know the defining tasks early in an assignment and should be deliberate about identifying these tasks and ensuring each leader gains experience from them. Sometimes, supervisors must assign subordinates to positions for which they do not have the requisite skills or experience. Supervisors should consider modification of position requirements and providing additional support or resources.

3-122. Not all leaders develop on the same timelines. Supervising leaders should be willing to adjust how much time each subordinate stays in a position. Supervisors should involve human resources staff early in these discussions as decisions may have implications beyond the organization. When making such determinations, supervisors should weigh the effects on—

Unit performance. Stability of the leadership team. Leadership needs of adjacent units, higher units, and the Army. The leader’s well-being and personal growth.

In determining what subordinates need to learn, ask them about the top three skills they need to become proficient to improve unit performance. Doing so will motivate them and increase their reception to the leader skills they need to learn.

Chapter 3

3-30 FM 6-22

Designing Assignments for Development From a battalion commander: I led a group of company commanders with very different communication styles, interpersonal skill levels, and backgrounds. I perceived each needed some individual and special experiences to better round out their skill sets. Therefore, I purposefully assigned projects that put them each in challenging situations requiring them to prepare for and execute with skills that were not their natural strengths, but nonetheless important. For example, I would take someone I considered to be introverted and have them meet with the family readiness group, which I know was likely be comprised of a lot of diverse folks and require effective communications and relationship building. That task provides a junior leader with a different environment than their direct chain-of-command and consequently expands their communication and interpersonal skills. I think they learn more from some of these types of tasks than just daily Soldier interaction tasks. The goal in all of these day-to-day task assignments was to get leaders out of their comfort zone, and away from isolating themselves and stovepiping their actions within a narrowly defined, known environment. I also wanted to broaden and build their skills sets and adaptability. I did not necessarily expect everyone to become fully “rounded,” but I did think it encouraged and resulted in individual growth. It definitely improved my company commanders’ ability to deal with change and novel situations.

LEADER SELECTION 3-123. Supervising leaders should foster an attitude that leadership positions are not necessarily automatic appointments. It is a privilege, not an entitlement, to serve in a leadership position. Selections for key leadership positions require thorough consideration. Each step in the screening and selection process should narrow the field of acceptable candidates. For key leadership positions, a deliberate selection process should be followed:

Forecast potential position openings. Identify key leader characteristics. Build a pool of candidates by working with higher, adjacent, and subordinate units, as applicable. Use selection tools to screen out applicants such as—

Conducting a career file review to identify prerequisite experiences and training; review files and rate candidates against career indicators.

Reviewing disciplinary or derogatory information in personnel and intelligence files. Obtaining references or recommendations on the leader from trusted sources. Conducting structured interviews with candidates for the position—structure the interviews

to assess values, attributes, and responses to various situations. Organizations may develop minimum prerequisite knowledge or skills requirements for

particular positions. Final candidates may demonstrate capabilities by conducting a task that proves their qualifications for the position (such as leading a patrol or leading a convoy). Select and appoint approved candidates.

3-124. If creating a pool of qualified candidates is not possible, supervising leaders should consider modifying the position or providing additional support or resources to available candidates.

3-125. These processes fall within the realm of talent management, which complements leader development. Talent management takes into account the individual talents of an officer, NCO, or Army Civilian—the unique distribution of personal skills, knowledge, abilities, and behaviors and the potential they represent. The Army looks to develop and put to best use well-rounded leaders based on the talents they possess—talents that derive not only from operational experience but also from broadening assignments, advanced civil schooling and professional military education, and demonstrated interests.

Fundamentals of Development

FM 6-22 3-31

Consider the leadership team when selecting leaders. For example, pair a technically strong warrant officer with a tactically strong officer. Pair a strong operations officer with an intelligence officer willing to challenge the operational plan by forcefully presenting the enemy point of view. Pair an experienced NCO with an inexperienced lieutenant.

LEADER SUCCESSION 3-126. Succession planning is a developmental activity for the individual leaders that focus on deliberate planning to provide opportunities for experience in key developmental assignments and to prepare for future assignments beyond the unit. Unit leaders do not have total input into succession planning but with forethought can have plans developed to rotate leaders within the unit. Succession planning is a localized version of talent management. Senior leaders plan the systematic rotation of subordinates within the organization so that trained and qualified leaders are ready to assume vacancies, proven leaders move on to positions of greater responsibility, and marginal leaders receive opportunities to improve. Succession planning serves individual leaders by looking beyond the replacement interests of the organization. It helps develop leaders with the potential to succeed in future positions beyond their current unit and returns a benefit to the Army by optimizing development opportunities and duration across the unit’s leaders.

Grant and McPherson During the American Civil War, Ulysses S. Grant rose to become the Commander in Chief of the Union Army. Along the way, he groomed a select number of officers to succeed him. Those he supported for further advancement showed three attributes: personal loyalty, a willingness to do any duty necessary to prosecute the war, and a desire to prove oneself in battle. One of Grant’s inner circle who gained his full trust and confidence was James B. McPherson. McPherson was a Regular Army officer who graduated from West Point in 1853 and commissioned as an Engineer. Eager to find a combat assignment, he joined Grant’s staff in January 1862 after promotion to lieutenant colonel. McPherson served admirably as Grant’s chief engineer during the Fort Donelson campaign and at Shiloh. A rising star, Grant promoted McPherson to major general in 1862 and appointed him to command an infantry corps. His successes during the Vicksburg campaign cemented his reputation. When Grant was promoted and sent east, he designated McPherson as commander of the Army of the Tennessee—a wise choice. Grant knew the old army adage that “best friends may not always make the best generals.” McPherson had indeed become Grant’s friend over the years. However, McPherson’s ability to see Grant’s goals and work tirelessly to meet them won the full confidence and support of his commander. McPherson did not disappoint. While other generals sought to seize ground and take cities, he endeavored to engage and destroy enemy armies. McPherson’s army was successful in driving the Confederates back through northwest Georgia as a part of Sherman’s Atlanta campaign. Leading from the front, McPherson was killed in action on 22 July 1864. Grant memorialized McPherson as one of the "ablest, purest, and best generals." Sherman called him "a man who was...qualified to heal national strife." Even his adversary, John Bell Hood, marked his passing with friendship and admiration. Yet while he lived, McPherson proved a sterling example of how to establish a succession of command.

3-127. Understanding the projected career paths and timing for leader branches and specialties is an important factor in succession planning. Moving leaders into and out of positions should be a factor of—

Unit performance. Keeping leaders in positions long enough so that their stability promotes high unit performance. Army need. Providing experienced leadership back to the Army to fulfill its requirements. Individual leader developmental goals and readiness. Determining when the leader has achieved development goals and is ready to take on new responsibilities and challenges.

Chapter 3

3-32 FM 6-22

3-128. Supervising leaders should work with human resources staff to predict accurate leader gains and losses to the unit. Be sure to—

Account for leader needs for career and position-specific training before position assumption. Assess leaders during their initial assignments to drive subsequent position assignments. Use leader vacancies due to schooling, special assignment, or leave as leader development opportunities; assign less experienced leaders temporarily to the vacancies.

Identify the key leadership positions that trigger succession planning and management. Chart the timing and sequencing of leaders into and out of unit leadership positions. Account for prerequisite schooling and plan primary and alternate candidates for each position.

Be an Advocate for Yourself—Take a Career-view From a battalion commander: One of my prior battalion commanders once told me, “When you’re working one position, know the next three you want down the road, and focus on how to get there to ensure you attain that goal. Always keep thinking about the next three jobs you want to do. When you’re in one job, always do that job, but also be training yourself to do that next.” I had never thought about that before. My commander shared that with me while we were in Korea. He was great about day-to-day interaction and passing on professional advice and lessons learned from his experience. His technique was to visit with us often and unit performance was always his first priority and order of business. Once he got a sense of what was going on with the unit, he would motion for me to follow him back to his vehicle, and it was then that the one-on-one sharing would start. It could be a lesson learned or a story about how he handled a situation, or sometimes just asking me about how I was doing. I did not fully appreciate what he was doing then, but I do now. He helped me not only with the work I was doing, but also thinking ahead both professionally and personally.

Eight years later, I still use much of what he shared with me. Whenever I talk to my leaders and they ask me about my goals, I am prepared. Recently, the commanding general asked me, “Hey, what do you want to do?” Because of what I learned from my commander in Korea, I responded, “Hey sir, here’s who I am. This is what I need to do to get the jobs I want. Here are my goals for those jobs. Here are three jobs I want and three different timelines for how I can achieve them.” Then your leader can take that all in and help you make some decisions. For instance, the general told me, “Your course of action #2 is the most realistic. It’s probably best suited for you and will help you in your career progression.”

CAREER DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT 3-129. Individuals should understand and actively manage their own career paths while supervisors should consider the career paths and influence their subordinates to gain breadth in development. Commanders and other senior leaders should encourage their developing subordinates to take challenging assignments. Reserve Component leaders should be aware of subordinates’ civilian development plan as this may affect their ability to take on new and challenging assignments.

3-130. The Army provides ACT and other online tools to help leaders in collaborating with their subordinates in professional development planning discussions. Supervisors must provide opportunities for subordinate's personal and required individual learning. ACT enhances personnel counseling by providing a framework to create IDPs and the ability to monitor career development while allowing leaders to track and advise subordinates on personalized leadership development.

Fundamentals of Development

FM 6-22 3-33

BALANCE OF ARMY NEEDS WITH PERSONAL CHOICES 3-131. The gravity of the Army mission and the dynamic nature of the world make continuous learning and self-development crucial to personal success and national security. Rapid changes in geopolitical affairs, technology, and general knowledge require individuals to repetitively seek current information. Army and civilian schools provide basic knowledge, frameworks, and techniques that individuals need to continue to review and update after they leave those schools. To thrive professionally and personally, individuals must engage in life-long learning and self-development.

3-132. Finding the proper balance between professional work and personal life while planning career development challenges professionals at all stages of their careers. Most career planning models have the following common steps—

Perform a self-assessment to determine strengths and developmental needs (based on abilities, characteristics, needs, responsibilities, or interest or goals). Weigh the possibilities to choose goals and milestones for self-development efforts. Make a self-development plan that uses effective methods of learning. Implement the plan, overcoming obstacles, and measuring progress.

Ask the organizational leaders to describe their most valuable leader development experience. Give them a few days to think about it before they respond. Have them briefly write the experience down or tell it to a group of their peers. Use their experiences to help prioritize implementation.

Providing a first, second, third, and fourth priority reflects the understanding that leaders may not be able to implement every idea or method. Some methods of leader development provide a leader with a higher return in performance for less investment of resources.

CIVILIAN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS 3-133. The Civilian Education System is a structured program with central funding for all Army Civilian personnel and serves as the foundation for civilian leader development. Army Civilians have developmental opportunities afforded by their duty series, grouped into career programs. Each career program makes available career planning tools to enable the development of core competencies. ACTEDS provides a planned course of professional development, using a combination of formal training and education and progressively challenging work experiences. ACTEDS is a resource for both individuals and for their supervisors. Through ACTEDS, Army Civilians have the opportunity to plan and conduct their own development.

3-134. Information is available for each Army Civilian career program at Civilian Personnel Online and ACT. For example, Career Program 34 is a 14,000-member group of Information Technology Management personnel. Development programs and opportunities for Career Program 34 include academic degree training in such areas as technology management, information technology management, information security, and computer science. Short–term training is available in areas such as project management, cloud computing, system administration, and software development. Some opportunities are competitive and slots are filled through application, nomination and screening of candidates. Management programs are available from Office of Personnel Management development centers, executive leadership development, and executive potential programs.

3-135. Developmental assignments are encouraged to broaden knowledge of how different organizations conduct information technology and cyber missions. Training with industry is available to higher-ranking personnel where they learn about information technology practices outside the Army. Distributed learning resources are extensive for the Career Program 34 population, predominantly through Army e-Learning courses and certifications. Each career program has similar opportunities to guide the professional development of Army Civilians.

Chapter 3

3-34 FM 6-22

Team building as Development From an Army Civilian supervisor: Team building projects are a huge success. Together we have a brain storming activity or a process review. We discuss where the team feels shortcomings. We have improved directorate communications, eased document processing, made procedures more efficient, and clarified desired outcomes from a team perspective. We also do monthly training and pass the helm to someone different every month to run it. This gives them a sense of responsibility, helps them feel engaged, and affirms their expertise. It develops their self-confidence as well.

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS 3-136. Leader professional development programs bring an organization’s leaders together for a specific developmental purpose. Leader development programs are an effective vehicle for leader development when consistently applied. Common elements of successful programs include—

Mission-essential leader task training when a common need exists across the organization. Required orientation or education sessions (such as equal opportunity and safety). Cohesion-building activities that foster esprit de corps (such as a dining-in, sports, or adventure training). Opportunities for the commander, command sergeant major, or first sergeant to emphasize key guidance to all leaders. Education sessions on leader career path topics (assignments, schooling, or promotions). Education sessions on the mission command philosophy, culture, and geopolitical issues.

3-137. Professional development sessions, conducted to facilitate discussion and collaboration, are extremely valuable in gaining a greater understanding and application of specific information or skills in a unit. The sources of information and means of conducting these sessions are endless and allow for creativity. Instructors should not rely solely on dry briefings. Scenarios and materials should be tailored to the grades and ranks present. These sessions can be great team building opportunities to bring together groups of different ranks and responsibilities.

3-138. All of these applications fulfill the training and development needs of the leaders in the organization. To implement leader development programs effectively, leaders should invoke the following guidelines—

Link training and professional development. Clearly communicate purpose and relevance. Gather all leaders together only when doing so is the most effective learning method. Consider prior listed applications as integral to leader development programs.

To provide leaders with an in-depth perspective on a mission-essential task for the organization (such as security patrols or convoy operations), supervisory leaders should lead the task while subordinate leaders perform the roles of Soldiers. By practicing the execution of the task to standard, the organization’s leadership will be more effective at supervising future execution.

Fundamentals of Development

FM 6-22 3-35

DEVELOPING MISSION COMMAND This exercise offers a technique to understand and create a culture of mission command through subordinate participation.

Step 1: Educate the unit on the philosophy of mission command. Everyone down to the lowest-ranking member needs to understand the mission command philosophy, why it is needed, and what it is not.

Step 2: Every member of the organization has an assignment to imagine that overnight the unit wholeheartedly embraced the philosophy of mission command with everyone coming to work the next day acting and behaving differently. Based on that premise, they answer the following:

What would counseling look like for the organization? What would my responsibility be?

What would morning physical training look like for the organization? What would my responsibility be?

What would training events look like for the organization? What would my responsibility be?

What would our organizational leader development program look like?

What would my self-development program look like?

Step 3: Use the responses to develop clearly articulated goals and behaviors to provide guidelines and visible markers that the exercise of mission command actually happens. For example, several comments recommend quarterly developmental counseling for everyone with no counseling completed with a generic fill-in-the-blank counseling form. Follow the survey with professional development classes by leaders (grade immaterial) known for excellent developmental counseling sessions. Make this an organizational goal to accomplish for the next quarter.

OPPORTUNITIES DURING TRAINING EVENTS 3-139. Training is an organized, structured, continuous, and progressive process based on sound principles of learning designed to increase the capability of individuals, units, and organizations to perform specified tasks or skills. The objective of training is to increase the ability of competent leaders to perform in a variety of training and operational situations. Individual task training builds individual competence and confidence to perform these tasks to support collective training and operations.

3-140. Leaders contribute substantially to the unit’s mission success or lack of success. Therefore, the Army devotes considerable resources to foster leader development during exercises. Leader development is an important duty of supervisory leaders and the leader’s chain-of-command. Their responsibility is to provide leaders with accurate observations of their abilities and the effects on unit performance. Providing leadership feedback is a difficult, yet essential, part of training exercises. Without it, the assessment of an important contributor to a unit’s mission accomplishment, namely its leadership, is left undone.

3-141. Leaders have a specific task to observe subordinates during planning and executing missions. Some may feel unqualified to observe and provide feedback on leadership actions. However, understanding how to treat leadership as a set of skills that can be developed and improved is essential.

Chapter 3

3-36 FM 6-22

3-142. Guided discovery learning is an important underpinning of developing leaders. To the extent possible, leaders ought to use guided discovery learning. Doing so places the observed leader in charge of their learning, with the chain of command in a supporting role. Using guided discovery learning during training exercises makes the leader better prepared to be a self-guided learner in any contemporary operational environment. Providing feedback falls in the larger context of guided discovery learning methods. Chapter 6 provides leader performance descriptions at various levels of proficiency to support leader observation and feedback.

Integrating Development into Daily Events From a battalion commander: You deal with all types of Soldiers’ issues as a commander and command is fundamentally about motivating and influencing Soldiers. Therefore, I mentor my junior officers by preparing them to look at Soldier issues from a command perspective. I integrate this daily activity into my interactions with subordinates and field visits. For example, whatever position a junior leader happens to be in at the time, I mentor them by asking them how they might deal with the issue if they were the commander. I will let them offer an idea and then pose a few questions to help them gain from my experience. I find this informal but deliberate mentoring has the benefit of reinforcing my commander’s intent through the ranks. Everyone starts thinking like a commander and taking ownership of issues at their level. That leaves me time to step back and command. Experience with Soldiers and understanding the human dynamic is what makes a successful commander. Sure, you have to have general knowledge of what the equipment is and how to employ it. However, it is how you as the leader make Soldiers proud to go to war and take care of their families and develop themselves into better leaders and people.

FM 6-22 4-1

Chapter 4

Self-development 4-1. Self-development bridges the gaps between the operational and institutional domains and sets the conditions for continuous learning and growth. Military and Army Civilian personnel engage in self- development to improve their capabilities for current and future positions. Self-knowledge is an important part of a leader’s development. Several tools, such as the Army MSAF program, are available to leaders to understand strengths and obtain insights into developmental needs.

4-2. Self-development is an individual’s responsibility but it is important for leaders to set conditions and support self-development. Leaders need to be actively involved in developing themselves and each other. Development happens through study and practice. Leaders can support others’ self-development through the exchange of professional development information, discoveries, and opinions.

4-3. Self-development supports planned, goal-oriented learning to reinforce and expand the depth and breadth of what a person knows to include themselves and situations they experience and how they perform their duties. The Army acknowledges three types of self-development:

Structured self-development includes mandatory learning modules required to meet specific learning objectives and requirements. Guided self-development is recommended, optional learning intended to enhance professional competence. Personal self-development is self-initiated learning to meet personal objectives such as pursuing a college education or an advanced degree.

4-4. To help subordinates learn from their experiences, leaders should provide opportunities for them to pause, reflect, and process the experience for what was learned. Reflecting on an experience—

Keeps leaders from repeating the same mistakes. Helps leaders consider effects in future decisionmaking. Helps leaders to link their actions with the resulting effects on unit performance.

Working environments can be chaotic, noisy, and filled with activity. However, prioritizing time for reflection and consolidation of thoughts enhances self-development.

4-5. The self-development process consists of four major phases. They are— Strengths and developmental needs determination. Goal setting. Self-enhanced learning. Learning in action.

STRENGTHS AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS DETERMINATION 4-6. The first step in determining strengths and developmental needs is to think about what you do and how well you do it. At a minimum, this information comes from self-examination. Outside opinions and information on strengths and developmental needs are useful. Feedback can come from formal or informal assessments and from other leaders, peers, or subordinates. Keep this in mind during a self-examination.

4-7. Understanding current strengths and developmental needs is necessary before setting self-development goals. This is part of being self-aware. These methods help identify strengths and developmental needs:

Information collection. Feedback gathering.

Chapter 4

4-2 FM 6-22

Self-analysis. Strengths and developmental needs identification.

INFORMATION COLLECTION 4-8. Formal assessments such as evaluations and tests are a good place to start gaining insight into strengths and developmental needs, since they measure individual performance and compare it to a standard. Individuals use the information and results from relevant assessments to inform understanding of personal strengths and developmental needs. Formal assessments include—

Performance evaluations. Counseling sessions (formal and informal). Skills tests (such as the Expert Field Medical Badge and Expert Infantryman Badge tests). Tests administered in resident and non-resident schools. Field performance evaluations such as those at the combat training centers. Intelligence and aptitude tests (such as Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery or Defense Language Aptitude Battery). MSAF program feedback (360-degree assessment) where superiors, peers, and subordinates provide anonymous feedback. Occupational interest inventories.

Unique Value of 360 Assessment From a first sergeant: Nobody ever tells you if you are screwed up. They just talk behind your back or assign the mission to someone else. With the 360 assessment, you get the truth. This is not just another survey; it is essential.

FEEDBACK GATHERING 4-9. Hearing what peers, subordinates, superiors, mentors, family, and friends think can help identify strengths and developmental needs that went unnoticed or you have been reluctant to acknowledge. There are two ways to get feedback: observe how others interact with you or ask them directly. Supervisors have an explicit role in subordinate development. Subordinates should consult supervisors for guidance about development goals or any other aspect of self-development.


Observing how others act toward you and the decisions they make affecting you will give an idea of what they think about your skills and expertise. When observing others:

Make observations on different occasions. Watching the same person several times will help you see trends that may be a sign of a firmly held opinion of you. One observation is not reliable, as that behavior may have been a result of other issues.

Consider the circumstances. What outside factors influenced the person’s decisions and actions? For example, if your supervisor selected someone else to perform an important task, was it because you were too busy or unavailable?

4-10. After considering these questions, analyze the answers to determine the opinions that each person considered may have of your strengths and developmental needs:


FM 6-22 4-3

Supervisors, raters, and superiors. Who gets the most challenging assignments? The supervisor relies upon whom during emergencies or tough problems? The supervisor praises whom the most? What kinds of tasks does your supervisor give you versus others? How does your supervisor react to your suggestions compared to others’ suggestions? Does your supervisor listen to your opinions on certain subjects much more or much less than

the opinions of others? If so, what are those subjects? Peers and Subordinates.

Do peers and subordinates come to you for help or advice? In what topics? Do they understand you or seem confused or overwhelmed by what you say? Do they repeatedly contact you for help or are they one-time interactions? Does their interest and enthusiasm increase or diminish when they interact with you? What does their body language communicate? Is it relaxed, apprehensive, or reserved?

Asking for Feedback 4-11. One can learn a lot about others’ perceptions by observing interactions, but conclusions will only be educated guesses unless the observers are asked directly. To gain perspective, talk to others who know you in different ways, such as one’s rater, enlisted or officer counter-part, mentor, instructor, or family member. The goal is to find out—

What a person actually saw and their impressions of your action(s). That person’s impression of how well you performed during the interaction(s). How you react in certain situations. For example, “When a subordinate challenges your authority in front of others, you seem to get flustered and be at a loss for words.”

Who to Ask 4-12. These are items to consider when determining who to ask for feedback—

Who has been able to observe you enough to offer useful information? Who has observed you from different perspectives? Who has experience in an area of interest (former or current supervisor, mentor, or teacher)?

Things to Remember When Asking for Feedback 4-13. When asking for feedback, keep the following in mind—

Be respectful of others’ time—prepare questions ahead of time. Approach with an open mind to accept uncomfortable or critical feedback without offense. Listen carefully and respectfully. Ask for clarification and examples when points are unclear. Summarize the points to make sure that you understand the person correctly. Thank the feedback providers for their time and assistance.

4-14. These ideas may help you focus on what to ask: Get descriptions of your behaviors and opinions of those behaviors. For feedback about a recurring issue, ask about the situation, your actions, and the usual outcomes. Ask for suggestions for other ways of handling situations.

4-15. Compare the feedback received from different sources to look for common themes. These themes will help to identify strengths and developmental needs. Army leaders must try to avoid the natural inclination to reject or minimize responses that do not confirm self-perceptions or attribute them to the situation instead.

Chapter 4

4-4 FM 6-22

SELF-ANALYSIS 4-16. After gathering the information from outside sources through formal assessments, observing others, and requesting feedback, it is time to reflect on personal behavior and performance. Examining personal situations and experiences can reveal things to change or improve. The situation analysis exercise will help analyze experiences to help identify personal strengths and developmental needs.


Think of experiences over the past two years that give insight into personal strengths and developmental needs—maybe a critical decision, an important task you led or were a part of, or a significant personal interaction. Use these questions to analyze each situation:

What was the situation? What was happening? Who was there?

What was the goal and did you reach it? What were you trying to accomplish? What resources or skills did you have or not have that you needed?

What did you say and think? Were you able to find the right words to make your point? What were you thinking at the time? What made you feel good (confident, excited) or bad (confused, worried)?

What did you do? How did you act (including your body language)? Why did you choose to act the way you did? How did others react? Did you help or hurt the situation? Did you adjust your actions based on how others were reacting?

Why did you act the way you did? What knowledge and skills led you to act the way you did?

What could have helped you handle the situation better? How could you have used your strengths to reach a better outcome? Are there any developmental needs that you should make a high priority for personal self-development efforts?

4-17. After recording the information, look for key factors that influenced the situation progression and the overall outcome. Keep in mind that if the same factor occurs in multiple situations, it may suggest a significant strength or developmental need that may be developed.

4-18. By knowing how personal actions affected the situation and the thoughts and feelings associated with those actions, leaders can work to become more self-aware and choose the most productive actions. In addition, a self-analysis may suggest broader interests to pursue or issues to avoid.


FM 6-22 4-5

COMPLETE A SELF-ANALYSIS Consider the following items and be as specific as possible. Use the items as necessary to identify unique aspects of personal strengths and developmental needs.

Strengths The skill or ability at which I am best is— The personal quality that I rely on most for my success is— I am most knowledgeable about— The activities I look forward to include— I would love to learn more about— The accomplishment I am most proud of is— Others usually come to me for help with— Others think the best position for me would be—

Developmental needs The skill or ability that is always difficult for me is— I don’t know as much as I should about— I usually go to others for help on— The situation that causes me the most frustration is— I am most hesitant when I try to— I am most concerned about my— Others think I am not skilled at— I would become a more valued member of my organization if I—

STRENGTHS AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS IDENTIFICATION 4-19. The final step is to take the information gathered from formal assessments, information gathered from observing others and asking others, and results of the situation and self-analyses and analyze it to determine strengths and developmental needs.

4-20. Instead of taking all of the feedback as fact, look for recurring themes or patterns of feedback heard from more than one person. Look at what others identified as strengths and developmental needs and compare that to personal knowledge (from the self-exam) and the results of formal assessments.

4-21. Usually, repeated success or expertise in a particular activity indicates a strength. These abilities may come easily even though others find them difficult:

What are your favorite things to do or learn about? What do others turn to you for help with? What do recent assignments show as strengths?

4-22. Developmental needs are tasks that are a struggle to learn or difficult to perform: What was noted as being hard or not fun to do? What did others suggest as a limitation? Did formal assessments point out any deficiencies?

4-23. Identify where these descriptions apply and make a list of strengths and developmental needs. This list will enable setting clear goals for self-development efforts.

GOAL SETTING 4-24. To make the most of self-development efforts and avoid wasting time and energy, it is crucial to set self-development goals—identify personal and professional goals and decide where to go. This section outlines procedures to—

Chapter 4

4-6 FM 6-22

Gather the information needed to decide how to structure self-development efforts. Establish self-development goals. Plan milestones to keep on track.

INFORMATION GATHERING 4-25. An understanding of strengths and developmental needs is an important place to start when determining where to focus self-development efforts. Other areas to analyze for self-development opportunities include—

Roles and responsibilities (personal and work-related). The needs of the Army.

Roles and Responsibilities 4-26. Roles and responsibilities at home and at work may offer opportunities for self-development, such as being a spouse, parent, teacher, Soldier, or other roles. Each role has different responsibilities, skill and knowledge requirements, and expectations. Reserve Component leaders have a unique opportunity to improve both civilian and military profession skills by linking self-development goals to skills shared by both professions. ADRP 6-22 describes expectations for key roles as Army military and civilian leaders.

4-27. Chosen roles usually reflect personal interests and values, but even assigned roles will affect the value of different self-development paths. When roles and responsibilities align with talents and interests, leaders are likely to succeed and be satisfied.

ANALYZE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES List three to four of important roles at home and at work. Next to each role, list the two most important responsibilities in that role.

Now think about the listed roles and responsibilities and identify knowledge, skills, or attitudes that enable better performance of these roles and responsibilities.

Needs of the Army 4-28. Another way to identify satisfying goals for personal self-development efforts is to align personal interests with Army needs. This ensures that the acquired knowledge and skills are personally interesting but benefit the Army.

4-29. Soldiers and Army units must be ready to deploy to any part of the world and accomplish diverse missions. Some requirements may be unforeseen and untrained, requiring Soldiers to use their knowledge, skills, and creativity to accomplish the mission. As members of a unit develop expertise in a variety of areas, the unit and the Army as a whole become stronger. The range and depth of expertise gives the unit resiliency and an increased ability to adapt to specific challenges.


FM 6-22 4-7

General Joe Stilwell’s Commitment to Self-Development General Joseph Stilwell served as the commanding general of U.S. forces in the China- Burma-India Theater during World War II. He rose to that position through a career focused on developing his understanding of the Chinese language and the Chinese people. Stilwell gained much of this knowledge through persistent pursuit of personal study and development. As a junior officer, Stilwell found he had a gift for languages and constantly sought opportunities to develop his ability to speak other languages and understand foreign cultures. Before World War I, he used personal leave to journey extensively through Latin America and parts of Asia, perfecting his Spanish and picking up basic Japanese on these travels. Later he would learn Chinese. His proficiency in language and culture was unique and in 1919 earned him an assignment as the U.S. Army’s first language officer in China. In 1921, he volunteered to oversee an International Red Cross rural road-building project so he could interact directly with Chinese officials and laborers to hone his language skills and learn about their way of life. After his first year in China, Stilwell had become conversant in a notoriously difficult language and familiar with a culture that remained entirely alien to most Westerners. Stilwell spent most of the next 20 years in China, becoming one of the U.S. Government’s most trusted China experts in the process. In 1926, he commanded a U.S. Army battalion near Beijing; then in 1935, became the American military attaché in China. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, U.S. Army Chief of Staff Marshall appointed Stilwell commander of the China-Burma-India theater and chief of staff to Chiang Kai- Shek, the leader of Chinese forces fighting the Japanese. Between 1942 and 1944, General Stillwell deftly used his knowledge of Chinese language and culture to build rapport with Chiang Kai-Shek, ensuring that the Chinese Nationalist forces remained a partner in the war against the Japanese.

4-30. There are many things that Army leader must be able to do, including— Operate in other countries and work within other cultures. Train, lead, and care for Soldiers. Exercise sound judgment and critical thinking to help accomplish missions. Develop effective plans. Manage and maintain equipment and other resources.

SELF-DEVELOPMENT GOALS 4-31. Self-development activities aim at learning new knowledge, gaining or enhancing skills, changing attitudes or values, or a combination of these. It is often easier to improve upon strengths rather than developmental needs. Learning is quicker and greater when strengths are used as a path to improvement rather than developmental needs. However, if a particular developmental need is an obstacle to development, consider improving it.

4-32. No set formula exists in choosing personal development goals. However, key considerations include— Personal strengths. Personal developmental needs. Family roles and responsibilities. Current or future roles. Army needs. Personal interests.

4-33. Personal experiences and goals, as well as personal interests, needs, and resources should influence the determination of self-development goals. Ideally, self-development goals will provide a long-term professional aim to work toward through a variety of activities. Figure 4-1 on page 4-8 provides an example of how to work through developing self-development goals.

Chapter 4

4-8 FM 6-22

Figure 4-1. Example of self-development goal development

MILESTONE PLANNING 4-34. After establishing self-development goals, create one or more milestones to get started and gauge progress. Use an IDP to document goals and milestones. Use each milestone to stretch you. Milestones can be a mix of short-term or long-term—whatever personally works and encourages progress. Milestones should—

Be specific and measurable: They need to state what to accomplish so you can tell if you have met the milestone or not. Be meaningful: They should help achieve self-development goals. Provide a challenge: Milestones should stretch personal abilities and be challenging to accomplish. Challenging milestones increase motivation; being too easy or hard can hurt motivation. Have a time limit: Time limits provide motivation and will help gauge success.


FM 6-22 4-9

Be flexible: Build in some flexibility to overcome obstacles or revise milestones if necessary. Be realistic: Ensure milestones are reachable with available resources. For example, if a deployment will occur in the next 12 months, do not set a milestone requiring college attendance during that time. Keep in mind that unforeseen obstacles may occur along the way. Be cost effective: The benefits gained must be worth the effort, resources, risk, and other costs of reaching the milestone.

4-35. Every milestone requires at least a minimal amount of planning. After setting the first milestone, create a plan to achieve it. A plan can increase chances of success by—

Identifying all required actions. Identifying the resources needed to meet the milestones. Establishing time estimates and deadlines that help track progress. Dividing large tasks into smaller parts to reduce being overwhelmed. Identifying possible obstacles and the actions and resources needed to overcome them. Making the best use of personal time and other resources.

PLAN TO MEET MILESTONES Develop a plan by listing the first milestone and identify the main steps needed to reach it along with associated timelines to meet those milestones. Consider all of the developmental resources the Army has to offer as well as other sources to reach each milestone. Identify potential enablers and obstacles before beginning to better prepare for difficulties along the way. Collaborating through online forums and interest groups may help personal development and provide encouragement.

SELF-ENHANCED LEARNING 4-36. Self-development requires learning. Knowing how to learn is the most important skill required for self- development. Self-understanding, setting self-development goals, and planning milestones all influence a personal ability to learn. Beyond that, effective learning requires—

Motivation and persistence. Learning opportunities. Effective learning methods. Deep processing. Learning through focused reading and analysis.

MOTIVATION AND PERSISTENCE 4-37. Self-development may require hard work over a long period, especially if the goal is to become an expert in an area or undergo significant personal growth. It takes motivation and effort to keep self- development efforts alive. Genuine motivation provides lasting energy because it is the internalization of goals and the desire to achieve them. Use these tips to stay motivated and to persist in the effort required to make significant changes:

Recognize the benefits of self-development efforts. Think about— Why the results are personally important. How you will feel after reaching these self-development milestones. The positive effect these efforts will have on others.

Plan learning activities so that they— Connect to the real world. Teach knowledge, skills, or abilities that will help personal understanding. Satisfy curiosity.

Chapter 4

4-10 FM 6-22

Set specific and challenging milestones to progress through a personal developmental path. Milestones should—

Stretch enough to provide a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction after achieving them. Not be so difficult to have a high chance of failing (know personal limits).

Reward yourself for accomplishing learning tasks and milestones; it may be as simple as self- acknowledgement of completing a step.

Decide on the reward before beginning learning. Keep the reward appropriate for the task. Do not give the reward if planned tasks are not accomplished.

Treat self-development as a duty. Make it routine—select specific times to work on self- development tasks. Maintain momentum.

Do not start a learning task then put it down for too long. Work on the task a little every day until it is accomplished. Break a big task into smaller ones to accomplish in a reasonable amount of time.

Get support. Find family members, friends, or supervisors for encouragement, accountability, recognizing

accomplishments, and as a source of feedback. Observe others who have successfully achieved their goals. Learn and model what they do.

Review what has been learned so far. Think about the progress made, personal growth, and resolved challenges. Learn from mistakes and do not repeat them.

Setting Habits for Self-development From a warrant officer: Maintaining expertise and enhancing it are especially relevant to warrant officers who bring specialized knowledge and experience to their units. A practice that has served me well throughout my career has been to dedicate time each day for self-study. Goal setting was also important; it kept me focused and excited to move forward to the next challenge. On alternating days, I review relevant topics related to my area of expertise or general Army knowledge. I selected topics based on an honest assessment of my own strengths and needs, while mentors and raters recommended others. This practice began when I was a junior warrant officer, during field training exercises, deployments, and combat operations. As a senior warrant and senior leader within my organization. I still make time each day to learn something new.

LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES 4-38. Learning stems from deliberate planned activities or from the unplanned experiences of daily life. Make the most of each learning opportunity, whether planned or not.


FM 6-22 4-11

Teachable Moments During a training center rotation, unit staff and subordinates assembled to conduct a rehearsal for an upcoming attack. By some accounts, the commander had been struggling for several days to keep up with the pace of operations. He opened the rehearsal by giving the briefest of intents then moved behind the sergeant major and crossed his arms. The brigade commander took note and listened to the intelligence brief. During a pause to reset the rehearsal, the brigade commander asked the battalion commander to join him at his vehicle. He asked if the battalion commander agreed with the assessment and then got to the teachable moment—‘how do you, battalion commander, assess whether someone is on their game, whether they are engaged in and supportive of the plan?’ The battalion commander paused and answered that it depends on whether they are actively listening, affirming what they agree with, and asking questions about the rest. The brigade commander replied that even the act of listening by a leader is a powerful motivator; that it can make the difference whether staff and subordinates stay focused and on task. He pointed out that their roles as commanders must be to set the example, especially when they are tired and in front of those who directly support them.

4-39. Leaders can embed planned learning into routine duties by using normal events as learning opportunities or it can be a completely separate, scheduled activity for a specific item. Prepare for the unexpected times by having appropriate learning materials available. It is a good idea to take advantage of time that opens up such as from transportation delays, waiting for appointments, or cancellations.

4-40. Unplanned learning happens when something unexpectedly captures your attention. Interest in the topic causes you to pay attention and learn. Attune your mind to draw attention to information related to self- development aims by thinking about developmental aims in detail—what you are trying to accomplish and why you want to accomplish these things. Review what you know and what you need to learn. Remind yourself of key terms and ideas related to the subject as well as who the experts in the field are.

Chapter 4

4-12 FM 6-22

PERSONAL AFTER ACTION REVIEW (AAR) A personal AAR is an in-depth self-assessment of how leadership contributes to task and unit performance. Leaders should conduct their own personal AARs after a task is complete, or even while it is playing out, by asking themselves:

What happened and what were the consequences?

How were my leader actions supposed to influence the situation?

What were the direct results or consequences of my leader actions?

How did my actions benefit or hinder mission accomplishment?

How should I change my leader actions for better results next time?

What did I learn?

A good time to encourage personal AARs is following the unit AAR process. The unit AAR will clarify for the leader what happened and accurately assess mission accomplishment. Commanders can reinforce personal AARs by:

Walking less experienced leaders through the personal AAR.

Asking individuals what they learned from their personal AARs.

Telling subordinates the outcome of their personal AARs.

EFFECTIVE LEARNING METHODS 4-41. The purpose of each learning activity will help determine the learning principles to use to make the most of learning. The purpose may be to learn new knowledge, a new skill, or a new attitude about something. No matter the purpose, there are general principles of learning that apply:

Use multiple senses. Memory stores information according to the senses (how it looks, sounds, feels, tastes, or smells). Moore senses used while learning enable better memory and information recall. Involve multiple senses by taking notes, highlighting, reciting, and observing. Space out learning sessions. Do not try to learn a large amount of information or a complex skill in one long session—try to break the material into multiple, manageable sections. Study the information or practice the skill on multiple occasions. Know the time of day when you learn best and study the most difficult material during that time. Design learning activities so that they mimic reality as much as possible. If the expected conditions to use the information cannot be duplicated, try to imagine the conditions as vividly as possible. Familiarize information through self-study prior to formal instruction. Reinforce learning by reviewing the information after instruction. This is a good way to review and test memory skills. When learning an entirely new field, go slow at first to ensure thorough understanding of the basics—it is important to have a solid foundation to build on. Learn in layers. Start with what you know to determine what is the first level of understanding, information, or skill needed. Learn that level then determine what the information just learned suggests to learn next. Each level builds on the previous and usually becomes increasingly detailed and interconnected. Learn like a scientist. Scientists adopt the attitude that the best knowledge is subject to change and that new discoveries may prove old beliefs or assumptions wrong. Start the inquiry with a problem


FM 6-22 4-13

or question. Find evidence that answers the question and test possible explanations to gather evidence. It is also important to discover information that questions or refutes the possible explanations to avoid confirmation bias. Analyze the evidence and develop an explanation.

Principles for Specific Types of Learning 4-42. While the general learning principles apply to all types of learning, some learning principles apply based on whether the learning activity focuses on learning a new skill, a new attitude, or new knowledge.

4-43. Learning or improving a skill requires repeated, deliberate practice. Deliberate practice is not just repetition of a skill. Deliberate practice involves—

Making your best attempt at performing the skill. Analyzing the results of the attempt (sometimes with the help of a coach or instructor) to identify ways of improving personal performance. Attempting the skill again using the identified improvements.

4-44. Learning a new attitude about something requires repeated exposure to and testing of the attitude. Taking on a new attitude might involve realizing that a prior viewpoint is counterproductive to obtaining goals. Changing attitude can be done in two ways:

Behave as if you have already adopted the new attitude. If done often with positive results, it is likely that you will actually adopt the attitude. Observe another person behaving in a way that reflects the attitude. If you respect this person as a role model and you see the person gaining some benefit from the behavior, you may eventually come to accept and adopt the attitude for yourself.

4-45. Learning new knowledge requires linking the new information to already known information. This occurs by deeply processing the information that you want to learn. Deep processing and the related mental skills of critical and reflective thinking are detailed in the following section.

DEEP PROCESSING 4-46. The ability to learn and recall information depends upon what someone does with the information while trying to learn it. Deep processing requires analyzing the new information, picking it apart, using it, and connecting it to already-known information. There are many ways to practice deep processing:

Relate the new information to known information. This is the most important factor in learning. An increased number of connections create multiple ways to recall the new information. Think about conflicts between the new information and any prior understanding of the topic. Resolve the conflict in your mind and be able to explain the conclusion and resolution process. Summarize the material you are learning in your own words. Study the structure of the subject to see how facts, ideas, and principles relate to each other. Draw pictures or diagrams that show the connections between components. Diagrams can also be useful for learning the steps in a process. Organize new information into categories. For example, group illnesses by their symptoms, exercises by their physical benefits, or aircraft by their purpose. Ask and answer questions to make new facts, ideas, and principles useful and important:

How does this relate to prior knowledge? What does this imply? What other examples of this can I remember? Why is this important to me (or others)? Where else could this apply? Where or how could this be used?

Think of what the new information reminds you of. Develop metaphors and comparisons. Explain or teach the material to another. Did you get it right? Was it all covered? Does your explanation demonstrate personal understanding? Using the new information with others will test your mastery of it, and their reaction may help you better understand the material.

Chapter 4

4-14 FM 6-22

Argue one or both sides of an issue. Do this to help you think about the truthfulness of a position. Get your ego involved by imagining you are in a hotly contested debate or trial. Personalize the information by relating it to experiences or future expectations.

4-47. Using critical and reflective thinking skills is essential to being an effective learner and gaining subject expertise. Critical thinking and reflective thinking do not apply solely to learning but are essential practices and important ways of deeply processing information for duties across the range of military operations.

Critical Thinking 4-48. Critical thinking involves questioning what is seen, heard, read, or experienced. Critical thinking ensures that the person is engaged in the learning process, critically considering the information or practice of skills. Critical thinking requires analysis, comparisons, contrasting ideas, making inferences and predictions, evaluating the strength of evidence, and drawing conclusions. It also requires the self-discipline to use reason and avoid impulsive conclusions. These questions can guide critical thinking—

What is the evidence for and against this conclusion? What are the alternative or competing theories, explanations, or perspectives? Why is this important? What are the implications of this? Is the logic of the argument or reasoning sound? Do the numbers, quantities, and calculations make sense? Do the supporting facts agree with other sources? Why or how does this work? How likely is this?

Reflective Thinking 4-49. Closely related to critical thinking, reflective thinking seeks to build understanding, interpret experiences, and resolve questions. Reflective thinking requires thinking through the gathered information in detail to organize it, apply principles, make connections, and form conclusions. Use these questions to organize personal thoughts—

What does this information mean? What conclusions can be drawn from this? How can this information be used? How does this fit with my existing knowledge and experiences? What are the implications of this for others or me? What is the big picture and how does this fit into it? What is the best way to learn about this subject? Where should this take me in my studies and self-development?

LEARNING THROUGH FOCUSED READING AND ANALYSIS 4-50. Books and other written materials may be key learning resources for self-development. To maximize learning, approach reading for learning differently than casual reading. Deep processing of written materials is essential to the ability to understand, recall, and use the information contained in the books and other documents. Even though books may present information in a logical way, you must take an active role in teaching the information to yourself.

4-51. The Survey-Question-Read-Recite-Review method uses the deep processing principles. Developed over 70 years ago, these activities comprise one of the most widely recommended and effective ways of learning from written materials.

4-52. Survey. Before beginning to read, look over the chapter, article, or other material to build a mental framework or outline of the material and establish a purpose for reading it. This mental framework will help understanding the purpose of the material, set expectations so that attention will be drawn to important


FM 6-22 4-15

information, activate memory of what is already known, and give a skeleton of understanding to add to while reading. Survey the material by leafing through it and doing the following—

Make predictions about what the sections of the document will discuss. Complete accuracy is not necessary, but it helps active understanding of the material. Note the title, headings, and subheadings to see the sequence of topics and their relationships. Look at graphs, charts, diagrams, and pictures and read their captions. Read quotations, vignettes, and other short statements that are set off from the main text. Scan footnotes to get a sense of where ideas come from or what they mean. Note emphasized words and phrases (such as bold, italic, underlined, or colored text). Read the introduction, abstract, and summary if available; if not, read the first and last paragraphs. Read the first and last sentences of each paragraph. Review other learning aids that the material may have, such as study guides, advance organizers, chapter outlines, learning objectives, or review questions. Decide what you want to learn from the material.

4-53. Question. While surveying the material, write down questions that you want to answer while reading the material. Developing questions to guide your study increases interest in the material, makes you alert to important information, helps you stay involved with the material, and relates the new knowledge to what you already know. To develop questions—

Turn the title, headings, or subheadings into questions. For example, if a subheading is “The Four- Step Calibration Process,” a question may be, “What are the four steps of the calibration process?” Ask questions about graphs, charts, diagrams, and pictures. For example, a graph showing an increasing rate of traffic fatalities in the United States could lead to the question, “Why have traffic fatalities increased in the United States?” Consider questions that the author includes in the document, such as in call-out boxes or review questions at the end of a chapter. It can help to rephrase these questions so that they are meaningful and easier to remember.

4-54. Read. Read the material one section at a time. Use multiple senses by reading, taking notes, highlighting, and maybe even reading aloud. These tips will aid understanding, retain interest, and retain the information:

Look for the answers to your questions and write them in your own words. Look for additional questions to answer and important information that you had not anticipated. Use deep processing to relate the new information to things you already know. Highlight important information, especially information that answers questions you wrote. Write notes in the margins of the document or on separate paper. These can be key words or phrases, definitions, reminders to guide studying, and other useful points to remember. Make diagram that show how a process works, timeline, sequence of events or the relationships that exist between different components. Respond to points made in the document by noting ideas about them in the margins. This will help personalize the information and relate it to information already known. For example, notes may highlight disagreements with a point, how a stated idea relates to another idea learned elsewhere, gaps or questions that remain in the information, or implications of the information. Look for connections, discrepancies, comparisons, and relationships between information presented in the document and other readings, lectures, or personal experiences.

4-55. Recite. Reciting tests knowledge and understanding of the information. Self-testing is a method of deep processing that can enhance memory. Reciting helps ensure minimizing knowledge gaps.

Stop reading at the end of each section and summarize the material in the section from memory. Ask yourself the questions you previously wrote for that section. Explain charts, graphs, diagrams without referring to the text or personal notes. If you have problems, go back and review the section until you can recite its important information and concepts from memory.

Chapter 4

4-16 FM 6-22

4-56. Review. Reviewing helps refresh and strengthen memory and mastery of the material. Review immediately after reading the entire article or chapter. Review the document again in 24 hours and again several days later. After reading the entire article or chapter, flip back through it, looking at headings, subheadings, graphs, charts, diagrams, and so on. See if you can recall the important information for each item. Study the material to fill in any gaps. Go back through all of the written questions and see if you can answer them from memory. Study the material to answer any missed questions. Explain how all of the sections fit together. What are the overarching points and principles? Explain how the information in this document relates to self-development goals. Interaction with a friend who has studied the same information can help maintain focus, provide different perspectives on the material, and clarify difficult or misunderstood points.

Personal Reading 4-57. Documents often suggest related information to expand knowledge of the subject. The end of a chapter or book may list related documents. The bibliography or footnotes identify information sources the author used. To help narrow the search, make notes of any reference that sounds interesting and relevant.

Reflective Journaling 4-58. A journal may track and record the occurrence, actions, and outcomes of various situations. Reflective journaling goes beyond a personal AAR including periodic entries on self-awareness of personal strengths, developmental needs, values, feelings and perceptions, and questions and ideas about leadership situations. A leader may track personal successes and lessons learned by recording their experiences in leading others, the chosen actions, the resulting outcomes, and any insights. The journal may serve as a reference to pass along lessons learned to others. Key leader references also may be recorded.

4-59. Sample reflective journaling questions include— What is the best thing that happened today or this week? What is the most difficult or satisfying part of my work? Why? What do I think is my most valuable or valued contribution? What compliments and criticisms have I received lately? What did I learn from them? What did I learn because of a recent disappointment or failure? How do recent experiences connect to my long-term goals? What risks have I taken (or avoided taking) lately?

4-60. Individual leaders should decide whether to share their journal content with their immediate leader or others. Leaders can reinforce reflective journaling by—

Carrying a journal and being seen writing. Citing lessons learned while referring to journal entries. Providing time for a leader to reflect and write down personal lessons learned. Providing leaders with a journal and a personal note encouraging them to use it. Asking leaders to write or recount a story of a key leader challenge and use the stories to pass on lessons learned to less experienced leaders.

LEARNING IN ACTION 4-61. Self-development efforts take time and effort. To stay on track—

Let milestones serve as a guide. Overcome self-development obstacles. Work efficiently. Maintain forward momentum. Assess progress.


FM 6-22 4-17

Make course corrections. Set the next milestone.

LET MILESTONES GUIDE 4-62. Use the milestones as a guide to—

Avoid impulsive actions that may be ineffective and discouraging. Keep the big picture in mind. Work effectively toward self-development goals. Take advantage of resources and overcome obstacles. Measure success.

4-63. Adjust the plan as needed to reach milestones. Be willing to update the plan to improve it, change goals, address obstacles, take advantage of resources, and reflect upon accomplishments.

SELF-DEVELOPMENT OBSTACLES 4-64. In developing a milestone plan, obstacles to reaching the first milestone were identified. There is always the possibility of encountering internal and external obstacles, despite thorough preparation.

Internal Obstacles 4-65. Procrastination, apathy, and pride are major obstacles to self-development and occur for many reasons. Some come to realize their milestones are too ambitious, complex, unclear, or difficult. Others hesitate because of the effort or discomfort that the work requires or lack the motivation to start. These techniques address procrastination:

Write it down: Write down the goals and milestones and post them where they will be seen frequently. List the benefits of doing the work. Write down the next planned action and associated deadlines.

Involve others: Tell others about personal intentions and deadlines. Talk through the task with someone else. Schedule time with someone else to study or work together.

Break it down: Break big tasks into smaller, manageable tasks. Make a list of the small steps required to accomplish each milestone. Start with easy steps then gradually build to steps that are more difficult. Mentally rehearse a difficult task or talk through the task with someone else.

Make a routine: Pick a routine time to work on self-development activities. Use good time management skills by following a dedicated schedule. Plunge into the task immediately to gain momentum, keep it going.

Know yourself: Know your habits. Recognize what you do to avoid things you do not want to do. Confront yourself when you see yourself doing these things. Identify self-defeating attitudes and replace them with positive ones. If a task is repeatedly delayed, do you really intend to do it? If not, remove it from the plan.

Be open to deviations in plans and milestones. If an area is overly complex or not interesting, then consider an adjustment for a higher potential path. Get motivated.

Chapter 4

4-18 FM 6-22

4-66. A poor attitude also can interfere with learning and make it difficult to understand and remember information. For example, thinking that math is hard or disliking history can interfere with an ability to learn anything related to math or history. Other attitudes, such as closed mindedness, inflexibility, or rigid adherence to beliefs and assumptions, can interfere with learning. To combat poor attitudes, identify a productive replacement. Practice thinking and behaving with a positive attitude until it feels natural and becomes a habit.

External Obstacles 4-67. External factors such as workload or other personal or professional obligations may hinder self- development efforts. Resistance may also come from others, such as a spouse who resents time spent away from the family or friends who may pressure you to spend time with them.

4-68. A lack of resources is another common roadblock. Resources include anything needed for self- development including people (such as teachers, coaches, and mentors), facilities (such as schools, libraries, and museums), and things (such as training programs, books, and equipment). Learners best handle external obstacles through careful planning and creativity.

WORK EFFICIENTLY 4-69. By efficiently managing workload and personal life, one can increase how much time is available to spend on self-development. To increase efficiency—

Take care of yourself. Proper food, exercise, and rest enable functioning at your best. Manage time and energy efficiently. Keep a running ‘to do’ list. Prioritize each task according to its importance, required work, and completion date. Remove low-priority tasks from the list. Look for ways to accomplish daily activities and routines in less time. For example, combine several errands in a single trip instead of making individual trips. Learn to quickly locate and obtain the information needed for self-development and other requirements of daily life. Organize work and living areas so that required information, tools, and workspace are available.

FORWARD MOMENTUM 4-70. It is important to keep the developmental momentum moving forward. There may be a tendency to slow down after completing an important self-development step or be discouraged by setbacks. Resting after a strong effort is natural, but too much rest may make it hard to restart. Maintain momentum by—

Keeping a positive attitude: Let go of setbacks and start each day with renewed enthusiasm. Each morning offers an opportunity for a fresh start. Making consistent progress: Try to accomplish something, however small, related to self- development milestones and goals each day. Recognizing benefits: Benefits can be tangible results such as increased pay, awards, and abilities or intangible results such as pride, a sense of accomplishment, and satisfaction. Remember that important benefits often require hard work.

PROGRESS ASSESSMENT 4-71. Assessing progress can provide encouragement to keep going if things are going well or to guide changes if they are not. Individuals can assess progress at any time—while working toward a milestone or after completing one. To assess progress—

Use objective and subjective measures. Objective measures are things that can be seen or expressed in numbers, such as a test score,

time required to perform a task, number of books read, or number of college credits earned. Subjective measures are things that cannot be easily observed or expressed in numbers,

including feelings of satisfaction, accomplishment, personal growth, or difficulty. Subjective


FM 6-22 4-19

assessments of progress can come from both personal judgment and from feedback. Subjective indicators are often sufficient to track most self-development activities. Compare the milestone plan with what actually happened and adjust the remainder of this milestone plan or future milestones to account for lessons learned.

Timeline: Was the timeline met? If well under or over the timeline, determine why. Maybe the timeline was not reasonable, more or less work was anticipated, received extra help, encountered obstacles, or the material was more involved than initially thought.

Action Steps: How successful were you in accomplishing the steps identified for reaching the milestone? What helped or hurt success? Were the identified steps the right ones?

Resources: Were the types of resources needed to achieve the milestone correctly identified? Did the plan omit any resources? Were necessary resources available? Are there any other resources that might have worked better?

Obstacles: Were identified obstacles encountered and was the plan for overcoming these obstacles successful? Were unexpected obstacles encountered? Decide if you are satisfied with your progress or if the milestones or general self-development goals need changes. Indicators to consider in making a course correction include:

Unsatisfactory progress. Too much stress or effort required to complete developmental activities. Loss of interest in achieving self-development aims or change in the benefits expected from

achieving those aims. Changes in professional or personal situations that conflict with self-development activities. Being dissatisfied with personal development.

COURSE CORRECTIONS 4-72. Self-development occurs over time in a dynamic environment that includes professional and personal responsibilities. At some point, obstacles or other challenges will force a change of plans. If the progress assessment indicates course corrections are needed, determine what correction is warranted:

Goal: A self-development goal or milestone may have turned out to be too difficult, too easy, or just not what was hoped. Examine other possible self-development goals or milestones. Identify why the unsatisfactory goal or milestone was selected and avoid repeating any missteps. Action Steps: If the actions taken to achieve milestones were not effective, figure out why they did not work, and then develop actions that are more effective. To be effective, you must be capable and willing to perform the actions with available resources. If a course correction is required due to obstacles then create new action steps that avoid or solve these obstacles. Action steps should form a logical path from where you currently are to achievement of the milestone. Resources: The identified milestone resources may have been inappropriate, inadequate, or unavailable. If so, analyze planned action steps to determine the resources (such as time, money, equipment, facilities, or help) needed to perform these steps. Determine if they can be obtained.

THE NEXT MILESTONE 4-73. With the first self-development milestone achieved, a full cycle of self-development is completed. It is now time to continue the self-development process by setting and pursuing the next milestone.

FM 6-22 5-1

Chapter 5

Unique Aspects for Development 5-1. Character, judgment and problem solving, and adaptability are capabilities that are especially valuable to leaders and team members in special situations. They allow leaders and teams to address the demands of complex, ambiguous, and chaotic environments of military operations. Whether making the tough moral decision, thinking critically to resolve uncertainty, thinking from a broad and strategic perspective, or adapting to unexpected changes, expert leaders find the way to do what is right. This chapter describes these capabilities and identifies unique aspects of developing, enhancing, or fostering them in leaders and teams.

CHARACTER 5-2. Character is a critical component of being a successful Army leader. Character is one’s true nature including identity, sense of purpose, values, virtues, morals, and conscience. Character is reflected in an Army professional’s dedication and adherence to the Army Ethic and the Army Values. Character is the essence of who an individual is, what an individual values and believes, and how they behave. Doing the right thing the right way for the right reasons demonstrates character. Demonstrating character often means resisting the easier wrong in favor of the tougher right. Making the right choices involves discipline. Discipline can be thought of as the foundation of character. Team character is the melding of individuals’ character in a team.

5-3. As the uncertainty of operating environments dictate, junior leaders need to be capable of independent decisions using sound discretionary judgments founded in moral character. Character is also such an important quality of a leader because decisions and actions of the leader are viewed by others. The demonstrated character of the leader greatly influences how other people either emulate their conduct or disapprove of it. These can, in turn, add to or detract from team trust and cohesion.

5-4. Character forms over time through education, training, and experience in a continuous, iterative process. Leaders employ character when all decisions, big or small, are analyzed for ethical consequences. One must have the knowledge of how to address the consequences. This knowledge comes from the Army Ethic, personal experience, and others’ guidance. Internalizing the moral principles of the Army Ethic as personal beliefs is essential for character development. An individual demonstrates character when they correctly identify the ethical implications of a decision, possesses knowledge to act, and acts accordingly.

5-5. Leaders enable the development of character in others by conveying clear ethical expectations, modeling right conduct, and establishing discipline to uphold the Army Ethic and embody the Army Values. This comprises the essence of what it means to be an ethical leader and serve as a powerful influence on character development. Guided by the Army Values, character development is founded on discipline. To develop character in others, leaders must embody the Army Values every day. Leaders must communicate expectations that others embody the Army Values as well. To reinforce desired behavior, leaders should recognize Soldiers who demonstrate exemplary conduct. When a Soldier falls short of the Army Ethic or the Army Values, leaders must counsel them and help them see the gaps between their personal values and those the Army espouses. Leaders look for the character developmental opportunities that exist in day-to-day operations. In this way, Soldiers learn what is expected of them. Reinforcing ethical standards increases the likelihood of ethical decisions and actions, and promotes an ethical climate.

5-6. Leaders shape the ethical climate of their organization while developing the trust and relationships that enable proper leadership. Over time, the fostered ethical climate contributes to enhanced organizational ethical behavior. The internalization of ethical principles develops as the culture reinforces the acceptance and demonstration of ethical behavior. All Soldiers contribute to their team’s character. Modeling positive character fosters social norms and expectations to choose the tougher right over the easier wrong. Team members hold each other accountable to embody the Army Values and demonstrate character at all times. This approach to character at the team level strengthens team trust and cohesion.

Chapter 5

5-2 FM 6-22

JUDGMENT AND PROBLEM SOLVING 5-7. Intellect enables a leader to understand, visualize, and decide and is essential in unfamiliar and chaotic settings. Judgment, as a key component of intellect, is an ability to make considered decisions and come to sensible conclusions. Leaders can reflect on how they think and better foster the development of judgment in others. Problem solving, critical and creative thinking, and ethical reasoning are the thought processes involved in understanding, visualizing, and directing. Problem solving involves situation assessment (understanding), imagining (visualizing), and converging on a solution (directing). Thinking critically involves analytical, cautious, and convergent judgment. It checks on the sensibility, relevance, and relationship of meaning and possibility. Creative thinking is generative, daring, and divergent. Critical thinking considers what might be wrong, while creative thinking considers what is possible. The two complementary processes—evaluation and generation—occur in a free-flowing manner depending on what ideas and conclusions stem from thinking in specific situations.

5-8. A goal of all leaders and teams is to think as well and as thoroughly as time permits. The brain encodes experience as expertise that allows automatic and intuitive responses, which frees up time to apply to other thinking or provides a reserve capacity for addressing the most complex problems. Intuition can operate rapidly, but the downside is that it can be misapplied. Intuition operates based on the best or closest match, having no built-in or automatic process that checks on mismatches in cues, and no repair of ill-fitting ideas. Evaluation, repair, and design are roles of deliberate thinking processes.

5-9. Leaders draw on their knowledge and expertise in the context of each part of a problem. However, most situations will always have incomplete knowledge. Thinking is a technique to identify gaps in knowledge. Experience or a hunch can be used to facilitate a new way of framing (seeing or structuring) a problem or a solution. Leaders test ideas through visualization or a war-gaming process. The thought process judges how well ideas meet goals. (See emerging doctrine on the Army Design Methodology.)

5-10. Everyday thinking switches back and forth from a subconscious process of intuition to deliberate, effortful thought. The active monitoring of one’s own thinking guides the process, keeping it on track. Thinking about thinking is metacognition. Metacognition and deliberate thought are processes that people can learn to improve. Intuition develops through the natural accumulation of experiences. Individuals develop judgment intentionally through overt attention to the deliberate side of thinking. The following sections describe these deliberate processes.

THINKING ABOUT THINKING 5-11. Thinking about thinking is one way to develop better judgment. Metacognition involves both self- awareness and self-regulation of thought. Metacognition is important to military leaders dealing with complex problems because it involves adapting to the situation. By increasing the awareness of one’s own thinking, mental capabilities can be allocated to the pressing problems at hand. Being self-aware means having insight into how one learns, and the thought patterns and strategies that are typically used when thinking. Being better in touch with how one thinks can increase the chances for successful thinking. To improve thinking capacity for good judgment and to self-regulate thinking in the moment, leaders should practice thinking about how to solve problems and how to decide.

Memory and thought processes are complex, but consider if they were simply files. An increased number of files become available as the individual studies and learns. The more often the individual accesses the files, their contents become more familiar, and chances increase that a file will be the best match to a future situation.

5-12. Improving judgment requires self-reflection and hard work to adopt new habits. Making thinking more deliberate will prompt self-reflection. Through practice, new ways of thinking will become easier to use in daily operations and especially in pressure situations where they are most beneficial. Improved thinking strategies will create greater self-confidence, making it more likely to address rather than avoid complex challenges. Table 5-1 provides questions to help leaders reflect on their thinking and develop better judgment.

Unique Aspects for Development

FM 6-22 5-3

Table 5-1. Examples of reflective questions

For improved understanding


What is this situation? What other situation is like this one? What is this situation not like? What do I know about situations like this? How could this situation happen? How should I think about this situation to define the problem or opportunity? What is the real problem? What do I not know that I should?

For improved visualization


What else could this situation or solution be? Are there any assumptions unneeded, new ones needed? What constraints are there? What needs to be accomplished? What is likely to happen? How should I prepare for future situations?

For improved decisionmaking


What is the solution or plan? Does a solution dominate others? Can the solution be redesigned so that it does? Is there a specific way to reason and decide about the solution? What would my enemy not want me to do?

CRITICAL THINKING 5-13. Critical thinking is composed of various techniques to consider the soundness and relevance of ideas as they apply to understanding a situation or determining a way ahead. Teams that engage in critical thinking make assumptions explicit and identify differences and similarities in how facts apply to the situation. Critical thinking is an active process in situation assessment that seeks to obtain the most thorough and accurate understanding possible. Situation assessment is a dynamic process that requires time and effort. Practice develops skill at critical thinking. Skill will facilitate the ease and smoothness of application to assessment and problem solving. (See ATP 2-33.4 Intelligence Analysis for information on critical thinking processes.)

5-14. High performance teams demonstrate mental agility (see ADRP 6-22) in their willingness to approach problems from different viewpoints and to hold and work on opposing ideas until identifying the best solution. High performing teams adopt the practice of using different perspectives in their critical thinking. Leaders can encourage critical thinking by how they challenge and pose questions to their teams. The leaders best at developing others actively lead the team to consider alternative points of view, multiple contingencies and first, second and third consequences of multiple courses of action. Teams that practice critical thinking and reflect on it will broaden their capabilities for tackling complex problems—difficult to solve because of incomplete, contradictory, or changing requirements.

CREATIVE THINKING 5-15. Creativity is largely an attitude. To become more creative, leaders must be willing to make unusual connections that defy convention. They must be prepared to accept the risks of being different or wrong. Unusual connections may arise out of either effortful thought or from a relaxed, open state. Creative thinking involves examining problems from a fresh perspective to develop innovative solutions. Creative thinking occurs by consciously generating new ideas, and re-evaluating or combining old ideas, to solve a problem. Creativity is a willingness to accept change and apply a flexible outlook for new ideas and possibilities.

5-16. Looking at problems from different perspectives can improve one’s understanding of a situation. It can lead one to see new goals and available options. Choosing to take multiple perspectives helps to understand situations, find new or creative solutions, and evaluate solutions. Any shortcoming or restriction in one’s perspective is a possible source of problems in reasoning. Problem solvers can adopt different perspectives by taking on the role of another (such as the enemy, a neutral bystander, or adjacent unit commander), using new or different frames of reference, shifting importance about various problem elements, or reversing the

Chapter 5

5-4 FM 6-22

goal. These require an openness of mind willing to apply a different perspective and practice in shifting perspectives. Adopting different perspectives is a way to enhance creativity and critical thinking.

5-17. Identifying hidden assumptions can be useful for developing greater creativity and insight. Coming up with reasons against a preferred conclusion or option instead of in favor of that conclusion or option will improve how thorough reasoning is done. This will also help identify contingencies that may occur. One can force oneself to imagine what causes a speculative conclusion to be incorrect. Considering ways something would not be true, allows determination of other possible aspects of a situation and ways to shape the outcome to avoid those undesired states.

Finding hidden assumptions or imagining failure are similar techniques that protect against group think and hasty agreement with conventional wisdom. To check for hidden assumptions, start with an assessment or course of action, consider that it is not true or has failed. Force yourself to think about what caused it to fail. Those causes are likely to be assumptions that were not evident.

Finding Hidden Assumptions You are in the defense overlooking a river. The intelligence analysis has the staff convinced that the enemy force now advancing toward the river will pause on the far side while his forces close there massing combat power before launching the attack across the river. Caution! The more confident and unanimous you are in a prediction, the more vulnerable you become to the consequences of error. Check for hidden assumptions used in arriving at the conclusion that you were not aware you were making. To do this, suppose for a moment that the conclusion is wrong, and ask, "under what conditions might the enemy NOT pause, close, and launch the attack?" Maybe it is a feint. Maybe we are responding to their approach exactly as they hoped we would. We assumed they were not sophisticated enough for such a scheme of maneuver, but how much do we really know? The assumptions that we did not realize we were making could prove incorrect. Their commander could be an expert and audacious tactician. Identifying hidden assumptions can mitigate the risk of an incorrect assessment.

CRITICAL AND CREATIVE THINKING DEVELOPMENT 5-18. Critical and creative thinking come together as practical thinking that captures the strengths of how people approach everyday problems, calling on experience over formal models such as classical logic. Creative thinking techniques help generate new insights. Critical thinking brings out differences that are not normally obvious. Both types of thinking fill in gaps in knowledge and resolve uncertainty. Signs of a practical thinker include a willingness to try alternate approaches to thinking, being open to others’ positions, being prepared to think about issues instead of ignoring or dismissing them, and asking insightful questions.

5-19. Leaders should develop critical and creative thinking in team members. These abilities and capacities for intellectual and critical thought are essential to effective problem solving. The actions of subordinates, based on their own critical thinking skills, will often dictate the success of the team. One of the best ways to develop critical thinking in an organization is through example, by being a critical thinker. Thinking critically and setting conditions that encourage others to think critically are effective ways to enhance the process by team members. Leaders should be willing to take risks and encourage prudent risk taking by others. Thinking critically and creatively and thinking about thinking can cause people to question their own abilities. Leaders can counteract the unsettled feeling by listening attentively, affirming their subordinates’ abilities, and reflecting about the processes of thinking and successful outcomes achieved from thorough thinking.

5-20. How people think and feel about learning and knowing affects their critical and creative thinking and development of judgment. For example, an attitude that thinking can resolve problems will lead to better results in overcoming difficulties through thinking. Attitudes that conflict with sound thinking should be diminished. These attitudes include feeling that changing one’s mind is a sign of weakness, that being open and deliberating among options leads to confusion, that quick decisionmaking is how one demonstrates expertise, and that truth comes from authority.

Unique Aspects for Development

FM 6-22 5-5

5-21. Positive attitudes that contribute to developing critical and creative thinking include— Persistence. If one line of thought or action is not working, then finding another line may work. Willingness to expend effort. A willingness to engage in deeper, more thorough thinking is important for critical thinking, even when the effort may not initially seem useful. Active fair-mindedness. Taking special effort to find out whether one’s ideas will work by imagining what is wrong with them is a good way to be fair-minded. Using the same standards, regardless of the issue or who supports a position is another quality of fair-mindedness. Detachment of ego. Keeping reasoning separate from self-esteem helps guard against being caught up in being on the right side of an argument or rationalizing why failure was out of one’s control. Tolerance of uncertainty. Believing it is fine not to know something is a positive characteristic. Yet, being motivated to resolve uncertainty once it is recognized is even more important. There is an advantage to having to think through problems to figure them out, instead of using minimal, surface cues that could lead to interpreting a situation incorrectly. Openness. Being open to different and multiple possibilities leads to better decisions. Retraction of commitment. Willing to change beliefs about a preferred solution or a problem viewpoint is an attitude that has positive effects. Flexibility of process. Realize that standard processes will not work for novel, ill-defined, or complex problems. Adapting or discovering a new way of thinking that will help reach a solution. Willingness to learn. It is natural for leaders to feel an expectation to have the knowledge and experience to perform well. Being willing to engage in learning is adaptive. One characteristic of experts is that they understand what they know and what they need to learn.

5-22. Thinking ahead and predicting potential ways that a situation assessment may be wrong or that a course of action could depart from the anticipated plan will make leaders better prepared to handle the unknown. Having identified and thought about various contingencies better prepares the team for what could occur.

AMBIGUOUS OR UNFAMILIAR SITUATIONS 5-23. Deliberate effort applied to thinking is a way to provide best guesses about ambiguity—uncertain situations, uncertain actions by an adversary, and uncertain outcomes. One way to be prepared is to have a standard set of questions to ask oneself when faced with uncertainty. Developing a practice of asking questions will prompt additional reasoning. Table 5-2 provides some example questions to focus thinking.

Table 5-2. Example questions to focus thinking

Question prompt Example What if…? What if… this assessment were not the case? What else…? What else… could be happening? So what? So what if that happened… is there a meaningful difference? What are the specifics? Can claims be confirmed with specific information? Is there a weak link? Are there any inconsistencies or confusions? What is unexpected? Are there new conclusions or implications?

5-24. A natural tendency is to discount information when it does not fit into expectations. Some refer to this as a confirmation bias, but that reference implies a conscious or active process when it usually is not. It is difficult to undo individual’s assessment or conclusion once it forms. The first step to protect against the discounting of unexpected signals is to pay attention to information that does not fit expectations. Assessment of the information can indicate whether an understanding needs to change. If no definite determination can be made, even heightened vigilance for changes should occur.

5-25. Dominance structuring is a useful way of thinking for designing a solution and helping ensure it is the best available solution. The dominance structuring technique can be used as part of a formal military decisionmaking process as the ‘nuts and bolts’ way of thinking and iterating through course of action development, analysis, comparison, and wargaming. The technique can be used in an accelerated mode as a mental thinking drill.

Chapter 5

5-6 FM 6-22

DOMINANCE STRUCTURING First, consider the relevant dimensions of the problem.

Identify the initial most promising alternative solution by eliminating alternative solutions that are unattractive on important dimensions.

Choose an alternative if it is better than all others on at least one dimension and equal to other options on other dimensions. This will be the dominant solution.

If the most promising alternative does not initially dominate all others, then reconsider advantages and disadvantages relative to other possible solutions.

Modify the most promising alternative until it dominates other alternatives. This will be the dominant solution. If no dominant solution appears, reconsider what are the most important dimensions of the problem and repeat the dominance comparisons among alternatives.

STRATEGIC THINKING 5-26. Strategic thinking is an imperative for military leaders to shape the future of operations and to steward resources at their disposal. Strategic thinking is valuable in all levels of leadership. It is important to take time to think of the overall view and to make decisions that set the stage for plans lasting years. Strategic thinking generates a cohesive understanding of situational dynamics presenting options of advantage and long-term organizational success. Thinking skills and activities directed at outcomes that produce an overarching approach or plan to achieve a particular aim characterize strategic thinking. In this case strategic describes the type of thinking rather than the usage in joint doctrine to describe a level of war, security objectives, or ideas to employ the instruments of national power. In contrast to thinking following traditional problem-solving steps, strategic thinking is not looking to solve a bounded problem but is creating a set or pattern of decisions to achieve future success. While a tactic is a specific prescription of how something will be done, a strategy is a philosophy of what is valued and consists of guidelines or boundaries that shape what actions to take.

5-27. Clearly, strategic thinking is an important skill for senior leaders who must establish high-level goals and broadly scoped policies. However, strategic thinking is also important for lower level leaders when they address recurring problems and consider enduring, robust solutions. The earlier leaders are exposed to strategic thinking, the more likely they will try it, apply it, and, over time, get better at it.

5-28. Strategic thinking can be broken down into several activities: Situational understanding. Understanding is enabled by scanning the environment for recurring, novel, and key cues that are integrated and used in sensemaking, predicting, and testing what exists. Visualization is a related activity used to fill in gaps of knowledge about what exists or used to consider what will exist in the future. Subskills include discriminating among relevant cues, integrating diverse information, applying mental war-gaming, and modeling. Questioning. Asking questions demonstrates an openness to different perspectives and a desire to consider alternate or unconventional assessments. Questioning is also a key component of thinking critically by improving the thoroughness of judgment. Consistently demonstrating a willingness to shift perspective, to look for alternate explanations, and avoid mindsets and fixations characterize cognitive flexibility. Systems thinking. Systems thinking involves considering the factors of a situation or a solution as a system of interrelated parts with inputs, processes, outputs and feedback. A systems orientation operates from a view that an understanding or model can be created or used to explain—or improve

Unique Aspects for Development

FM 6-22 5-7

upon—what occurs (as applies to situational understanding) or what could occur (as applies to problem solving). See Army Design Methodology doctrine for more about systems thinking. Analogical reasoning. Thinking that deals with complex problems with unfamiliar or unknown conditions and outcomes occurs by drawing on current knowledge. Analogical reasoning is a specific approach where known or similar concepts and relationships map to what is yet not understood. Historical comparisons are useful in strategic thinking to consider what has occurred under one known set of conditions. Self-awareness. Since strategic thinking involves unknowns, multiple paths, trials of what might exist in a situation, and possible results of a solution, an ability to manage personal thought processes is important. Metacognition is being aware of what oneself is thinking, what one knows, progress toward a conclusion, and in testing strategic approaches and conclusions about them.

5-29. The development of strategic thinking occurs largely by addressing complex, dynamic challenges and practicing critical and creative thinking. One learns strategic thought by working in context and becoming skilled at basic aspects of situational understanding and visualization. Leaders or instructors can accelerate the development of subordinates’ thinking by assigning projects or duties with opportunities for strategic thinking. For a master sergeant it may be developing training plans for a specific system or developing and assessing the long-term goals of a remedial fitness program. For junior captains it may be assigning them to analyze and develop a plan for managing range use. For Army Civilians in an initial administrative position it may be assigning them to an installation task force on energy reduction. Professional military education courses reinforce strategic thinking by assigning projects requiring the application of the skills and grading how well a student employs them. For example, the Army War College started with students solving real- world problems as an extension of the War Department and now employs similar methods.

ADAPTABILITY 5-30. A key outcome of development of an individual leader or unit is building increased capability to adapt to meet mission challenges. Adaptability for the purpose of performance is an effective change in behavior in response to an altered or unexpected situation. The Army stresses the importance of adaptability due to the rapid pace of world events and the dynamic change that occurs across related military operations. Military history is replete with accounts of adaptation, hinging on a leader’s ability to have uncanny insight into the situation, to be keenly self-aware, and to have a mindset and knowledge that promotes adaptation.

5-31. Adaptability for an individual means having broad and deep knowledge and a good mix of skills and characteristics (see table 5-3). Critical and creative thinking skills are needed when new situations are encountered and the team does not have existing knowledge to use in adaptation.

Table 5-3. Skills and characteristics of adaptability

Skills Characteristics Quickly assess the situation. Recognize changes in the environment. Identify critical elements of new situation. Apply new skills in unanticipated contexts. Change responses readily. Use multiple perspectives through critical and creative thinking. Avoid oversimplification.

Open-minded. Flexible, Versatile, Innovative. Sees change as an opportunity. Passionate learner. Comfortable in unfamiliar environments. Comfortable with ambiguity. Maintain appropriate complexity in knowledge.

5-32. Adaptability for a team means having a variety of skills within the team to enable adaptation. Adaptability is enhanced when members of the team apply unique knowledge to a problem in new ways. Developing expertise is important to enable adaptable performance later. Having multiple cues to knowledge determines whether atypical, yet useful, knowledge is recalled when needed. Automatic recall can allow greater spare capacity to deal with novel and complex aspects of a problem. Automatic recall, such as pattern recognition, can develop through repeated training beyond performance standards. Being able to adapt depends on the effort ahead of time that goes into developing the capability to adapt.

Chapter 5

5-8 FM 6-22

5-33. While many think of adaptability as a constant good, changing from a known, workable response is not always the best course. Adaptation involves knowing or deciding whether to adapt, what to adapt to, over what timeframe to adapt, and how to adapt. Adaptability is enabled by—

Recognizing the need for change or recognize a need to take action. Knowing the cues that point to real, meaningful differences and cause-effect relationships. Having a keen ability to discriminate among environmental cues. Having flexible knowledge triggered from different cues. Useful knowledge is likely structured in modular chunks that can recombine in new ways. Understanding the principles and theory behind facts can contribute to novel application of knowledge. This characteristic is cognitive flexibility. Seeing multiple sides of an issue and a drive to work toward the best one. Often, multiple sides need integration to derive the best perspective. Openness, seeing opposites, selecting the best of opposing approaches, designing compromise, or resolving contradictions aid integration. Thinking in reverse time. This involves being able to think from a desired end state through the prior steps that reach it. It may involve going from constraints or possibilities to figure what is doable, what are plausible goals. Handling multiple lines of thought. Involves tracking multiple issues or questions, prioritizing among them, remembering lesser issues while maintaining an overarching perspective, and returning to think about lesser issues when there is time available to think about them. Changing perspective. This is referred to as decentering and involves an ability to move away from one's center or viewpoint to overcome thinking obstacles and blind spots. Thinking in progressively deeper ways. Involves thinking at the right level of depth and breadth that optimize effort on thinking to match the gravity of the situation. Predicting. Involves going beyond first-order or obvious meaning, to broaden thinking to future classes of situations. Visualizing and conceptualizing. Involves ability to imagine complex or unusual relationships, possibilities, or unforeseen consequences and relationships. Thinking holistically. Involves seeing wholes, sets of relationships and interactions, instead of analytical, decomposed, individual, or isolated parts. Relates to an ability to "see" in dynamics— moving pictures—instead of a static snapshot. Mentally simulating what could happen. Mental simulation means to mentally construct and think through a model of a problem, situation, or potential solution to determine important relationships. The process will gauge how much of some action or resource does it take to create a noticeable difference in an outcome?

5-34. To develop adaptability, leaders encourage the following by planning individual or unit events or reinforcing them as they occur during the normal course of collective training or operations:

Develop sound foundational knowledge and encourage the search for other sources of information. Having a substantial base of knowledge allows leaders to have something ready to apply to new situations and to adjust from the known to the unfamiliar. Expand ways of thinking through emphasis on improving critical and creative thinking. Since adaptability opportunities occur in unfamiliar situations, leaders will not have a past answer to apply. Leaders can adapt by thinking through the change using principles of critical and creative thinking. Critical thinking helps make fine-distinctions and connections among concepts, which is useful when analyzing a situation or generating and evaluating solutions. Practice with repetition under varied, challenging conditions intentionally selected to prompt adaptability. Practice should allow adequate time for feedback and reflection. Many practice experiences allow leaders to learn about their ability to form situational understanding and the fit of their thought process to multiple problems and the variations that can occur. Take advantage of daily events as opportunities for learning, practice, and reflection. Leaders who have a mindset for learning from all activities will be creating knowledge and patterns of thought that can apply to unpredicted situations. Create and maintain a supportive culture of innovation, autonomy, and freedom to fail. Learning organizations support the conditions where learning and development will thrive.

FM 6-22 6-1

Chapter 6

Leader Performance Indicators 6-1. Accurate, descriptive observations of leadership are important to assess performance and provide feedback that produce focused learning. Assessing an individual's performance into the categories of developmental need, meets standard, and strength informs the individual about what needs development or sustainment. It will also provide motivation to develop. The behavior indicators in this chapter provide some general performance measures for varying levels of proficiency for the leader attributes and core leader competencies. Understanding the behavior indicators and observation methods provides a strong base for providing feedback to subordinates.

Motivate with High Expectations From a command sergeant major: We should not just accept normal from our Soldiers, we should instill vitality and flow and high motivation so they can grow and develop and reach their untapped potential. Organizationally, we should not look to be just effective or efficient but shoot for excellence and extraordinary. When it comes to adaptation we should be flourishing and not just coping, and we should look to be flawless in our quality and not just reliable. This approach will not only make Soldiers more excellent in how they do their duties but will create organizations that can operate in any environment, under any conditions and provide extraordinary results.

ACCURATE AND DESCRIPTIVE OBSERVATIONS 6-2. Observing leadership occurs by watching how a leader interacts with others and influences them. Written directives, verbal communications, and leader actions all provide indications of how a leader performs. Raters also learn about their subordinates’ leadership by observing reactions to the subordinate among peers, subordinates, and other superiors.

6-3. When observing leadership, these key components ensure observations are accurate and descriptive: Plan to take multiple observations over several months or during a rating period. Use both key events and routine operations. Make observations based on ADRP 6-22, ADRP 1, and the individual’s duty descriptions and performance objectives. Look for patterns of behavior. Seek to confirm initial impressions. Be alert to changes in performance and causes for strengths, inconsistencies, or developmental needs. Record important observations immediately for later use in performance and professional growth counseling and for evaluations. Consider dimensions on which performance can be differentiated such as the extent of demonstration of a desired behavior, the ability and initiative shown in learning to improve or engage in a desired behavior, and the extent and duration of effects that the behavior has on individual or unit performance.

APPLICATION OF THE PERFORMANCE INDICATORS 6-4. Performance indicators are grouped according to the doctrinal leadership requirements model in categories of leader attributes (character, presence, and intellect) and leader competencies (lead, develop, and achieve). The performance indicators provide three levels of proficiency: a developmental need, the standard, and a strength. For developmental purposes, these three categories are sufficient and apply across cohorts. A developmental need is identified as a specific need for development when the observed individual does not

Chapter 6

6-2 FM 6-22

demonstrate the leader competency. Strength indicators are associated with successful performance of a leader attribute or competency. Strengths include a consistent pattern of natural talents, knowledge gained through learning, and skills acquired through practice and experience.

6-5. While comparing observations against the leader performance indicators, determine the level of proficiency of the observed leader: first review the behavior that appears in the center column of tables 6-1 through 6-6 on pages 6-3 through 6-8—this represents the standard for leader performance. A leader demonstrating quality leadership to standard will exhibit decisions and actions described in the center column. The column on the left describes performance indicating a developmental need (individual falls short of the standard), while the column to the right describes performance indicating a strength (individual exceeds the standard).

6-6. Understanding the competencies and attributes in the Army leadership requirements model is essential to make careful and accurate observations of a subordinate’s performance and evaluation of potential. The core leader competencies include how Army leaders lead people; develop themselves, their subordinates, and organizations; and achieve the mission. The competencies are the most outwardly visible signs of a leader’s performance. Leader attributes are inward characteristics of the individual that shape the motivations for actions and bearing, and how thinking affects decisions and interactions with others.

Competency Development From an Army Civilian supervisor: At midpoint and annual performance reviews, I hold stakeholder dialogues with individual employees. I ask them to give me examples of where they demonstrated leadership, and I ask them what I can do better, let them know what they do well, should keep doing, or start doing. Each subordinate selects one competency from the Army leadership requirements model to improve throughout their rating period.

6-7. The information in these tables is illustrative of a focus on core leadership characteristics. The Army adoption of a core attribute and competency model means that no list will be comprehensive of all performance requirements for any leader. Each rater, counselor, mentor, or trainer will need to expand the set to specific duty or functional requirements. They should be able to apply the ideas to specific performance objectives designated for individuals that exceed the core leadership requirements.

ATTRIBUTE CATEGORIES 6-8. The leader attributes are presented in three categories: character, presence, and intellect.

Character 6-9. ADRP 6-22 defines character as factors internal and central to a leader, which make up an individual’s core and are the mindset and moral foundation behind actions and decisions. Leaders of character adhere to the Army Values, display empathy and the Warrior Ethos/Service Ethos, and practice good discipline. See table 6-1.

Leader Performance Indicators

FM 6-22 6-3

Table 6-1. Framing the Army Values, empathy, Warrior/Service ethos, and discipline


Inconsistently demonstrates: loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, honor, integrity, and personal courage. Demonstrates these with more than occasional lapses in judgment.

Consistently demonstrates: loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, honor, integrity, and personal courage.

Models loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, honor, integrity, and personal courage. Promotes the associated principles, standards, and qualities in others.

EMPATHY Exhibits resistance or limited perspective on the needs of others. Words and actions communicate lack of understanding or indifference. Unapproachable and disinterested in personally caring for Soldiers.

Demonstrates an understanding of another person’s point of view. Identifies with others’ feelings and emotions. Displays a desire to care for Soldiers, Army Civilians, and others.

Attentive to other’s views and concerns. Takes personal action to improve the situation of Soldiers, Army, Civilians, family members, local community, and even that of potential adversaries. Breaks into training, coaching, or counseling mode when needed and role models empathy for others.

WARRIOR ETHOS/SERVICE ETHOS Inconsistently demonstrates the spirit of the profession of arms. Downplays the importance of this sentiment.

Demonstrates the spirit of the profession of arms and commitment to the mission, to never accept defeat, to persevere through difficulties, and to always support fellow Soldiers.

Models the spirit of the profession of arms. Instills this behavior in subordinates and others.

DISCIPLINE Fails consistently to adhere to rules, regulations, or standard operating procedures.

Demonstrates control of one’s own behavior according to Army Values and adheres to the orderly practice of completing duties of an administrative, organizational, training, or operational nature.

Demonstrates discipline in one’s own performance and encourages others to follow good practices of discipline as well. As situations call for it, enforces discipline when others fail to adhere to Army Values or to other standard practices.

Presence 6-10. Presence is how others perceive a leader based on the leader’s appearance, demeanor, actions, and words. Leaders with presence demonstrate military and professional bearing, fitness, confidence, and resilience. See table 6-2 on page 6-4.

Chapter 6

6-4 FM 6-22

Table 6-2. Framing presence


Inconsistently projects a professional image of authority. Actions lack a commanding presence. Allows professional standards to lapse in personal appearance, demeanor, actions, and words.

Possesses a commanding presence. Projects a professional image of authority. Demonstrates adherence to standards.

Models a professional image of authority. Commanding presence energizes others. Exemplifies adherence to standards through appearance, demeanor, actions, and words.

FITNESS Physical health, strength, or endurance is not sufficient to complete most missions. Fitness level unable to support emotional health and conceptual abilities under prolonged stress.

Displays sound health, strength, and endurance that support emotional health and conceptual abilities under prolonged stress.

Models physical health and fitness. Strength and endurance supports emotional health and conceptual abilities under prolonged stress. Energetic attitude conveys importance of fitness to others.

CONFIDENCE Inconsistently displays composure or a calm presence. Allows a setback to derail motivation. Displays a less than professional image of self or unit.

Displays composure, confidence, and mission-focus under stress. Effectively manages own emotions and remains in control of own emotions when situations become adverse.

Projects self-confidence and inspires confidence in others. Models composure, an outward calm, and control over emotions in adverse situations. Manages personal stress, and remains supportive of stress in others.

RESILIENCE Slowly recovers from adversity or stress. Inconsistently maintains a mission or organizational focus after a setback.

Recovers from setbacks, shock, injuries, adversity, and stress while maintaining a mission and organizational focus.

Quickly recovers from setbacks. Focuses on the mission and objectives during shock, injuries, and stress. Maintains organizational focus despite adversity. Learns from adverse situations and grows in resilience.

Intellect 6-11. Intellect is comprised of the mental tendencies or resources that shape a leader’s conceptual abilities and affect a leader’s duties and responsibilities. Leaders with high intellect are mentally agile, good at judgment, innovative, tactful around others, and expert in technical, tactical, cultural, geopolitical, and other relevant knowledge areas. See table 6-3.

Leader Performance Indicators

FM 6-22 6-5

Table 6-3. Framing intellect


Inconsistently adapts to changing situations. Attends to immediate conditions and surface outcomes when making decisions. Hesitates to adjust an approach.

Demonstrates open-mindedness. Recognizes changing conditions and considers second- and third- order effects when making decisions.

Models a flexible mindset and anticipates changing conditions. Engages in multiple approaches when assessing, conceptualizing, and evaluating a course of action.

SOUND JUDGMENT Inconsistently demonstrates sound assessment of situations. Hesitates in decisionmaking when facts not available. Forms opinions outside of sensible information available.

Demonstrates sound decisionmaking ability. Shows consideration for available information, even when incomplete.

Models sound judgment. Engages in thoughtful assessment. Confidently makes decisions in the absence of all of the facts.

INNOVATION Relies on traditional methods when faced with challenging circumstances.

Offers new ideas when given the opportunity. Provides novel recommendations when appropriate.

Consistently introduces new ideas when opportunities exist to exploit success or mitigate failure. Creatively approaches challenging circumstances and produces worthwhile recommendations.

INTERPERSONAL TACT Demonstrates lapses in self- awareness when interacting with others. Misses cues regarding others perceptions, character and motives. Presents self inappropriately or not tactfully

Maintains self-awareness of others perceptions and changes behaviors during interactions accordingly.

Demonstrates proficient interaction with others. Effectively adjusts behaviors when interacting with others. Understands character and motives of others, and modifies personal behavior accordingly.

EXPERTISE Demonstrates uncertainty or novice proficiency in technical aspects of position. Inconsistently applies competence of joint, cultural, and geopolitical knowledge. Displays indifference toward expanding knowledge or skill set

Possesses facts and understanding of joint, cultural, and geopolitical events and situations, Seeks out information on systems, equipment, capabilities, and situations. Expands personal knowledge of technical, technological, and tactical areas.

Demonstrates expert-level proficiency with technical aspects of their position. Demonstrates understanding of joint, cultural, and geopolitical knowledge. Shares knowledge of technical, technological, and tactical systems to subordinates and others.

CORE LEADER COMPETENCY CATEGORIES 6-12. The core leader competencies are presented in three categories: lead, develop, and achieve.

Lead 6-13. Leaders set goals and establish a vision, motivate or influence others to pursue the goals, build trust to improve relationships, communicate and come to a shared understanding, serve as a role model by displaying character, confidence, and competence, and influence outside the chain of command. See table 6-4 on page 6-6.

Chapter 6

6-6 FM 6-22

Table 6-4. Framing leads


Inconsistently demonstrates influence techniques. Fails to monitor risk factors affecting others. Allows mission priority to affect subordinate morale, physical condition, or safety adversely. Hesitates to act when risk factors escalate.

Influences others effectively. Assesses and routinely monitors effects of task execution on subordinate welfare. Monitors conditions of subordinate morale and safety. Implements appropriate interventions when conditions jeopardize mission success. Assesses and manages risk.

Demonstrates full range of influence techniques. Continually assesses and monitors mission accomplishment and Soldier welfare. Attends to subordinate morale, physical condition, and safety. Implements interventions to improve situations. Assesses and mitigates prudent risk to maximize potential for success.

BUILDS TRUST Inconsistently demonstrates trust. Displays respect differently to some without justification. Takes no actions to build rapport or trust with others. Fails to address problems caused by team members who undermine trust. Fails to follow through on intentions, undermining the trust others would have in this leader.

Establishes trust by demonstrating respect to others and treating others in a fair manner. Uses common experiences to relate to others and build positive rapport. Engages others in activities and sharing of information that contribute to trust.

Demonstrates trust in others when encountering new or unfamiliar situations. Bases trust on a thorough understanding of trustworthiness of others and self. Understands how much trust to project and grant to others. No hesitation in addressing problems that undermine trust.

EXTENDS INFLUENCE BEYOND THE CHAIN OF COMMAND Inconsistently demonstrates understanding of indirect influence. Misses or passively acts on opportunities to build trusting relationships outside the organization.

Demonstrates understanding of conditions of indirect influence. Builds trust to extend influence outside the organization. Displays understanding of the importance of building alliances.

Demonstrates effective use of indirect influence techniques. Establishes trust to extend influence outside the chain of command. Proactively builds positive relationships inside and outside the organization to support mission accomplishment.

LEADS BY EXAMPLE Demonstrates conduct inconsistent with the Army Values. Displays a lack of commitment and action. Remains unaware of or unconcerned about the example being set.

Demonstrates an understanding of leader attributes and competencies. Recognizes the influence of personal behavior and the example being set. Displays confidence and commitment when leading others.

Models sound leader attributes and competencies. Exemplifies the Warrior Ethos through actions regardless of situation. Demonstrates competence, confidence, commitment, and an expectation of such behavior in others.

COMMUNICATES Misunderstands or fails to perceive nonverbal cues. Ideas not well organized or easily understandable. Speaks without considering listener interest. Information dissemination is inconsistent or untimely.

Chooses appropriate information-sharing strategy before communicating. Conveys thoughts and ideas appropriately. Disseminates information promptly. Provides guidance and asks for a brief back or confirmation.

Uses verbal and nonverbal means to maintain listener interest. Adjusts information- sharing strategy based on operating conditions. Ensures prompt information dissemination to all levels. Avoids miscommunication through verifying a shared understanding.

Leader Performance Indicators

FM 6-22 6-7

Develop 6-14. Leaders foster teamwork; express care for individuals; promote learning; maintain expertise, skills, and self-awareness; coach, counsel and mentor others; foster position development, and steward the profession of arms. See table 6-5.

Table 6-5. Framing develops


Demonstrates negative expectations and attitudes not conducive to a productive work environment. Focuses primarily on task accomplishment. Fosters an expectation of zero-defects. Holds honest mistakes against subordinates.

Promotes expectations and attitudes conducive to a positive work environment. Demonstrates optimism and encourages others to develop and achieve. Provides coaching, counseling and mentoring to others.

Exemplifies a positive attitude and expectations for a productive work environment. Conveys a priority for development in the organization. Encourages innovative, critical, and creative thought. Uses lessons learned to improve organization.

PREPARES SELF Reluctant to accept responsibility for learning. Downplays feedback. Acts on information without regard to source, quality, or relevance. Ineffectively transfers new information into knowledge.

Accepts responsibility for learning and development. Evaluates and incorporates feedback. Analyzes and organizes information to create knowledge. Focuses on credible sources of information to improve personal understanding.

Seeks feedback. Seeks learning opportunities to improve self. Demonstrates knowledge management proficiency. Integrates information from multiple sources; analyzes, prioritizes, and utilizes new information to improve processes.

DEVELOPS LEADERS Disinterested in motivating and enabling the growth of others. Focuses on the task without consideration of improving organizational effectiveness.

Demonstrates willingness to motivate and help others grow. Provides coaching, counseling and mentoring. Builds team skills and processes to improve individuals and the organization.

Seizes opportunities to teach, coach and mentor. Fosters position development and enrichment. Knows subordinates and prepares them for new positions. Improves unit productivity.

STEWARDS THE PROFESSION Fails to extend assistance to others or other units. Disregards oversight of the tracking and use of resources. Fails to improve subordinates for subsequent assignments and fails to take steps to leave the organization in equal or better condition than when this leader arrived.

Supports developmental opportunities of subordinates. Takes steps to improve the organization. Carefully manages resources of time, equipment, people, and money.

Applies a mindset that looks to strengthen the profession of arms into the future. Assumes some risk to forego some short- term or personal gains in favor of improving one’s own organization, other units, and other individuals. Cooperates by providing more assistance to others than expected to receive in return.

Achieve 6-15. Leaders achieve by setting priorities, organizing taskings, managing resources, developing thorough and synchronized plans, executing plans to accomplish the mission, and achieving goals See table 6-6 on page 6-8.

Chapter 6

6-8 FM 6-22

Table 6-6. Framing achieves


Demonstrates a limited understanding of supervising, managing, monitoring, and controlling priorities of work. Hasty prioritization and planning lead to incomplete guidance and direction.

Prioritizes, organizes, and coordinates taskings for others. Plans for expected setbacks and enacts appropriate contingencies when needed. Monitors, coordinates and regulates subordinate actions but allows subordinates to accomplish the work.

Utilizes other competencies to accomplish objectives. Demonstrates understanding of supervising, managing, monitoring, and controlling of priorities of work. Reflects on end state before issuing guidance. Provides subordinates autonomy to accomplish the work.

FM 6-22 7-1

Chapter 7

Learning and Development Activities 7-1. This chapter is a guide for all Army leaders to develop themselves or to develop others. These activities follow the same organization as the leader competencies found in the Army leadership requirement model (see ADRP 6-22): ten leader competencies grouped in the categories of lead, develop, and achieve. Each developmental action listed in this chapter follows the same format: strength and need indicators, underlying causes, and activities for feedback, study, and practice. The indicators provide ways to understand leader actions and confirm aspects of each leader behavior as a strength or a developmental need. The underlying causes provide more information on what the root cause may be for a developmental need. The tables provide three options for developmental action: feedback, study, and practice.

7-2. To best use this chapter’s information, first identify the competencies and behaviors for developmental focus. An individual may already have an IDP that documents goals and a plan for development or have an idea of what leadership competency or skill to develop. A coach, rater, counselor, or mentor can use this material to help focus leaders or subordinates on specific developmental goals. Different sources and events inform the identification of developmental goals for competencies and behaviors as illustrated in table 7-1.

Table 7-1. Identification of developmental goal

Source or event providing identification of developmental goal


Interest to the developing leader ‘I want to get better at setting a positive climate that encourages subordinates to promote development.’

360° assessment and feedback report and/or coaching session

Communication skills make up the lowest assessed area relative to all other areas.

Performance evaluation and developmental growth counseling session

‘You are good at motivating your Soldiers, you could grow into an even better leader by learning to better integrate tasks, resources and priorities to achieve results.’

Mentor’s advice ‘To move to the next level you could learn additional ways to operate with others outside the Army and to extend influence.’

Self-realization during institutional education course

‘My fellow students generally seem more knowledgeable than me about world affairs affecting our Army.’

Counterpart feedback received during a training center rotation or home station training

‘Under stress you are overly directive which doesn’t align fully with mission command; you could learn to use commitment- building actions to expand your toolkit of influence.’

Tip: When considering learning and developmental activities, some may automatically think of taking a formal training course or reading. While these may be helpful, leaders are encouraged to select developmental activities that fit with personal learning-style preferences and situation. It is important to think through personal and career goals when deciding on a developmental activity.

CAPABILITY EVALUATION AND EXPANSION 7-3. To start using any of the developmental action tables, there are a few guidelines to consider for the most benefit from them. Each section is designed to help a leader understand and act on strengths as well as developmental needs. Some leaders may experience greater growth by focusing on improving strengths rather than focusing on developmental needs or using strengths to address developmental needs.

Chapter 7

7-2 FM 6-22

CAPABILITY EVALUATION—STRENGTH AND NEED INDICATORS AND UNDERLYING CAUSES 7-4. Evaluating capabilities involves identifying personal practices that support or hinder successful performance. Each table includes diagnostics to enable evaluation of how well an individual is doing on that behavior and provides examples of why they may or may not be excelling. Consider if the strength and need indicators represent personal behaviors. Each diagnostic section includes:

Strength Indicators: Behaviors and actions that contribute to or support successful performance. Need Indicators: Behaviors and actions that reduce or hinder successful performance. Underlying Causes: Examples of why an individual may not be excelling at a particular leader behavior.

CAPABILITY EXPANSION—FEEDBACK, STUDY, AND PRACTICE 7-5. To build on an individual's current level, review the developmental activities for each capability area and personalize them. Table 7-2 outlines methods to engage in developmental activities. The developmental activities include:

Feedback. Sources and methods for obtaining feedback to guide self-development efforts. Study. Topics and activities to learn more about a behavior. Practice. Actions to improve skill and comfort in performing a leader behavior.

Table 7-2. Methods to implement developmental activities

Developmental Step

Options to take Method


Ask for feedback…

From others about how you are doing with specific issues and areas of performance.

Gain support… From peers, colleagues, friends, or other people who can provide encouragement or recognize success.

Consult… With friends, supervisors, peers, subordinates, coaches, mentors, or other professionals to give advice on strengths or areas of concern.


Observe… Other leaders, professionals, and similar organizations. Note the most or least effective behaviors, attributes, and attitudes.

Make time to reflect on…

Personal or situational characteristics that relate to the strength or need. Consider alternative perspectives.

Read… Books, articles, manuals, and professional publications. Investigate… A topic through internet or library searches, gathering or asking

questions, and soliciting information and materials.


Practice… A skill or behavior that needs improvement in a work situation or away from the unit.

Participate in training…

Including Army schools, unit training programs, outside seminars, degree programs, and professional certifications.

Teach… A skill you are learning to someone else. Accept an opportunity…

That stretches personal abilities, such as giving presentations, teaching classes, volunteering for special duty assignments, position cross-training, and representing the unit at meetings.

Explore off-duty events…

Such as leading community groups, trying a new skill in a volunteer organization, or presenting to schools and civic organizations.

DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITIES 7-6. Table 7-3 will assist an individual in determining where to start development activities. If the individual needs greater understanding to direct development, they should first seek feedback and follow with study and practice. If a developmental need is understood but knowing how to address that need is unknown, the individual should start with study and follow with practice. If the only unknown is what to practice, then the

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-3

individual should focus on the practice activities. Applying the if-then logic in table 7-3 to each developmental goal will help individuals get the most from their development efforts.

Table 7-3. Evaluation model

If… Then… I need more insight into how well I am demonstrating a competency or component and what I can do to improve...

I should seek Feedback. Feedback is an opportunity to gain information about how well you are doing. Feedback can include direct feedback, personal observations, analysis of response patterns, and acknowledgement of outcomes.

I need to gain or expand my understanding of theory, principles, or knowledge of a leader competency or component...

I should Study. Study facilitates an intellectual understanding of the topic. Study can include attending training courses, reading, watching movies, observing others on duty, and analyzing various sources of information.

I need more experience to build or enhance my capability through opportunities to perform a leader competency or component...

I should Practice. Practice provides activities to convert personal learning into action. Practice includes engaging in physical exercises, team activities, rehearsals, and drills.

7-7. View all suggestions for developmental activities through a personal lens. The following questions are sample questions to ask when refining a development activity to fit personal needs and situation. Depending on the chosen activity, other considerations may be important too. Be willing to take risks and choose activities outside personal comfort zones to challenge yourself and accelerate development.

DETERMINING DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITIES Answer these to focus selection of appropriate developmental activities.

Developmental Activity: What do I want to do?

Desired Outcome: What do I hope to achieve?

Method: How am I going to do this? What resources do I need?

Time available: When will I do this? How will I monitor progress (such as identifying and monitoring milestones, rewarding success, or identifying accountability partners)?

Limits: What factors will affect or hinder successful implementation of this activity?

Controls: What can minimize or control the factors that hinder implementation of this activity?

7-8. Use table 7-4 starting on page 7-4 to locate appropriate developmental activities. The MSAF 360° feedback reports detail individual or unit strengths and developmental needs. Learners and coaches will select a few actions at a time to guide development.

Chapter 7

7-4 FM 6-22

Table 7-4. Leadership competencies and actions listing

Competency To find developmental activities for… Go to… Leads others Uses appropriate methods of influence to energize others. Table 7-5.

Provides purpose. Table 7-6. Enforces standards. Table 7-7. Balances mission and welfare of followers. Table 7-8.

Builds trust Sets personal example for trust. Table 7-9. Takes direct actions to build trust. Table 7-10. Sustains a climate of trust. Table 7-11.

Extends Influence

Understands sphere, means, and limits of influence. Table 7-12. Negotiates, builds consensus, and resolves conflict. Table 7-13.

Leads by example

Displays Army Values. Table 7-14. Displays empathy. Table 7-15. Exemplifies the Warrior Ethos/Service Ethos. Table 7-16. Applies discipline. Table 7-17. Leads with confidence in adverse situations. Table 7-18. Demonstrates tactical and technical competence. Table 7-19. Understands and models conceptual skills. Table 7-20. Seeks diverse ideas and points of view. Table 7-21.

Communicates Listens actively. Table 7-22. Creates shared understanding. Table 7-23. Employs engaging communication techniques. Table 7-24. Sensitive to cultural factors in communication. Table 7-25.

Creates a positiv eenvironment/ esprit de corps

Fosters teamwork, cohesion, cooperation, and loyalty (esprit de corps). Table 7-26. Encourages fairness and inclusiveness. Table 7-27. Encourages open and candid communications. Table 7-28. Creates a learning environment. Table 7-29. Encourages subordinates. Table 7-30. Demonstrates care for follower well-being. Table 7-31. Anticipates people’s duty needs. Table 7-32. Sets and maintains high expectations for individuals and teams. Table 7-33.

Prepares self Maintains mental and physical health and well-being. Table 7-34. Expands knowledge of technical, technological, and tactical areas. Table 7-35. Expands conceptual and interpersonal capabilities. Table 7-36. Analyzes and organizes information to create knowledge. Table 7-37. Maintains relevant cultural awareness. Table 7-38. Maintains relevant geopolitical awareness. Table 7-39. Maintains self-awareness. Table 7-40.

Develops others Assesses developmental needs of others. Table 7-41. Counsels, coaches, and mentors. Table 7-42. Facilitates ongoing development. Table 7-43. Builds team skills and processes. Table 7-44.

Stewards the profession

Supports professional and personal growth. Table 7-45. Improves the organization. Table 7-46.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-5

Table 7-4. Leadership competencies and actions listing (continued)

Gets results Prioritizes, organizes, and coordinates taskings. Table 7-47. Identifies and accounts for capabilities and commitment to task. Table 7-48. Designates, clarifies, and deconflicts duties and responsibilities. Table 7-49. Identifies, contends for, allocates, and manages resources. Table 7-50. Removes work obstacles. Table 7-51. Recognizes and rewards good performance. Table 7-52. Seeks, recognizes, and takes advantage of opportunities. Table 7-53. Makes feedback part of work processes. Table 7-54. Executes plans to accomplish the mission. Table 7-55. Identifies and adjusts to external influences. Table 7-56.

LEADS OTHERS 7-9. Leaders motivate, inspire, and influence others to take initiative, work toward a common purpose, accomplish critical tasks, and achieve organizational objectives. Influence focuses on motivating and inspiring others to go beyond their individual interests and focus on contributing to the mission and the common good of the team. The leads others competency has four components:

Uses appropriate methods of influence to energize others. Provides purpose. Enforces standards. Balances mission and welfare of followers.

USES APPROPRIATE METHODS OF INFLUENCE TO ENERGIZE OTHERS 7-10. Army leaders can draw on a variety of techniques to influence others ranging from obtaining compliance to building commitment to a cause or organization. Specific techniques for influence fall along a continuum including pressure, legitimate requests, exchange, personal appeals, collaboration, rational persuasion, apprising, inspiration, participation, and relationship building (see ADRP 6-22 for more information). To succeed in creating true commitment, leaders determine the proper influence technique based on the situation and individuals involved. Keep in mind that the effects of influence are not often instantaneous. It may take time before seeing positive, enduring results (see table 7-5).

Chapter 7

7-6 FM 6-22

Table 7-5. Uses appropriate methods of influence to energize others

Strength Indicators Needs Indicators Assesses the situation and determines the best

influence technique to foster commitment. Considers the mission when exerting influence. Uses positive influence to do what is right. Uses pressure only when the stakes are high, time

is short, and attempts at achieving commitment are not successful.

Uses a single or limited number of influence techniques for all influence without consideration of the circumstances or individuals involved.

Coerces or manipulates the situation to achieve personal gain.

Subordinates return several times to clarify what to do.

Underlying Causes Lack of understanding of the individuals to be influenced (values, needs, or opinions). Lack of awareness of likely effects (advantages and disadvantages) of influence techniques on others. Does not match the appropriate influence technique to the individual and does not factor in contextual causes

(such as high operational tempo, significant stress, speed of situational changes). Focus on personal gain and accomplishment rather than doing what is right for the Army and the unit. Too forceful or not forceful enough when applying influence techniques. Belief that collaborative or rational approaches to gaining desired behavior weakens personal authority.


Conduct reviews with team members and subordinates; listen for clues on the style and method of influence that works best for the team.

Periodically speak with subordinates to ensure that your influence creates a positive environment and is in line with Army expectations.

Complete a self-assessment tool to understand the way you operate and its effect on your approach and style of influence.

Talk to subordinates about what influence they find most effective with certain tasks.


Proactively seek information to understand what is important to those you are trying to influence. Create the message to address the stakeholder’s key needs and concerns.

Identify the appropriate influence technique by analyzing the criticality and time available for obtaining the desired behavior and the disposition of those you seek to influence.

Observe and analyze different ways that you influence others noting what seems to be most effective for different tasks, situations, and individual dispositions.

Consider the everyday stresses, obligations, interests, values, and dispositions of those whom you are trying to influence. Choose influence techniques to produce the best results under these circumstances.

Ensure the influence technique aligns with the Army Values, ethical principles, and the Uniform Code of Military Justice.

When leading the team to mission accomplishment, use the least coercive and most cooperative influence techniques under the circumstances to build and sustain task ownership and enhanced motivation.

Stay persistent, influence is not instantaneous and may require repeated action.


Review influence techniques (see ADRP 6-22). Identify methods that are strengths and those that cause struggle. Create an action plan to develop the full set.

Identify when to use compliance-focused influence (based primarily on authority) and when to use commitment-focused influence (seeks to change attitudes and beliefs).

Contact former superiors about ways they handled conflict and influence. Ask what worked best and common mistakes that occur in a high stress situation.

Research available methods of group collaboration. Teams can have widely different dynamics so a better understanding of different methods will help adaptation.

Explore personal beliefs and assumptions about being a leader, authority, and senior- subordinate relationships. Consider how beliefs affect the methods of influence used.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Making Influence Count, Motivating through Rewards, Enabling Subordinates Using Mission-Focused Delegation, Beyond People Skills: Leveraging Your Understanding of Others.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-7

PROVIDES PURPOSE 7-11. Establishing and imparting a clear sense of intent and purpose serves as a catalyst to getting work done by providing a distinct path forward. Oftentimes, with a firm sense of purpose, the result is easier to reach. Defining a clear sense of purpose can be difficult, as it requires thinking about the objective or task from a macro-level before getting involved in implementing the details. However, developing clear intent and purpose can provide substantial benefits by clarifying required actions and resources as well as aligning the efforts of the team (see table 7-6).

Table 7-6. Provides purpose

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Determines goals or objectives. Translates task goals and objectives into a

sequenced action plan. Restates the mission so that it resonates with the unit

and is understood easily. Communicates clear instructions that detail each

process step through task completion; provides guidance as needed throughout the process.

Focuses on the most important aspects of a mission to emphasize priorities and align efforts.

Empowers authority to the lowest level possible.

Restates the mission in a manner that subordinates do not understand.

Fails to provide strong, clear direction to team members and subordinates.

Keeps authority and decisionmaking centralized. Keeps subordinates in the dark; fails to recognize the

need to understand the goal. Does not set a standard for expected contributions to

the team. Subordinates often must come back several times to

clarify task goals. Underlying Causes

Has not formed a clear purpose and intent in own mind. Does not fully understand the objectives of a given mission or task. Superiors failed to articulate the mission clearly. Difficulty in expressing intent and purpose in terms others can easily understand and visualize. Uncomfortable with relinquishing personal control and authority over the task or unit. Not confident in subordinates’ abilities to make decisions and achieve the purpose and intent. Fails to adapt to complexity, ambiguity, or stress of a situation.


Ask subordinates if the purpose and intent are clear. Have them backbrief the purpose and intent. Ask what could facilitate their understanding of what you are trying to convey.

Talk to team members about the clarity of their task assignments. Do they understand how the work they complete contributes to the organizational goals?

Listen to feedback from superiors, peers, and subordinates about your communication skills. Determine which are effective or ineffective in imparting the mission purpose and intent.


Study subordinates’ reactions when first establishing mission goals and purpose. Do their facial expressions and body language convey understanding or confusion?

Identify a unit member who is a strong planner and mission briefer. Watch their actions. How do these actions compare to what you typically do?

Study how other leaders impart clear purpose and intent to subordinates. Discuss the thought process for identifying, planning, and communicating purpose and intent.

Examine organizational or commanders’ vision statements or past operations orders. Note how intent, purpose, and communicated vision are expressed. How might they have been expressed more effectively?

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Clarifying Roles; Creating and Supporting Challenging Assignments; Motivating through Rewards; Creating and Promulgating a Vision of the Future; Rapid Team Stand-up: How to Build Your Team ASAP; Enabling Subordinates Using Mission-Focused Delegation.

ASAP: as soon as possible

Chapter 7

7-8 FM 6-22

Table 7-6. Provides purpose (continued)


When receiving a mission, brief-back the mission and higher commander’s intent in your own words to ensure personal understanding of what to accomplish.

When planning a task or mission, begin by visualizing and drafting a written description of the end-state that you want to achieve.

When giving a mission to the team, create a detailed plan of execution outlining responsibilities. Show how individual responsibilities relate to the purpose and desired outcomes of the overall mission.

Create an open environment where subordinates feel comfortable approaching you to discuss and brainstorm how to complete tasks and missions.

ENFORCES STANDARDS 7-12. To lead others and gauge correct performance of duties, the Army has established standards for military activities. Standards are formal, detailed instructions to describe, measure, and achieve. To use standards effectively, leaders should explain the standards that apply to the organization and give subordinates the authority to enforce them (see table 7-7).

Table 7-7. Enforces standards

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Reinforces the importance and role of standards. Explains the standards and their significance. Prioritizes unit activities to ensure not everything is a

number one priority. Ensures tasks meet established standards. Recognizes and takes responsibility for poor

performance and addresses it properly. Sets attainable milestones to meet the standard.

Focuses on too many priorities at one time. Ignores established individual and organizational

standards. Overlooks critical errors instead of dealing with them. Blames substandard outcomes on others.

Underlying Causes Does not know or accept established standards. Does not want to be viewed by subordinates as too demanding. Poor self-discipline in meeting standards and setting a personal example. Is unable to handle the complexity of tracking and enforcing standards for multiple tasks or individuals. Does not follow-up on task delegations to ensure standards are met.


Obtain objective and subjective assessments of individual and collective performance. Compare to established standards to identify performance strengths and developmental needs.

Engage organizational leaders in discussion and examination of performance standards, including how well standards are communicated, known, enforced, and achieved.


Learn established Army standards for individual and collective tasks expected of the unit. Research how successful leaders have established, communicated, monitored, and enforced

individual and collective standards. Consult with superiors about organizational standards most critical to attaining the higher

commander’s vision and intent. Consider how these standards pertain to the unit.


When assigning tasks, explicitly state the standard of performance and expectations. When assigning performance standards, explain why the standard is essential for organizational

success. Set the tone when involved with any individual or group task. Make sure you are always giving

your best effort and providing an example for the team to follow Recognize team members who exemplify the standards you are trying to reinforce. Identify individuals who repeatedly fail to achieve performance standards; address appropriately. When receiving a mission, verify the standard expected––is it appropriate or necessary?.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-9

BALANCES MISSION AND WELFARE OF FOLLOWERS 7-13. Team welfare is vital to completing a mission while maintaining morale. Taking care of followers will allow creation of a closer working relationship. Leaders must be able to keep an eye on the mission while being cognizant of and caring for the people working for them (see table 7-8).

Table 7-8. Balances mission and welfare of followers

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Regularly assesses mission effects on the mental,

physical, and emotional well-being of subordinates.

Checks-in with team members and subordinates to monitor morale and safety.

Provides appropriate relief when difficult conditions risk jeopardizing subordinate success.

Builds a cohesive team moving in one direction to achieve common goals.

Offers support and resources when a team member seems unnecessarily overloaded.

Ignores the risks of overexerting subordinates. Visibly shows discouragement or disgust when

morale struggles due to workload. Is insensitive to signs of high stress or diminishing

morale. Does not weigh the importance of the mission against

adverse effects on stress, morale, and welfare.

Underlying Causes Has tunnel vision regarding completion of the mission; believes in mission accomplishment at almost any cost

or does not consider the cost. Is overtaxed or fatigued and becomes too focused on own needs rather than those of the organization. Refusal to delegate tasks for fear of failure; does not see the developmental opportunities. Excessively concerned with personal achievement; avoids negative performance feedback. Generally unsympathetic towards the needs of subordinates.


Gather feedback on mission demands and member welfare using face-to-face interaction. This will give a complete reflection of their status.

Seek counsel from a mentor or trusted advisor when dealing with a difficult situation. Have them guide you and provide insight into possible next steps.

Discuss proposed missions with other unit leaders to assess the adverse effects of mission execution on the welfare of unit members.

Have mental health professionals survey the organization for evidence of excessive stress. Obtain summary information and recommendations for reducing stress levels.


Investigate activities and methods of relief used to counter stress. See what has worked well for other leaders and what could be done better.

Regularly assess and document both team and individual morale. Identify the greatest sources of stress for the organization. Look for methods of reducing the stress.

Research signs of stress so that you can recognize a problem before it becomes an issue. Learn the symptoms and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder so you can identify it and

obtain appropriate help for unit members suffering from it. Observe or consider a leader who succeeded in balancing severe demands or stresses faced

by the unit with member welfare. How did that leader do it? What types of behaviors and methods can you model to ensure your success?

Consider what messages your own behavior sends about balancing personal welfare and mission requirements.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Out of Time: Managing Competing Demands.


Observe daily subordinate morale. Are they struggling with the workload? Is it affecting group morale? Brainstorm with other unit leaders possible solutions to team members’ workloads.

Take advantage of opportunities to give subordinates time off when the mission permits. Weigh proposed missions to compare the importance of the intended outcomes against the

costs they are likely to impose on the members who will perform them. Look for ways to minimize costs while still obtaining benefits.

Chapter 7

7-10 FM 6-22

BUILDS TRUST 7-14. Trust is essential to all effective relationships, particularly within the Army. Trust facilitates a bond between Soldiers, leaders, the Army, and the Nation that enables mission success.

7-15. Building trust forms on the bedrock of mutual respect, shared understanding, and common experiences. For teams and organizations to function at the highest level, a climate of trust needs to exist. Leaders create a climate of trust by displaying consistency in their actions, and through relationship-building behaviors such as coaching, counseling, and mentoring. This competency has three components:

Sets personal example for trust. Takes direct actions to build trust. Sustains a climate of trust.

SETS PERSONAL EXAMPLE FOR TRUST 7-16. Leaders exhibit their beliefs about trust in their actions and behaviors. Setting a personal example inspires those around them to act in the same manner. The actions a leader models to subordinates communicates the values of the leader and the unit. Setting a personal example for trust should be consistent, and is the most powerful tool a leader has to shape the climate of the organization (see table 7-9).

Table 7-9. Sets personal example for trust

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Follows through on commitments and promises. Presents the truth, even if unpopular or difficult. Protects and safeguards confidential information. Admits mistakes. Keeps confidences. Shows respect for others; remains firm and fair. Acts with great integrity and character.

Engages in actions inconsistent with words. Blames others for own mistakes. Makes promises that are unrealistic or unkept. Focuses on self-promotion; takes credit for the work

and contributions of others. Violates confidences made with others. Gossips or criticizes others behind their back.

Underlying Causes Too anxious or timid to deliver unfavorable news. Unable to say “no” at the appropriate time. Unable to maintain a position and follow through. Overly focused on personal ambition and welfare. Avoids conflict. Uncomfortable with how others will respond to the truth.


Get feedback on organization behaviors that demonstrate a high degree of trust. These may include open communication, collaboration, strong innovation, and clear work expectations.

Observe your own behavior. Be as objective as possible. Assess if you treat others equitably and fairly––do you have favorites? Get feedback to support your assessment.

Contact others outside the unit and find out how to build greater trust, openness, and mutual understanding to achieve common goals.

Complete a trust self-assessment. Informal tools are available through online searches.


Observe the behaviors of other leaders who you think are trustworthy. What behaviors do they exhibit that build and maintain trust? Make a list of what they do that you want to model.

Study own behaviors. Analyze if own consistency in following up on commitments is less than others. If so, ask or explore why.

Learn from mistakes by writing out alternative actions you might have taken. Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Building Working Relationships across

Boundaries; Building Trust.

Practice Let others know what the course of action is and follow through on it. Evaluate personal time available for follow through before making a commitment. Hold a discussion with someone with whom you want to build greater trust and openness.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-11

TAKES DIRECT ACTIONS TO BUILD TRUST 7-17. Building trust is not a passive exercise. Leaders develop trust in their organizations by taking actions that promote trust. Developing others through mentoring, coaching, and counseling are actions that build trust. When a leader mentors effectively, that leader sends a clear message: I trust you to continue the Army profession and build a stronger, more adaptable Army. Leaders build trust by developing positive relationships with peers, superiors, and subordinates (see table 7-10). These leaders do not tolerate misconduct or unfair treatment and they take appropriate action to correct unit dysfunction.

Table 7-10. Takes direct actions to build trust

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Mentors, coaches, and counsels leaders. Demonstrates care for others. Identifies areas of commonality and builds upon

shared experiences. Empowers others in activities and objectives. Unwilling to tolerate discrimination. Corrects actions

or attitudes of those who undermine trust. Communicates honestly and openly with others.

Makes little effort to support or develop others. Remains isolated and aloof. Is unwilling to share authority or power in achieving

tasks or objectives. Is apathetic towards discrimination, allows distrustful

behaviors to persist in unit or team. Is ambiguous, inconsistent, or unclear in

communication with others.

UNDERLYING CAUSES Does not understand the importance of leader development. Socially anxious, fears failing or appearing weak in front of others. Overly self-focused, focused on own ambitions. General lack of self-confidence in leadership abilities to shape an organization or team. Does not value diversity.


Get feedback from trusted colleagues and mentors on actions they take to build or rebuild trust. Describe the actions taken to build trust in the unit and ask for feedback.

Observe the personal actions taken to build trust. Consider how they contribute to building trust. Ask trusted colleagues if these actions had the desired effect.

Regularly seek information from others at different organization levels. Find out how clearly orders are communicated through the organization.

Seek regular input on your leader development efforts. Assess the extent to which subordinate development occurs. Adjust efforts accordingly.

Assess unit morale with command climate surveys or other morale assessments. Allow feedback to be anonymous. Determine whether to take additional actions to build trust.


Observe leaders you think are trustworthy. Consider the actions they take to build or rebuild trust. Effective actions include extending trust to others and planning ways to restore trust.

Analyze the trust level in the organization. Consider indications of a breach of trust, such as backstabbing, gossiping, self-serving behavior, verbal abuse, discriminatory behavior, or time spent covering mistakes. Determine actions to remedy and prevent the breaches.

Study the unit. Get to know members individually. Understand their strengths, developmental needs, expectations, and motivations. Use this knowledge to establish greater rapport.

Study the actions leaders take to rebuild trust if trust has been lost Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Making Influence Count, Rapid Team

Stand-up: How to Build Your Team ASAP, Building Working Relationships across Boundaries, or Building Trust.

ASAP: as soon as possible


Clarify task or position expectations. Be clear as to how and when you want to see progress. When developing others through mentoring, coaching, or counseling create agreement on

performance change, goals, and specific follow-up or corrective actions. Help subordinates recover from failure by showing understanding and empathy. Counsel

subordinates by providing feedback on the course of action, results, and alternatives. If dysfunction or distrustful behaviors occur, take immediate action to correct the behavior.

Provide clear feedback about why the actions or attitudes were contributing to a climate of distrust, and describe expectations for the future.

Chapter 7

7-12 FM 6-22

SUSTAINS A CLIMATE OF TRUST 7-18. A climate of trust requires that the norms and values of the unit create a positive, mutually beneficial environment characterized by openness and risk-tolerance. Leaders sustain this environment by consistently demonstrating these values through their decisions and actions and communicating to others that misconduct will not be tolerated. It is important for leaders to note that setting an example and directing action to build trust are important tools that help to sustain a climate of trust (see table 7-11).

Table 7-11. Sustains a climate of trust

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Assesses recurring conditions that promote or hinder

trust. Keeps people informed of goals, actions, and results. Follows through on actions related to others’

expectations. Under-promises and over-delivers. Maintains high unit morale.

Appears insensitive to what promotes or hinders trust. Demonstrates poor communication of goals, actions,

and results to others. Shows inconsistency in attitudes or behaviors, does

not follow through on actions. Over-promises and under-delivers. Enables poor unit morale.

Underlying Causes Overall lack of leadership experience. Insensitivity to the conditions that help create trust or hinder it. General lack of transparency in decisionmaking. Anxiety about perceptions of others, wanting to please. Inability to commit to a particular course of action. Overly ambitious, not focused on the team or causes larger than self.


Regularly meet with key staff to gather feedback on both unit and individual morale, the level of openness in the unit, and factors (positive and negative) which may be influencing trust.

Use instruments such as Command Climate Surveys and other assessments to assess unit morale regularly. Low morale is a good indicator of a lack of trust.

Encourage frequent informal feedback on unit climate. Note: others will model the values and tone set by a leader. Reward candid, informal feedback.

Build trust by acting on the feedback received. If the feedback on climate reveals a weakness in the unit, rebuild trust.


Regularly observe individuals and teams performing their duties during normal operations and trainings in an attempt to gauge the level of trust existing among them.

Notice when a climate is distrustful. Study the factors that contributed to the loss of trust. Study the cases of particularly inspiring leaders in both civilian and military culture who created

climates of trust in their units, teams, or organizations. Write down the actions they took, and the effect they had on the climate of the organization.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Making Influence Count; Rapid Team Stand-up: How to Build Your Team ASAP; Building Working Relationships across Boundaries; Building Trust.

ASAP: as soon as possible


Describe unit values surrounding trust frequently. Be clear about how you and all unit members will create a climate of trust. Make building trust an explicit goal.

Cultivate risk-tolerance by communicating and demonstrating through actions that taking prudent risks can be appropriate.

Create transparency by opening multiple communication channels, including newsletters, reports, and staff meetings to talk openly about performance, mistakes, outcomes, best practices, and resources.

EXTENDS INFLUENCE BEYOND THE CHAIN OF COMMAND 7-19. Leaders can influence beyond their direct line of authority and chain of command. Influence can extend across units, to unified action partners, and to other groups. A key to extending influence beyond the chain of command is creating and communicating a common vision and building agreement. In these situations,

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-13

leaders use: indirect means of influence, diplomacy, negotiation, mediation, arbitration, partnering, conflict resolution, consensus building, and coordination.

7-20. This competency has two components: Understands sphere, means and limits of influence. Negotiates, builds consensus and resolves conflict.

UNDERSTANDS SPHERE, MEANS, AND LIMITS OF INFLUENCE 7-21. Leading and influencing others outside the established organizational structure requires specific skills and abilities. Assessing roles of others outside the chain of command, knowing over whom they have authority and influence, and understanding how they are likely to exert that influence is important. By learning about people outside of the chain of command, understanding their interests and viewpoints, and being familiar with internal relationships within the organization, leaders can identify influence techniques likely to work beyond the command chain. Individuals can adjust influence techniques to the situation and parties involved (see table 7-12).

Table 7-12. Understands sphere, means, and limits of influence

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Assesses situations, missions, and assignments to

determine the parties involved in decision making and decision support.

Evaluates possible interference or resistance. Reviews organizational structures to understand who

reports to whom and informal relationships illustrating who influences whom.

Has a good sense of when and when not to influence beyond the chain of command.

Gets input from members of own chain of command before influencing others outside it.

Uses the same technique in every situation to influence others.

Operates in isolation outside the chain of command when not appropriate.

Begins negotiating with others without recognizing their priorities or interests.

Relies solely on informal relationships such as colleagues and peers; does not work through the formal command chain.

Makes assumptions about others too quickly without getting the facts.

Underlying Causes Does not appreciate the potential benefits of understanding spheres of influence. Is impatient; wants to act before understanding relationships. Shields self from criticism or failure; risk averse. Lacks organizational knowledge outside of own chain of command. Is politically insensitive to factors affecting broader Army interests. Is naïve or insensitive to cultural or other differences.


Get feedback on your ability to actively listen, present information so others understand advantages, and be sensitive to the cultural factors in communications.

Determine the degree to which you gain cooperation with peers or others outside of the chain of command.

Self-assess personal knowledge of another organization, person, or culture. Request feedback on your effectiveness in working with others. For example, ask others about

when you effectively demonstrated resilience, patience, confidence, or mental agility.


Learn as much as possible about organization processes and the key players. Gain information about shared common goals between the organization and organizations

outside the chain of command; evaluate the similarities and differences. Understand the organization’s climate and the origin and reasoning behind key policies,

practices, and procedures. Gain insight into the culture, work priorities, and leadership interests outside the chain of

command by working on a project or team assignment with another organization. Ask others outside the organization how to gain insight into their organizational priorities. Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Making Influence Count, Building Working

Relationships across Boundaries, and The Leader as Follower.

Chapter 7

7-14 FM 6-22

Table 7-12. Understands sphere, means, and limits of influence (continued)


Practice getting things done using both formal channels and informal networks. Determine who, when, and how to communicate a situation to superiors and the team. Practice face-to-face engagements using role players simulating diverse audiences. Practice explaining the rationale of a tough decision to those affected. Practice focused listening; ask questions to identify points of agreement and contention. Consider alternatives from the viewpoint of others. Ensure team members and subordinates understand the reporting structure in the unit. When communicating decisions or proposing new ideas, clearly articulate the broader

strategic benefits to the unit or the Army.

NEGOTIATES, BUILDS CONSENSUS, AND RESOLVES CONFLICT 7-22. The art of persuasion is an important method of extending influence. Proactively involving partners opens communication and helps to work through controversy in a positive and productive way. Building consensus though sharing ideas and seeking common ground helps overcome resistance to an idea or plan (see table 7-13).

Table 7-13. Negotiates, builds consensus, and resolves conflict

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Identifies individual and group positions and needs. Sees conflict as an opportunity for shared

understanding. Facilitates understanding of conflicting positions and

possible solutions. Works to collaborate on solving complex problems in

ways acceptable to all parties. Builds consensus by ensuring that all team members

are heard.

Uses the same technique in every situation to influence others.

Negotiates with others without recognizing their priorities or interests.

Uses extreme techniques such as being too hard or too soft when resolving conflicts.

Isolates team members and pressures them to align with personal goals and priorities.

Does not seek to reconcile conflicting positions; only seeks to win.

Focuses on negatives of others’ interests. Underlying Causes

Does not seek the middle ground on issues, but demands that personal identified needs are met. Avoids conflict; uncomfortable in situations that demand identifying the conflict and solving the problem. Is unable or unwilling to look for a common causes or mutual goals. Is uncomfortable or does not like to work with teams towards common goals and priorities. Takes things personally. Does not maintain a solutions-based focus.


Get input from peers about your understanding of negotiation techniques. Ask questions such as “Can you describe a situation I negotiated effectively?” “What could I do to negotiate more effectively?”

After presenting a concept or idea to peers, ask for their thoughts and perspectives. Record yourself in a practice session while negotiating a dispute. While viewing the recording,

self-assess your actions and note effective and ineffective actions. Before negotiations begin, select several negotiating techniques and practice with a peer to gain

insight on technique implementation and the potential drawbacks of each. Request feedback on your skills.

Get feedback on your ability to listen actively, to present information so others understand advantages, and your sensitivity to the cultural factors in communication.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-15

Table 7-13. Negotiates, builds consensus, and resolves conflict (continued)


When disputes occur, evaluate areas of common ground between different parties and document findings.

List all of the roles and resources that figure in to a goal or priority of the organization. Identify people with whom you may have a common cause or mutual goals.

Research the viewpoints of other individuals involved in the negotiation or consensus building. Use those viewpoints accordingly in your argument.

Carefully outline personal principles and values so you know when negotiation crosses boundaries.

Study the behaviors of strong negotiators or behaviors of successful arbitrators. List specific behaviors they demonstrate that you admire about them.


Find an opportunity to exercise diplomacy and tact to achieve a favorable outcome. When in a discussion with individuals of differing opinions, practice asking questions likely to

result in compromise, such as “What points can we agree upon?” or “What is most important to you and what can you concede?

Work to be a team player that can represent personal interests. Anticipate problem areas in complex situations and vary the approach accordingly. Call a team meeting at the first sign that there is tension among group members. Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Extending Influence during Negotiation;

Managing Conflict; Building Working Relationships across Boundaries; Building Trust; Navigating Contentious Conversations; Managing Difficult Behavior.

LEADS BY EXAMPLE 7-23. Leaders can influence others by acting in a manner that provides others with an example by which to measure and model their own behavior. Leading by example is a form of influence where leaders provide models rather than explicit direction. Leading by example is a manifestation of character and presence attributes:

Displays Army Values. Displays empathy. Exemplifies the Warrior Ethos/Service Ethos. Applies discipline. Leads with confidence in adverse situations. Demonstrates tactical and technical competence. Understands the importance of conceptual skills and models them. Seeks diverse ideas and points of view.

DISPLAYS ARMY VALUES 7-24. Upon entering the Army, Soldiers learn to uphold a new set of values: the Army Values. The Army Values are a set of principles, standards, and qualities that are essential for Army leaders. The Army recognizes seven values to uphold—loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, honor, integrity, and personal courage. It is every Soldier’s obligation to demonstrate these values through their decisions and actions, and in doing so, set an example for others to follow (see table 7-14 on page 7-16). Demonstrating these values establishes one as a person of character who upholds the Army Ethic in the conduct of mission, performance of duty and all aspects of life.

Chapter 7

7-16 FM 6-22

Table 7-14. Displays Army Values

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Displays high standards of duty performance, personal

appearance, military and professional bearing, and physical fitness and health.

Takes an ethical stance; fosters an ethical climate. Demonstrates good moral judgment and behavior. Completes tasks to standard, on time, and within the

commander’s intent. Demonstrates determination and persistence when

facing adverse situations.

Solves problems using the “easy path” without regard for what is “the right thing to do.”

Puts personal benefit or comfort ahead of the mission.

Hides unpleasant facts that may arouse anger. Is publicly critical of the unit or its leadership, yet

does nothing to help.

Underlying Causes Has not accepted one or more of the Army Values. Overly committed to self-interests, career goals, and personal achievement. Is not able to translate Army Values to personal behaviors. Afraid of facing demands or hardships that following Army Values might bring. Not aware of personal behaviors and how they are perceived by others.


Reflect on personal values and the Army Values. If you perceive a conflict, consult a mentor with respected values and judgment for discussion and guidance.

Ask co-workers how well they understand the expectations and the standards. Ask peers and subordinates how well they think you uphold the Army Values. How do your

behaviors signal your values?


Consider personal behaviors to complete tasks to standard, on time, and within the commander’s intent. How do you ensure success of your work? How do you gauge personal adherence to standards? How do you ensure timeliness of completion?

Observe other organizational leaders who effectively demonstrate and uphold the Army Values. Tailor the approach to your situation.

Analyze the influence of the Army Values on the unit by observing instances and examples of loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, integrity, honor, and personal courage. What are the consequences when adherence to these values falls short?

Study historical military figures who demonstrated determination, persistence, and patience in achieving an objective. What factors led to their success? In times of intense hardship, what actions did they use to overcome adversity?

Consider what the Army Values mean and implications for personal behavior and development.


Exercise initiative by anticipating task requirements before receiving direction. Take responsibility for both yourself and subordinates when an issue arises.

Make decisions based on what you know is right. Do not be swayed by circumstances or internal or external factors that may affect the decision. Act according to clear principles rather than the easy path.

Foster and encourage an open-door policy with subordinates where they feel comfortable coming to talk to you about ethical and moral challenges they are facing on-duty and how to implement the correct action.

Practice what you preach. Demonstrate upholding the Army’s Values to others.

DISPLAYS EMPATHY 7-25. Empathy is defined as the ability to share and understand someone else’s feelings. The capacity for empathy is an important attribute for leaders to possess. Empathy can allow leaders to understand how their actions will make others feel and react. Empathy can help leaders to understand those that they deal with including other Soldiers, Army Civilians, local populace, and even enemy forces. Being able to see from another’s viewpoint enables a leader to understand those around them better (see table 7-15 on page 7-17).

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-17

Table 7-15. Displays empathy

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Reads others’ emotional cues. Considers other points of view in decision-making. Reacts appropriately to others’ emotional states. Shows compassion when others’ are distressed. Predicts how others will react to certain events. Demonstrates ability to establish good rapport.

Shows a lack of concern for others’ emotional distress.

Displays an inability to take another’s perspective. Maintains an egocentric viewpoint in decision-making

process. Dehumanizes enemy combatants or local populace.

Underlying Causes Problems with or inability to take others’ perspectives. Focuses solely on own needs without considering needs of others. Insensitive to emotional cues of others. Failure to identify with other individuals. Overly results focused.


Gather feedback from on your ability to read emotional cues of others. Self-reflect on your successes and failures in perspective taken during the decisionmaking

process. Explicitly focus on emotional and social cues in conversations.


Select a role model and study their interactions with others. Read relevant literature on empathy and social perspective taking. Learn more about the pitfalls associated with empathy failures Learn nonverbal cues that can help to indicate a person’s emotional state. Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Beyond People Skills: Leveraging Your

Understanding of Others module.


Practice taking perspectives of different people (such as that of a local leader, coalition ally, adversary, or a different military specialty). Imagine what their assumptions and preferences would be. Do this when interacting with a peer or a group. Get to know your subordinates better so you can understand their issues.

Use red teaming by taking partner and adversary perspectives to challenge ideas and ensure consideration of all perspectives in the decisionmaking process.

Actively combat moral disengagement (convincing oneself that ethical standards do not apply in a certain situation) in peers and subordinates by directly addressing instances when they failed to show concern for others.

EXEMPLIFIES THE WARRIOR ETHOS/SERVICE ETHOS 7-26. The Warrior Ethos and Service Ethos refer to a set of specific professional attitudes and beliefs that characterize the American Soldier and Army Civilian. The Warrior Ethos shapes and guides a leader’s actions both on and off the battlefield. Leaders demonstrate the Warrior Ethos or Service Ethos anytime they experience prolonged and demanding conditions that require commitment and resilience to do what is right despite adversity, challenge, and setback (see table 7-16 on page 7-18). For example, tirelessly advocating for a more comprehensive training program on leader development demonstrates the Service Ethos, just as leading others in a combat zone demonstrates the Warrior Ethos.

7-27. While Army Civilians can have a warrior-like ethos, a service ethos fittingly describes the attitudes of Army Civilians who choose to serve the public interest through support and defense of the Constitution. They are committed to the Army and the Constitution and take an oath upon their hiring similar to the oath Soldiers take. In honoring the Service Ethos, Army Civilians help support the needs of the Army and its Soldiers.

Chapter 7

7-18 FM 6-22

Table 7-16. Exemplifies the Warrior Ethos/Service Ethos

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Removes or fights through obstacles, difficulties, and

hardships to accomplish the mission. Demonstrates the will to succeed and perseveres

through difficult and complicated situations. Demonstrates physical and emotional courage. Upholds and communicates the Warrior Ethos. Pursues victory over extended periods, regardless of


Gives up when facing a difficult challenge or hardship.

Is pessimistic or negative about personal ability to achieve results within organizational constraints.

Allows fear of risk to stop action without integrating the risk management process.

Hesitates or avoids stepping up when necessary. Demonstrates timidity and hesitation to act.

Underlying Causes Failure to internalize the Army Values. Lacks a holistic understanding of the Warrior Ethos and its implications for personal behavior. Exhibits frustration or fatigue from excessively demanding conditions over an extended period. Allows laziness or complacency to compromise the task or mission. Current situation feels hopeless and shows no indication of getting better.


Clarify and understand the scope of new tasks and the relationship to mission accomplishment. Perseverance is valuable when aligned with organizational goals.

Request feedback from peers and subordinates on how well you demonstrate determination, persistence, and patience. Determine if patterns exist in how you handle different situations.

Ask for feedback from a superior on how well you demonstrate the Warrior Ethos. Identify points where you could have persevered more or where you should have been less persistent to ensure a balance between achieving effective results and wasting time.

Request advice from a mentor or trusted advisor before undertaking a difficult task. Have them provide insight into the appropriate steps. Provide as much context as possible and then talk through the situation and possible ways to deal with anticipated difficulties.


Reflect on personal experiences in upholding the Warrior Ethos. In a difficult or prolonged task, what most made you want to give up; what most helped you keep going?

If you are having trouble getting something done, reflect on why it is not working and what alternative approaches might succeed.

Research historical figures who demonstrated physical and emotional courage and the will to succeed. Read Medal of Honor citations or pick a role model and see how they demonstrate perseverance. What actions and attitudes led them to success? In times of intense hardship, what was their approach to leadership?

Identify ways to relieve stress to manage emotional reactions while at work (such as taking deep breaths, counting to ten, or thinking before acting). Study historical figures who demonstrated determination, persistence, and patience in achieving an objective. What factors led to their success? In times of intense hardship, how did they overcome adversity?


During reviews, consider how the tenets of Warrior Ethos were applied during operations. Volunteer to take the lead on a difficult or prolonged issue. While working through the issue, note

the work and progress that occurred toward resolution. When leading, accept responsibility for personal errors and move on. Do not allow criticism of an

outcome or setbacks prevent taking the lead or persisting in efforts. When interacting with team members and subordinates, realize resistance and inertia are

natural. When they occur, stick to the point, and not take criticism personally.

APPLIES DISCIPLINE 7-28. Discipline is essential for a Soldier and leader. While it is the responsibility of all Soldiers to maintain self-discipline, it is the responsibility of leaders to ensure unit discipline. Self-discipline allows individuals to ensure their behaviors embody the Army Values, make certain that Army standards are met (physical as well as behavioral), and properly accomplish tasks in a timely manner. All of the specified attributes and behaviors of an Army leader are based in self-discipline and the ability to put the needs consistent with support and defense of the Constitution of the United States ahead of one’s own needs. Unit discipline encourages a sense of camaraderie, supports a positive climate, and reinforces management systems such as

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-19

supply, maintenance, training, and personnel. Table 7-17 provides indicators that leaders can use to identify their strengths and developmental needs in displaying discipline. This document also presents potential underlying causes in failing to model discipline and resources for further development.

Table 7-17. Applies discipline

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Applies disciplined initiative in absence of orders. Maintains standards for both self and subordinates. Displays proper time management. Encourages positive behaviors and disciplines

negative behaviors.

Displays favoritism and inequality in enforcement of standards.

Fails to complete tasks in a timely manner. Fails to execute the Uniform Code of Military Justice

properly. Displays non-professional demeanor.

Underlying Causes Inability to assess one’s own behaviors accurately. Failure to internalize Army Values and traditions. Failure to practice time management. Self-indulgence rather than placing Army priorities first. Lack of understanding of how favoritism undermines authority. Lack of understanding of how to properly communicate and enforce standards. Feedback Select a role model and watch how they demonstrate discipline. Ask how discipline is important

to them, what are the pitfalls of slipping standards, how they maintain their self-discipline. Compare how you manage time to others. Do you get as much done as they do or more? Are

you prioritizing and getting the most important tasks done on time? Study Consider how different types of discipline affect the individual and the unit.

Study time management techniques and implement methods to use time efficiently. Review psychological constructs that get in the way of self-discipline (such as ego, restraint

defense mechanisms, or delayed gratification). Think about your behaviors and how others might view your self-discipline if they knew what you

know about yourself. How would you change your behavior then? Practice Consider how others would view your discipline if they were aware of your thoughts/actions;

design a plan to fix shortcomings. Establish and stick to a regular exercise routine.

LEADS WITH CONFIDENCE IN ADVERSE SITUATIONS 7-29. The opportunity to lead with confidence in adverse situations happens frequently, but making the right decisions in difficult times defines an Army leader’s career. Mistakenly, individuals often believe that leading with confidence in adverse situations is a responsibility for senior leaders, and do not recognize the need for confident leadership at all levels. How Army leaders approach and persevere through difficult times sets a leadership example for others while demonstrating commitment to the organization (see table 7-18 on page 7-20).

Chapter 7

7-20 FM 6-22

Table 7-18. Leads with confidence in adverse situations

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Provides presence at the right time and place. Displays self-control and composure in adverse

conditions; remains calm under pressure. Remains decisive after discovering a mistake. Makes decisions; acts in the absence of guidance. Remains positive, even when the situation changes

or becomes confusing. Encourages subordinates.

Loses hope or inertia when adversity is high. Shows discouragement when faced with setbacks. Allows anger or emotion to compromise a situation. Hesitates to take decisive action; defaults to following

a superior’s lead in times when it is inappropriate. Avoids situations where it is necessary to take an

authoritative stand on an issue or problem.

Underlying Causes Slow to adapt quickly to changing situations. Is not comfortable with personal capabilities and skills as a leader; unwilling to step up and take control. Is indecisive; has trouble making final decisions. Fears that the consequences of making a bad decision will reflect poorly on himself or herself. Avoids prudent risks to ensure no negative performance feedback. Does not meet problems head-on; is avoidant of conflict.


After leading a difficult mission, conduct an after action review. Ask for feedback to identify effective and ineffective actions and opportunities to improve. Have team members provide feedback on how you handled the situation.

Request feedback from peers about how well you respond to setbacks, and how effectively you demonstrate persevere to achieve goals.

Meet with the team to brainstorm creative solutions to a challenge that the organization currently faces. Try to approach the problem from a new and different direction.

Request advice from a mentor or trusted advisor on how to deal with a difficult situation. Have them guide you and provide insight into possible next steps.


Complete a mission or problem analysis when faced with a tough decision. Consider multiple possible courses of action, select one, and develop a plan of action to enact it.

Develop the realization that failure and criticism happen. As a leader, take the prudent risk, realizing that you are not always going to be right.

Learn about planning and problem solving methods and tools to help ensure success. Observe a leader who has consistently achieved under seemingly unfavorable circumstances.

What behaviors can you model to ensure similar personal success? Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Leadership Decision Making; Being an

Adaptable Leader in Times of Change; Managing Difficult Behavior


When resistance occurs, stick to your argument and the facts that support it, while remaining open to feedback and opinions. Remember not to take criticism personally.

Take on a series of increasingly demanding tasks or challenges to build a record of success and bolster your confidence in difficult situations.

Be well prepared! Anticipate potential resistance from your audience and spend time gathering data and rationale to support your position.

Persevere. Do not easily give up on opinions or judgments for which you have a strong argument. Clearly articulate your position using detailed explanations and examples; remain respectful of the opinions of others.

Use clear, assertive language to state your position. Be aware of nonverbal indicators that may communicate lack of confidence and avoid using tentative language.

DEMONSTRATES TACTICAL AND TECHNICAL COMPETENCE 7-30. Striving for tactical and technical competence and expertise is important for Army leaders. Army leaders must implement the most up-to-date, cutting-edge technologies and methods to solve problems and ensure mission accomplishment. Demonstrating technical and tactical knowledge and skills includes seeking out and implementing best practices as well as exploring and encouraging a culture of sharing among team members to develop and refine their technical proficiency (see table 7-19).

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-21

Table 7-19. Demonstrates tactical and technical competence

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Uses technical and tactical expertise to accomplish

the mission to standard and protect resources. Displays the appropriate knowledge of methods

procedures, and equipment for the position. Embraces and employs new technology to

accomplish the mission.

Uses assets, equipment, procedures, and methods ineffectively.

Consumes excessive resources due to ineffective use of technology.

Uses outdated or ineffective approaches to problems. Uninterested in new knowledge and skills.

Underlying Causes Does not have a full awareness of organization positions and operations. Does not understand the optimal employment of assets, equipment, procedures, and methods. Does not seek opportunities to learn new solutions for technical and tactical problems. Is not comfortable with new technology and is unaware of its capabilities. Unaware of how to locate and learn new technical and tactical knowledge and skills.


Learn from those around you by asking which skills and what knowledge is mission-critical. Ask others how they learned it, and follow a similar path.

Talk with others inside and outside the chain of command to stay current on external influences (such as emerging technology or latest tactics, techniques and procedures). Key opportunities to network and share information include attendance at conferences and training courses, as well as online resources.

Look for opportunities to test your technical and tactical proficiency. Self-monitor your ability to be a technical and tactical leader by reading the latest journal articles,

professional journals, and professional association releases and comparing personal knowledge and skills to emerging information.


Build personal expertise by reviewing doctrine, technical manuals, and non-military references in areas of interest.

Subscribe to or research professional journals and resources dealing with a new technical skill or capability. Keep current on emerging technical information by reviewing blogs and other Web-based resources.

Volunteer to prepare and deliver training on a specific technical or tactical subject. Write and submit a journal or magazine article on your technical area of expertise. Look for opportunities to take a continuing studies course to build technical knowledge. Consider

resident, distance or distributed learning, and correspondence offerings.


Find and pursue opportunities for advanced training pertaining to personal responsibilities. Volunteer for opportunities that will provide technical or tactical experience in new areas. Develop one or more specialty area where you will be considered the unit expert. Communicate

your knowledge and make yourself available when others need guidance or support.

UNDERSTANDS AND MODELS CONCEPTUAL SKILLS 7-31. Army leaders must not only understand the importance of conceptual skills, they must possess, continually develop, and model them as well (see table 7-20 on page 7-22). Conceptual skills are the basis for making sense of complex situations, understanding cause and effect, critical thinking, solving problems, developing plans, and leading others. In short, they are essential to accomplishing the critical functions of the Army.

Chapter 7

7-22 FM 6-22

Table 7-20. Understands and models conceptual skills

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Identifies the critical issues present in a situation or

issue and uses this knowledge to make decisions and take advantage of opportunities.

Recognizes and generates innovative solutions. Relates and compares information from different

sources to identify possible cause-and-effect relationships.

Uses sound judgment, logical reasoning, and critical thinking.

Makes logical assumptions in the absence of facts.

Gets lost in the details of a situation without perceiving how they fit together and interact.

Comfortably maintains the status quo; ignores new thought processes to solve a problem.

Overly relies on one source of information or one approach to problem solving.

Employs stereotyped, rigid, or biased thinking when making sense of a situation.

Uses a scattered approach to thinking through problems and developing solutions.

Does not articulate the evidence and thought processes leading to decisions.

Underlying Causes Impatient with the time or effort required for rigorous conceptualization. Uses gut instinct or past approaches to make decisions. Fears the risk of failure that may come from new conceptualizations or approaches. Unsure of the thought process and evidence used to reach decisions and unable to articulate them to others. Does not take time for personal reflection and thought.


Ask yourself how an issue and related decisions or actions will fit into the larger view of events. What other decisions, operations, or units are affected?

Ask others if they have observed you showing personal biases or conceptual shortcomings during analysis or problem solving. Ask for clear and honest feedback regarding perceived biases and conceptual difficulties. Compare this feedback to a personal self-assessment.

Consider the long-term consequences to a decision or action you are contemplating. What are the second- or third-order effects? Identify the consequences and re-evaluate the potential decision. Present the idea to others and request their input.


Read about methods of conceptualizing ambiguous and complex situations. Topics may include systems thinking, mind mapping, and others.

Train yourself to visualize how plans or operations will unfold by thinking through branches, phases, sequences, and time schedules.

Study the topics of critical and creative thinking; apply the methods to issues you face. Observe a leader who is adept at conceptual skills and developing conceptual models. Discuss

the leader’s thought process with the leader. Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Leadership Decision Making or Being an

Adaptable Leader in Times of Change.


When faced with a problem, apply a systematic approach to define the problem, gather relevant information, make essential assumptions, and develop courses of action.

Work to synthesize facts, data, experiences, and principles to make sense of situations. Look for patterns, themes, connections, and interactions.

When faced with a problem, take time to develop multiple plausible solutions to the problem. Apply pre-selected criteria to help evaluate the solutions and select the best.

Use a mind mapping technique or tool to make sense of the elements of a complex or ambiguous situation and their relationships.

Create and communicate your vision for the outcome of an important effort and the process to achieve the outcome.

SEEKS DIVERSE IDEAS AND POINTS OF VIEW 7-32. By seeking and being open to diverse ideas and points of view, Army leaders become exposed to new ideas, perspectives, explanations, and approaches that can help achieve tasks and projects more efficiently and effectively. Consideration of diverse ideas and points of view helps ensure the adequate conceptualization of issues as well as the development and selection of viable courses of action. Being open to diverse ideas

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-23

and points of view also aids in the perception of change, identification of new requirements, and adaptability to dynamic operational environments (see table 7-21).

Table 7-21. Seeks diverse ideas and points of view

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Encourages respectful, honest communication among

staff and decision makers. Explores alternative explanations and approaches for

accomplishing tasks. Reinforces new ideas; Willing to consider alternative

perspectives to resolve difficult problems. Uses knowledgeable sources and subject matter

experts. Encourages team members to express their ideas

even if they question the consensus.

Settles for the first solution that comes to mind. Views subordinates’ opinions and ideas as irrelevant. Does not express opposing views to gain favor or

avoid argument. Operates in isolation. Maintains the status quo and hesitates to alter

current “tried and true” approaches. Belittles, bullies, and berates rather than offering

constructive and specific feedback.

Underlying Causes Views subordinates' ideas as threats to personal expertise or authority. Impatient with talk and discussion; wants to quickly reach a decision. Has difficulty perceiving or understanding shades of meaning or differences in opinion. Relies excessively on certain individuals' perspectives; does not offer everyone a chance for input. Does not take time for personal reflection and thought.


Encourage team members to express ideas and opinions about the team’s functioning. Use active listening methods to ensure accurate understanding of their perspectives.

Get someone skilled in team processes and communications to observe a team meeting and provide feedback on how open to diverse ideas and opinions you appeared to be and how you encouraged or discouraged ideas and opinions.

Communicate the desired outcome of task and ask team members for their feedback and opinions. Use that opinion to devise new and more effective strategies.


Learn how to conduct research in subject areas important to your position. Get involved in your professional community by participating in associations and groups that

promote learning and creative solutions. Interview a leader with a reputation as a strong innovator and leader of teams that solve complex

and unique challenges. Learn about the thought process and methods used to get the best from team members and reach a creative solution.

Read about the approaches and methods that people in other fields or from other backgrounds used to solve problems like those you face.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Seeking and Incorporating Diverse Ideas; Achieving Shared Understanding; The Art of Asking Questions; Seeking and Delivering Face-to-Face Feedback; Beyond People Skills: Leveraging Your Understanding of Others.


Keep an open mind even when ideas do not fit conventional thinking or seem to be tangential to the mission.

Ensure that when team member ideas are ‘off target’ that you do not belittle or berate them. Look for the merit in every argument rather than the fatal flaw.

Purposefully assemble diverse teams for projects or tasks. Solicit input and opinion from all team members when trying to find a solution to the problem.

Do not dismiss others’ opinions because of their grade, age, or gender. Actively listen to their opinion and determine how to apply the approach to a particular solution.

Meet with the team to brainstorm creative solutions to a challenge that the organization or unit currently faces. Try to approach the problem from a new and different direction.

COMMUNICATES 7-33. Leaders communicate by clearly expressing ideas and actively listening to others. By understanding the nature and importance of communication and practicing effective communication techniques, leaders will relate better to others and be able to translate goals into actions.

Chapter 7

7-24 FM 6-22

7-34. Communication is essential to all other leadership competencies. Four components are in this competency:

Listens actively. Creates shared understanding. Employs engaging communication techniques. Sensitive to cultural factors in communication.

LISTENS ACTIVELY 7-35. The most important purpose of listening is to comprehend the speaker’s thoughts and internalize them. Throughout a conversation, listeners should pay attention to what the other is trying to communicate. Active listeners have a lot to focus on—a variety of verbal and nonverbal cues, the content of the message the speaker is trying to deliver, and the urgency and emotion of the speaker (see table 7-22). Stay alert for common themes that recur with the speaker as well as inconsistencies or topics they completely avoid.

Table 7-22. Listens actively

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Pays attention to nonverbal cues. Asks questions to clarify meaning when the

speaker’s point is not understood. Summarizes and paraphrases the speaker’s main

points before creating an answer. Maintains eye contact. Takes brief mental or written notes on important

points for clarification. Stays alert for the speaker’s common themes. Reflects on information before expressing views.

Interrupts to provide own opinions and decisions. Distracted by anger or disagreement with the

speaker. Uses the first response that comes to mind. Focuses attention on taking copious notes. Confuses the overall point of the message with the

details provided. Tells people what they should say or think.

Underlying Causes Focused on what to say next rather than accurately understanding the other person. Unskilled at accurately perceiving feelings and reading body language. Feels uncomfortable with the topic, information, or emotions the speaker is sharing. Believes that own way is the only way; does not listen to others' opinions. Distracted by time pressure, other concerns, or environmental factors.


If you do not understand what the speaker tries to communicate, ask them to restate the idea. Paraphrase what the speaker said before you respond. Use wording such as “So what you’re

saying is…” Ask others, at work or in your network, how you can improve active listening skills. At the close of a conversation, recap or summarize the main points and the motivations that

might be behind them. Note trends and themes from the discussion.


During daily activities, try to observe someone who you feel is a strong listener interacting with someone else. What makes that person a good listener? What verbal and nonverbal cues are used?

Learn what behaviors limit active listening. Consider how often you say things such as “Yes, but…” or “Let’s get to the point.” Do you check your mobile device or continue to type on the computer during conversations? These types of behaviors tend to communicate an unwillingness to listen and limit conversation.

Find out if you are a selective listener by observing what topics, what people, and in what settings you are or are not an active listener.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Achieving Shared Understanding, The Art of Asking Questions, Building Working Relationships across Boundaries, Seeking and Delivering Face-to-Face Feedback, Navigating Contentious Conversations, Managing Difficult Behavior, Beyond People Skills: Leveraging Your Understanding of Others.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-25

Table 7-22. Listens actively (continued)


During conversations, offer brief summary statements of the person’s statements and associated feelings. Look for confirmation of your understanding from the other person. Paraphrase in your own words to avoid parroting the words of the other person, which they may perceive as mocking.

Employ verbal prompts, such as “Yes…”, “Go on…”, and “Tell me more…” and nonverbal prompts, such as nodding your head, leaning toward the other person, and making eye contact to encourage the other person to talk.

During everyday conversations, try to focus solely on what the speaker is saying rather than forming your argument.

Minimize external distractions by turning off mobile devices and closing the door or going where you can be with the speaker one-on-one. If this is not convenient, ask to meet the speaker later to focus on what the speaker has to say.

Try not to argue mentally with the person. It distracts you from listening to what the speaker is trying to convey.

Take notes that identify important points or items for clarification during meetings. Review your notes and follow-up with an email or conversation if it remains unclear.

CREATES SHARED UNDERSTANDING 7-36. Leaders should understand the unit’s mission and develop plans to meet mission goals. Leaders owe it to subordinates, the organization, and unified action partners to share information that directly applies to their duties and provides the necessary context for what needs to be done (see table 7-23). Keeping team members informed aligns the organization, relieves stress, and shows appreciation for team members.

Table 7-23. Creates shared understanding

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Expresses thoughts and ideas clearly. Double checks that subordinates understand the

communicated message. Reinforces the importance of current unit objectives

and priorities for subordinates. Recognizes and addresses the potential for

miscommunication. Uses a communication method aligned with the

information that will be expressed. Communicates to subordinates as well as superiors to

ensure everyone is in the loop.

Creates inconsistent and confusing messages, arguments, and stories.

Communicates technical subject matter without converting it into general terms.

Places an emphasis on the wrong subject matter for an audience (too simplistic for management and too detail-heavy or strategically focused for subordinates).

Shares information and understanding with only select favorites.

Limits communication to subordinates and superiors in own chain of command.

Underlying Causes Has only a little preparation time before speaking to individuals or a group on a topic. Does not have accurate knowledge of the gaps in the audience's understanding of the subject. Not skilled in creating messages or explanations suited to the audience's background, comprehension level,

language, culture, or other factors. Partial or incomplete understanding of the subject matter.


Encourage open feedback and dialogue among and with subordinates, particularly when they are asking questions about a project or process.

Discuss intent, priorities, and thought processes with subordinates to ensure understanding. Offer subordinates the opportunity to ask about any points they may not have understood.

After delivering information, ask others to summarize the information just delivered. Communicate this in a nonthreatening or condescending way but show interest in making sure that everyone is on the same page.

Periodically check-in with team members and subordinates to ensure they know what is going on in the organization. Fill them in on any missing details.

Chapter 7

7-26 FM 6-22

Table 7-23. Creates shared understanding (continued)


Assess the best way to communicate with different individuals or groups both inside and outside the organization. Learn how to match the message and method to the audience.

Study individuals (public figures, historical, or local) considered skilled communicators and able to provide messages that translated into action.

Take a course on effective communications techniques or join a public speaking group to build your knowledge and skill in creating and delivering compelling messages to others.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Making Influence Count; Achieving Shared Understanding; The Art of Asking Questions; Rapid Team Stand-up: How to Build Your Team ASAP; Building Working Relationships Across Boundaries; Beyond People Skills: Leveraging Your Understanding of Others, Navigating Contentious Conversations; The Leader as Follower.

ASAP: as soon as possible


Relate the unit’s current objectives and priorities to the larger organizational goals. As you plan the words and delivery of the message, imagine how the intended audience will

receive the message. Consider the information you are trying to explain and build the explanation in a logical

progression that fits the topic (such as chronological, sequential, top down, or bottom up). Do not overload the team with information. Offer information in segments for understanding

without causing confusion and together will convey the complete story.

EMPLOYS ENGAGING COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES 7-37. Leaders must deliver a message clearly and succinctly to the unit or subordinates to ensure shared understanding (see table 7-24). To ensure that the message stands out from the crowd, leaders will need to employ engaging communication techniques to make sure the message understood and remembered.

Table 7-24. Employs engaging communication techniques

Strength Indicators Need Indicators States goals to energize others. Makes eye contact when speaking. Speaks enthusiastically; maintains listeners’ interest. Uses appropriate gestures. Selects the appropriate communication medium to

deliver the message. Recognizes and addresses misunderstandings. Seeks feedback about how communications worked. Determines, recognizes, and resolves


Delivers an unclear goal or key message. Provides information using a monotone voice and

few aids or devices to support understanding. Uses a condescending tone of voice. Mismatches the message and the communication

medium. Takes a long time to express central ideas.

Underlying Causes Does not consider the audience well enough; uses words and delivery approach that do not connect. Is not able to communicate the main message succinctly and clearly. Is uncomfortable presenting information to others. Matches a message with an inappropriate communication medium (such as delivering constructive criticism

via email rather than face-to-face). Does not have ample time to prepare the information for delivery.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-27

Table 7-24. Employs engaging communication techniques (continued)


Assess the individual or group to see if they are engaged in what you are conveying. Shift the conversation or the method of delivery based on verbal and nonverbal cues.

Ask team members or subordinates to give you specific feedback on your ability to deliver information in an engaging and easily comprehensible manner. Ask how to improve.

During a presentation or meeting, ask direct and specific questions about the information you are communicating.

Talk to team members or subordinates about misunderstandings when they arise. Analyze the reasons why a misunderstanding may have occurred.


Assess the best way to communicate with various individuals in the organization including superiors, peers, and subordinates. Match method with the individual.

Measure whether team members are absorbing the thoughts and ideas provided to them. Indicators may include more eye contact, following directions accurately, asking fewer questions for clarification, or appearing more relaxed.

Observe someone who seems to connect when communicating with others. Investigate how they generate interest and retain attention. What communication techniques are used?

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Seeking and Delivering Face-to-Face Feedback; Navigating Contentious Conversations.


Communicate thoughts and ideas in a simple way that all staff understands using a logical and sequential progression. Provide supporting details to prove your central idea.

Create buzz around new tasks that the unit is undertaking. Have informal conversations with subordinates about the benefits of the new task. Convey enthusiasm both verbally (using active vice passive words) and nonverbally (with posture, tone, or gestures).

Match tone of voice with the information to be delivered. For example, if the unit will undergo a major change, use a direct, clear, and reassuring tone. If the unit is embarking on a new and innovative task, use a tone that builds excitement and enthusiasm.

Employ a variety of techniques to ensure that the audience is engaged in the presented information, such as stories, anecdotes, and examples.

Use visual aids, when appropriate, to support the message. Make sure that visual aids have a clear and direct relationship to the presented information.

SENSITIVE TO CULTURAL FACTORS IN COMMUNICATION 7-38. Cultural awareness and understanding of how cultural factors can influence the success of communications has long been an important competency for military leaders leading ethnically and culturally diverse organizations. In recent years, the necessities of counterinsurgency, stability, and interorganizational operations have placed cross-cultural communications skills at the center of operational success.

7-39. Understanding cross-cultural factors and the ability to adjust communication attempts to accommodate and capitalize on them are crucial in today’s operational environment (see table 7-25). It is important to note that Soldiers do not have to agree with all of the cultural norms or practices; however, they must understand how those cultural values affect interactions with individuals from that culture.

Table 7-25. Sensitive to cultural factors in communication

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Is sensitive to cultural variations in communication; is

willing to accommodate or adapt to them. Maintains a broad awareness of communication

customs, expressions, and behaviors. Demonstrates respect for others regardless of their

culture, race, or ethnicity. Looks beyond individual features or manner of

communication to discern the message and its meaning.

Stereotypes and generalizes about individuals based on their culture, race, or ethnicity.

Avoids situations where interacting with other cultures is required.

Assumes that individuals from other cultures have the same values, priorities, and worldview as Americans.

Pushes personal beliefs or norms onto an individual from a different culture, race, or ethnicity.

Chapter 7

7-28 FM 6-22

Table 7-25. Sensitive to cultural factors in communication (continued)

Underlying Causes Assumes American views and understanding is correct and other perspectives are less developed or faulty. Fears how individuals from different cultures will react to American cultural norms and mores. Fears embarrassment; self-conscious about not understanding or violating another culture's norms or mores. Believes cultural differences are too great to permit creation of an advantageous alliance. Does not have the time or inclination to focus on learning about a new culture. Lack of exposure to other cultures or previous negative experience with individuals from other cultures


Connect with an individual, with whom you are comfortable, from a different culture to discuss their social norms, mores, and expectations. Obtain feedback on how appropriate or effective your interpersonal communications habits are likely to be with other members of their culture.

Seek help from external resources (such as chaplains or counselors) for overcoming any deep- seated biases due to traumatic or negative experiences with individuals from other cultures.

Take advantage of counterinsurgency field exercises to practice culturally appropriate communications skills and receive feedback on their effectiveness.

Share what you have learned about other cultures with peers and subordinates. Discuss effective and ineffective approaches to cross-cultural communications.

Seek help (such as chaplains or counselors) if you have any deep-rooted biases or issues that may affect your ability to function effectively in a specific culture.


Become a part of a club or professional association that fosters and encourages cross-cultural understanding. Research opportunities by contacting cultural organizations and asking about cross-cultural meet-ups.

Take a foreign language or culture course at a community college. Pay attention to specific cultural norms and practices. Highlight areas of cultural difference common across all cultures (such as religion, sport, economic structure, gender difference, or power distance).

Use resources and references to examine a culture’s history, society, religion, sports, governance, lifestyle, business practices, current events, and other important aspects.

Observe and assess how others with extensive cross-cultural communication experience conduct themselves when communicating across cultures. Look for attitudes, behaviors, and methods that you can adopt.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Making Influence Count; Seeking and Incorporating Diverse Ideas; Building Working Relationships across Boundaries.


Make a genuine effort to communicate with an individual from another culture by learning and using culturally correct communication, greetings, behaviors, and patterns. Solicit feedback to understand their interpretation of American culture and your behavior.

Make a personal inventory of your own biases. Create and implement actionable steps to reduce these issues.

Focus awareness on how you evaluate others and the role cultural differences play. Attempt to evaluate people on an individual basis rather than cultural stereotypes.

Use active listening techniques, such as summarizing the main points of an individual’s discussion to ensure mutual understanding.

Be on the lookout for possible misunderstanding or misinterpretation. Proactively consider issues from other cultures’ perspective.


7-40. Leaders have the responsibility to establish and maintain appropriate expectations and attitudes that foster healthy relationships and a positive organizational climate. Leaders are charged with improving the organization while accomplishing missions. They should leave the organization better than it was when they arrived. This competency has eight components:

Fosters teamwork, cohesion, cooperation, and loyalty (esprit de corps). Encourages fairness and inclusiveness.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-29

Encourages open and candid communications. Creates a learning environment. Encourages subordinates to exercise initiative, accept responsibility, and take ownership. Demonstrates care for follower well-being. Anticipates people’s on-duty needs. Sets and maintains high expectations for individuals and teams.

FOSTERS TEAMWORK, COHESION, COOPERATION, AND LOYALTY (ESPRIT DE CORPS) 7-41. A team is a group of individuals with complementary skills committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. Commitment may not always be present from the start, but it is critical for team sustainability. The team needs to have a detailed common purpose so that all members can understand the what, how, and who (see table 7-26).

Table 7-26. Fosters teamwork, cohesion, cooperation, and loyalty

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Encourages people to work together effectively. Promotes teamwork and achievement to build trust. Draws attention to the consequences of poor

coordination. Attributes mission success or failure to team

performance. Rapidly and effectively integrates new members. Uses unit activities to build cohesion and trust. Encourages team members to take on extra

responsibilities for the betterment of the unit. Maximizes talents of all members of the team.

Attributes mission success or failure to the performance of individuals.

Regularly provides meaningful assignments to high- performing or experienced team members over new or less experienced team members.

Maximizes the skills and talents of only a few team members.

Permits team members to take independent approaches to accomplishing unit tasks.

Underlying Causes Places greater importance on individual contribution than team-based contribution. Manages a group that prefers to work individually rather than as a team. Feels less comfortable guiding a team than guiding individuals. Lacks a clear process for integrating new members and making them feel like they are part the team. Lacks awareness of the talents and capabilities of team members. Lacks trust in capabilities and dependability of team members.


Use reviews to share feedback and promote unit and team self-improvement. Share ways that the team could improve as a whole rather than singling out individuals.

Articulate the strengths, limitations, preferences, and beliefs of the team members to superiors. Act as an advocate to promote unit interests and needs.

Seek feedback on how you work with team members and subordinates in a way that promotes accomplishment of the organization’s mission, and how you provide purpose, direction, and motivation to team members.

Self-assess your ability to manage the team. How do you facilitate teamwork and cohesion? Do you support and guide team members through difficult situations?


Set aside time to become familiar with subordinates’ career goals. Ask subordinates questions that treat them as individuals who you want to see succeed.

Identify and utilize informal and formal unit leaders, such as an individual team members respect and admire. Examine why others view this individual as a role model and seek ways to use this to build cohesion and teamwork.

Solicit recommended reading or documents on team building from trusted mentors and from content experts within the Army.

Identify and develop clear linkages between team training and higher unit missions and success. Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Rapid Team Stand-up: How to Build Your

Team ASAP, Building Trust, and Fostering Team Unity. ASAP: as soon as possible

Chapter 7

7-30 FM 6-22

Table 7-26. Fosters teamwork, cohesion, cooperation, and loyalty (continued)


Define and gain agreement on team missions, standards, and expectations. Have all team members participate in this process so they buy into what is developed.

Identify and address internal conflicts to minimize effects on team productivity and morale. Identify and determine opportunities to highlight team interdependencies. Illustrate how an ability

to perform in the position successfully depends on the performance of others. Acknowledge and celebrate team accomplishments to build cohesion. Define success by team

accomplishment rather than individual achievement. Make a point of welcoming and transitioning new team members by ensuring their first few weeks

go smoothly. Assign them a mentor or buddy; speak with them periodically. Promote teamwork across units and discourages us-versus-them thinking and behaviors.

Reinforce and promote a sense of identity and pride among team members.

ENCOURAGES FAIRNESS AND INCLUSIVENESS 7-42. To build a positive climate, leaders should use consistent but flexible policies and viewpoints in personally treating others with respect (see table 7-27). While leaders should treat all team members fairly and consistently, not everyone will be treated exactly the same since not all have the same strengths or needs. Fairness means that no one gets preferential treatment, but leaves leeway for team member capabilities and needs. Inclusiveness means that all are valued and accepted into the organization, regardless of differences.

Table 7-27. Encourages fairness and inclusiveness

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Applies the same guidance, requirements, and

policies to all team members and subordinates in the organization.

Uses skills and capabilities of team members without providing preferential treatment.

Adheres to equal opportunity policies and prevents harassment.

Encourages and supports diversity and inclusiveness.

Actively seeks to integrate all team members and subordinates into the unit.

Encourages learning about and leveraging diversity.

Exempts a select few team members or subordinates from duties.

Selects the same high-performing members for almost all developmental opportunities.

Prevents high-performers from attending developmental opportunities (such as resident training or education) because of their value to the unit mission.

Grants permission for training and professional development only for developmental needs.

Allows groups or teams to isolate individuals they do not like or have difficulty fitting in.

Saddles burden on high performers. Underlying Causes

Gravitates to certain team members and wants to provide them with opportunities for development. Does not successfully balance the need to develop Soldiers with the need to accomplish the mission. Uses favoritism as a tool to retain team members and subordinates. Trusts high performers to produce results with limited oversight and guidance. Does not realize that team members or subordinates are isolating select members of the team. Conducts an incomplete assessment of the capabilities of some groups or individuals.


Dedicate time during the duty day to meet subordinates one-on-one to ask about their feelings regarding fairness in the unit. Do they believe only a select few get opportunities? Are some given tasks that lead to more development than others?

If a team member says you are unfair, ask about their feelings. Let them speak their mind. Reflect upon what they said and ask yourself if their views have merit. Seek out a trusted peer or subordinate to solicit their input regarding your potential lack of fairness.

Consult with a trusted subordinate to discover biases that unit members may hold toward others based on their character, personality, religion, race, ethnicity, or culture. Discuss the biases and devise strategies to overcome them.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-31

Table 7-27. Encourages fairness and inclusiveness (continued)


Create an action plan with specific tactics detailing how to make the unit more fair and inclusive. Document progress towards these goals on a monthly basis.

Set aside time to familiarize yourself with policies related to equal opportunity and harassment that outline team members and subordinates’ responsibilities.

Apply guidance, requirements, and policies to the roles and responsibilities of each team member. Document how you applied the policy or guidance on a piece of paper in case you need to reference or communicate it later to someone else.

Participate in a training course or read reference material on how to create an inclusive environment. Document how specific information pertains to the organization.

Reflect upon your record of selecting subordinates for developmental assignments and opportunities (including approving and sending subordinates to resident training and education). Was your approach fair?

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Seeking and Incorporating Diverse Ideas; Building Trust.


Lead by example by treating others the way you want to be treated. Favoritism makes team members feel that they are not important contributors. Invest time and effort in all members to develop them.

Create a succession plan for key positions in your organization. Develop a pool of individuals who could fill the positions in case some do not work as you hoped.

Inclusiveness starts with the members already in the environment. Directly challenge unit obstacles to inclusiveness. Does the unit have certain individuals who do not mesh well with the group? What prevents them from successfully fitting-in with the group?

ENCOURAGES OPEN AND CANDID COMMUNICATIONS 7-43. Good leaders should encourage collaboration through open and candid communications to create an environment where others feel free to contribute and know that their ideas and input are valued. Creating an open environment is a key to developing a unit capable of reacting to change. Leaders that value and reinforce open and candid communications, should show respect for subordinate opinions, recognize others’ viewpoints, and encourage input and feedback (see table 7-28).

Table 7-28. Encourages open and candid communications

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Reinforces the importance of expressing contrary and

minority viewpoints to guard against groupthink. Remains calm, objective, and facts-focused when

receiving potentially bad news. Encourages input and feedback especially during

times of change. Shows respect for subordinate opinions even while

disagreeing with them. Communicates positive attitude to encourage others

and improve morale. Displays appropriate reactions to new or conflicting

information or opinions. Guards against groupthink.

Demeans team member and subordinate opinions either consciously or subconsciously.

Halts conversation when it appears to be moving towards a change in unit processes or practices.

Reacts viscerally or angrily when receiving bad news or conflicting information.

Shares information and understanding with only select favorites who disseminate information to the rest of the unit.

Underlying Causes Concerned that too much open communication can lead to "too much talking and not enough doing." Wants to stay true to the current direction of the unit provided by superiors. Has too many simultaneous tasks moving forward to take time to hear others' ideas. Does not fully understand the relationship between an open environment and adapting to change. Has difficulty adapting (emotionally or cognitively) to unforeseen problems, bad news, or conflicting

information. Feels the need to control information.

Chapter 7

7-32 FM 6-22

Table 7-28. Encourages open and candid communications (continued)


Hold monthly updates where members share information and provide status on tasks. Hold a brainstorming session or forum with team members to discuss possible solutions to

obstacles currently impeding progress. Ask for opinions on how to remove the obstacle. Hold regular unit meetings to discuss internal operations and ongoing issues. Stress taking

initiative, underwriting honest mistakes, and continuous improvement. Ensure team members feel comfortable presenting their thoughts and ideas. If they are

uncomfortable communicating their ideas, hold one-on-one conversations to seek their feedback and input into the process.

Lead by example. Ask for feedback from team members and subordinates on your ideas. If they come up with a good idea or insight, incorporate it into a new initiative.


Observe a leader whose unit has an open communications environment. Watch what the leader does, and incorporate ideas into personal practices.

Take a course on soliciting input and open communications. Make sure the course has hands- on examples and scenarios so you can practice improving your skills.

Reflect upon your communication style with others (including superiors, team members, and subordinates). Is it conducive to the open and candid flow of information and ideas? Note things to improve and incorporate these changes into future communications.

Research how to foster an open communications environment. Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Seeking and Incorporating Diverse Ideas;

Navigating Contentious Conversations; Seeking and Delivering Face-to-Face Feedback; The Leader as Follower.


Make an effort to know superiors, peers, and subordinates. Showing interest lets them know they are valued as unit members beyond the work they produce.

Show team members that their ideas are valued and are an important part of unit success. Demonstrate results by empowering team members and subordinates when they develop a

good idea. Communicate that their idea was so strong that the unit will implement it. Recognize team members and subordinates for a job well done at meetings or events. Conduct regular informal discussions with Soldiers to solicit their ideas for how to address

problems and improve processes. Guide the conversation to reinforce and cultivate opinions or views that may differ from typical responses.

CREATES A LEARNING ENVIRONMENT 7-44. The Army seeks to constantly reinvigorate and renew its processes to more efficiently and effectively accomplish its strategic mission. To do so, it depends on the experiences of its people and organizations to contribute to a climate that values and supports learning. By both acknowledging and embracing the importance of learning, leaders actively foster both a culture dedicated to life-long learning and a cadre of leaders who possess a thirst for knowledge and innovation (see table 7-29).

Table 7-29. Creates a learning environment

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Uses effective assessment and training methods. Challenges how the organization operates, especially

those processes only done in a certain manner “because they’ve always been done that way.”

Discards techniques or procedures that have outlived their purpose.

Regularly expresses the value of seeking counsel and expert advice.

Encourages leaders and their subordinates to reach their full potential.

Motivates and stimulates innovative and critical thinking in others.

Seeks new approaches to problems.

Puts the onus on other leaders to take full responsibility for the development of their subordinates.

Adopts a “go at it alone” mentality, and fosters an individualistic unit climate.

Requires that others follow the rules, allowing no room for deviation or innovation.

Holds on to techniques or procedures, regardless of their utility, efficiency, or effectiveness.

Accepts outcomes as they are and moves on to the next task.

Fails to seek advice or counsel when facing a new or complex task.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-33

Table 7-29. Creates a learning environment (continued)

Underlying Causes Unaware of or unwilling to improve the effectiveness of assessment and training methods. Believes that no matter what example is set, subordinates will not seek self-development opportunities. Feels that rules and procedures were put in place to be followed. Supporter of traditional values and approaches to problems. Afraid of change and the possible difficulties and turmoil that accompany new techniques or procedures. Feels that effective leaders are "take charge" and are "decision makers." Seeking advice or counsel is a sign

of weakness and lack of expertise.


Informally ask unit members why processes are done certain ways. Identify processes that appear to be performed a certain way for no apparent reason other than they have always been done that way. Brainstorm ways to improve these processes.

Make a habit of asking yourself why you perform processes or activities a certain way. If the best answer you have is “because I’ve always done it that way,” reconsider your approach.

Ask unit members about processes that frustrate them. Encourage them to think of a more effective way. Show that you value their feedback by incorporating their suggestions, as appropriate.

Have a conversation with your superior about the unit environment. Ask if they feel that it currently supports learning or if there are ways that it could be more supportive.

Gather lessons learned from recent tasks to improve their execution in the future.


Ask other unit leaders what assessment and training techniques they are using. Document these techniques and evaluate which ones would work best.

Understand how the Army officially defines “life-long learning”. Think about what that means for you, the unit, and the Army organization as a whole.

Think about great Army leaders who inspire you. Highlight any of their actions that helped to advance the Army as a “learning organization.” Use these actions to spur insights that may be able to relate or incorporate with the unit.

Choose one unit process to study. Document exactly how it occurs, from start to finish. Identify areas where the process may hit obstacles. Brainstorm possible solutions to either overcome the obstacles or circumvent them.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: The Leader's Role in Providing On-the-Job Learning and Support; Supporting the Developing Leader; Counseling and Coaching Videos.


Conduct periodic brainstorming sessions with groups of subordinates to think through likely problems the unit may face. Guide the discussion as an opportunity to reinforce the idea of creative sharing and the importance of others’ advice and counsel.

While performing normal duties, identify processes or procedures that seem slow or inefficient. Identify and incorporate new methods to increase efficiency.

Set a self-development example by sharing opportunities related to developmental activities or training. Share your experience with team members.

During the next unit briefing, consciously make an effort to include information about the importance of interacting with others and seeking counsel. Couch it in the context of the Army’s organization-wide commitment to life-long learning.


7-45. As a leader, one of the greatest challenges is to encourage subordinates to exercise initiative, accept responsibility, and take ownership. Subordinates may hesitate to step forward and express their technical knowledge or provide information because they fear hearing they are wrong or do not want to take on an additional task. It is a leader’s responsibility to build confidence in a subordinate’s ability to solve problems, set the conditions that foster taking initiative, and encourage input from anyone with an understanding of the applicable subject matter (see table 7-30).

Chapter 7

7-34 FM 6-22

Table 7-30. Encourages subordinates

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Encourages subordinates to explore new

approaches to a problem. Pushes decision making to the lowest appropriate

level to encourage subordinate responsibility and empowerment.

Involves others in decisions and keeps them informed of consequences that affect them.

Provides subordinates with their “own piece of the task” to ensure ownership and accountability.

Guides team members and subordinates in thinking through problems for themselves.

Reinforces and rewards initiative.

Hesitates to consider or incorporate subordinates’ suggestions into Army unit tasks.

Defines the course for most tasks without consulting team members or experienced subordinates.

Uses only tried and true approaches to solving problems or completing tasks.

Uses only the same small cadre of team members to support decisionmaking.

Takes time to inform a subordinate on how to perform all aspects of a specific task.

Treats Soldiers’ honest mistakes as things to avoid or prevent—not as opportunities to learn.

Underlying Causes Satisfied with the status quo; does not seek to improve the unit. Feels a lack of control when decisionmaking authority is delegated to subordinates. Has insufficient time to help subordinates think through problems. Has trouble trusting the judgment abilities of others. Feels that subordinates are not stepping up to take on new opportunities and challenges. Feels that mission success is compromised when decisionmaking is delegated to lower levels.


When presented with a new task, interview a handful of team members interested in the role. Select the best candidate.

At the beginning of a new task, hold a brainstorming session with team members to discuss possible solutions to obstacles currently impeding progress. Ask for opinions on how to remove obstacles.

Hold regular unit meetings to discuss internal operations and ongoing issues. Stress taking initiative, underwriting honest mistakes, and continuous improvement.

Periodically check-in with team members to ensure they are comfortable with their current task responsibilities. Ensure they do not feel overwhelmed making critical decisions.


Take a course or training on delegation and implement learned techniques on-duty. Consult a coach or mentor to discuss your delegating skills. Create a list of tangible practices

that you can incorporate on-duty. Observe a peer or superior who is adept at delegating responsibility to subordinates. Examine

their process for selecting subordinates and communicating responsibility and expectations. Allocate time to create an initiatives wish list that you as a leader would like to take on. Share the

list with team members and subordinates and discuss how to make wish list items a reality. Read a reference book or article to learn about effectively encouraging subordinates to exercise

initiative, accept responsibility, and take ownership. Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Supporting the Developing Leader; Creating

and Supporting Challenging Job Assignments; Enabling Subordinates Using Mission- Focused Delegation.


Use teams with diverse backgrounds and experience to attack new or complex problems and operations. Encourage trial and error for solutions that are not obvious.

Delegate stretch assignments to subordinates. Match the complexity of the task to the skill-level and potential of each person.

Monitor delegated tasks, but do not micromanage. Use progress-related milestones or reviews to ensure progress. Encourage subordinates to ask questions and discuss challenges.

Have subordinates define what taking initiative and ownership mean to them. Discuss their responses one-on-one and create or provide opportunities to help them develop.

Conduct periodic brainstorming sessions with subordinates to analyze likely problems the unit may face; guide the discussion as Soldiers think through problems and identify potential obstacles to taking initiative. Use this information to cultivate initiative and ownership.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-35

DEMONSTRATES CARE FOR FOLLOWER WELL-BEING 7-46. Army leaders should cultivate both physical and mental health by being both logical and clear-headed when making decisions. Leaders who emphasize mental and physical health and well-being inspire confidence in subordinates and set an example of how to balance the inherent stresses of both personal and professional life (see table 7-31). Reducing stress and improving physical fitness are excellent tactics for avoiding sickness, promoting mental clarity, and encouraging similar behavior in subordinates.

Table 7-31. Demonstrates care for follower well-being

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Ensures subordinates’ and their families’ health,

welfare, and development are provided for. Monitors morale and encourages honest feedback. Sets a personal example for colleagues. Nurtures long-term well-being through rigorous

training and preparation. Understands and nurtures individual subordinates’

intrinsic motivators. Tells a subordinate to go home when they have been

working long hours. Gives subordinate time off during the workday to take

care of family matters.

Unwilling to decline taskings even when the unit is overburdened or at the breaking point.

Fails to provide for family and individual support needs.

Takes credit for unit success or unfairly blames subordinates when failures are experienced.

Ignores morale indicators and promotes overly optimistic feedback.

Does not share in the hardships experienced by Soldiers.

Coddles subordinates with easy or comfortable training.

Underlying Causes Wishes to avoid controversial or critical decision-making. Wants to please, impress, and create a positive impression to superiors (such as not declining taskings). Focused on accomplishing the short-term mission without sufficient concern for the long-term needs and well-

being of Soldiers and their families. Expects more of subordinates than of oneself. Prizes personal relationships over the health, welfare, and safety of the organization. Expects that subordinates will be self-sufficient or capable of addressing issues independently.


Encourage peers and subordinates to share their candid opinions, reiterating that you welcome different perspectives.

Speak with the team and their families to determine how you can better serve them. Solicit feedback on specific issues that may be affecting morale. Seek assistance from

subordinates in developing a full understanding of the issues. Ask subordinates to explain the range of perspectives on an issue rather than only providing

their opinions. Discuss with the team how to improve training exercises to meet specific objectives. Seek feedback from trusted senior subordinates regarding their perceptions of unit welfare and

morale––including families. Identify potential stressors or factors negatively affecting the unit and work with subordinates to identify ways to address them.


Observe the behaviors of other leaders who you admire. Note how these leaders make difficult decisions that balance the welfare of Soldiers with mission accomplishment.

In addition to maintaining personal knowledge and awareness of Army programs, identify and investigate programs offered by local communities and social service organizations that may be of help to Soldiers and their families.

Regularly reflect upon your actions to balance the welfare of Soldiers and their families with mission accomplishment. When your actions fail to maintain this balance, reflect upon what motivated you to act as you did.

Question the value of training exercises. Are they rigorous for rigor’s sake or do they serve a specific objective, such as safer or more efficient operations?

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Seeking and Delivering Face-to-Face Feedback.

Chapter 7

7-36 FM 6-22

Table 7-31. Demonstrates care for follower well-being (continued)


Set aside social time with subordinates, peers, and their families. These activities can help develop compassion and provide insight for ways to help meet their needs.

Draft a statement of how you want the unit to be treated. When the unit’s treatment does not live up to your standards, list objectives for improvement to implement.

Create a record of each time you rebuke a peer or subordinate for failing to live up to set standards. In the record, include a memory of when you failed to meet the same standard.

Ask subordinates and peers to explain their understanding of the reasons for specific training exercises. If they understand the links among training, safety, and effectiveness, they will likely respect the rigor of their training.

ANTICIPATES PEOPLE’S DUTY NEEDS 7-47. To anticipate team member and subordinate on-duty needs, leaders should be aware of each individual’s responsibilities, duties, strengths, current workload, as well as their professional interests and goals (see table 7-32). In addition, leaders should become aware of subordinate strengths and developmental needs to provide a holistic understanding of both where the individual currently is and where they want to be. Attempt to match subordinates with tasks and opportunities that not only foster career and professional development, but that also align with their interests and motivations.

Table 7-32. Anticipates people’s duty needs

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Monitors subordinate’s current positions, duties,

strengths, and developmental needs for a performance baseline.

As part of formal counseling sessions or informal conversations with subordinates, discusses and verifies professional interests and goals.

Interacts with subordinates frequently to ensure roles and responsibilities are clear and satisfaction and morale are high.

Assigns roles based on members’ interests, motivation, strengths, and developmental needs against mission tasks.

Does not attempt to account for team member and subordinate developmental needs, professional interests, satisfaction, or morale in assigning positions or tasks.

Resources projects without a clear commitment to meet expectations within the required time.

Interacts with and observes staff infrequently. Just does it and does not analyze the mission and


Underlying Causes Assumes individuals have the same interests and motivators. Allocates insufficient time to become aware of subordinates' professional interests, motivation, strengths, and

developmental needs. Believes the role of a leader is to tell people what to do without telling them why. Overly focused on placing the mission first. Does not consider individual and unit morale when assigning individual and unit tasks.


Set aside time to ask subordinates to discuss their position responsibilities. Ensure their understanding of their responsibilities is the same as yours. Reconcile any differences through conversations with the subordinate.

Conduct periodic meetings with trusted staff to discuss and gather feedback regarding unit morale and ways to better anticipate the on-duty needs of unit staff.

Conduct debriefs after mission completion to compare the performance with the indicators of success and failure, discuss learning opportunities, and focus on problem-solving regarding any mistakes made.

Have periodic discussions with subordinates to discuss their current positions, duties, and professional interests and goals, and how well their current duties are aligned with their professional goals.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-37

Table 7-32. Anticipates people’s duty needs (continued)


Assess current positions against the mission to identify tasks, knowledge, skills, and abilities the mission requires and are likely to develop.

Determine whether any additional support will be needed, such as resources, a mentor, or extra time to complete the task.

Identify and provide resources to team members and subordinates, such as aids and decision support tools, to help make task achievement easier and more stress-free.

During normal operations, observe team members and subordinates performing their duties to gauge motivation and morale levels as they perform their duties.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: The Leader's Role in Providing On-the-Job Learning and Support or Out of Time: Managing Competing Demands.


Assign roles only after considering the unit member’s strengths, developmental needs, and professional interests against mission tasks. Assign challenging roles that will help with growth, development, and gaining confidence in their skills.

Communicate expectations to unit members about tasks. Be upfront about intentions of why this is a learning opportunity.

Create opportunities for on-duty learning by pairing team experts with novices. Weigh the criticality and time available to accomplish tasks. Time permitting, adjust the pace and

personnel involved to balance individual development with meeting objectives.

SETS AND MAINTAINS HIGH EXPECTATIONS FOR INDIVIDUALS AND TEAMS 7-48. Leaders sometimes focus considerable energy on annual performance reviews and do not give sufficient attention to providing guidance and establishing expectations during the course of a rating period.

7-49. Providing direction and setting expectations are crucial to getting the best results and promoting professional and career development. When setting expectations with team members and subordinates, make sure that stated expectations are connected to unit objectives and mission, clearly expressed, and mutually agreed upon (see table 7-33).

Table 7-33. Sets and maintains high expectations for individuals and teams

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Clearly articulates expectations for subordinates and

teams. Expects good performance and does not accept poor

performance. Provides recognition of superior performance. Identifies poor performance and attempts to

understand and address its cause. Speaks frequently with the individual or unit regarding

their ability to meet the standard. Ensures that expectations relate clearly to unit goals,

objectives, and mission.

Only sets expectations once per year during the subordinate’s performance review.

Speaks infrequently with team members regarding how they meet expectations and standards.

Determines expectations for subordinates without discussion or consultation.

Does not communicate individual and team expectations.

Provides expectations to subordinates or teams during the task rather than at the beginning.

Underlying Causes Feels uncomfortable discussing areas for improvement and delivering feedback. Is unclear what expectations for team members and subordinates at different levels should look like. Has not allocated appropriate time to speaking with individuals or teams regarding expectations. Believes the unit leader should articulate expectations to unit members rather than obtaining acceptance and

buy-in from unit members regarding the expectations. Does not clearly understand how expectations of subordinates and teams relate to the unit's mission.

Chapter 7

7-38 FM 6-22

Table 7-33. Sets and maintains high expectations for individuals and teams (continued)


Have a peer review the performance expectations you developed for subordinates or team leaders. Tell them to review the document with a critical eye to ensure that it is reasonable given the current environment of the Army.

Discuss unit expectations and assign stretch tasks to willing individuals or teams. When assigning the tasks, ensure the individuals can visualize how to achieve the goals. If they cannot visualize how to achieve the goals, they will not be able to define a path forward.

Periodically assess how the measurement of performance expectations is going. Ensure that the data and measures accurately assess performance against expectations.


Study other organizations’ performance expectations in the military, public, and private sectors and develop a list of best practices based on what you learned.

Ensure that you have a firm understanding of the organization’s mission and goals. Also, ensure that you understand and can discuss the unit’s mission and goals. This should function as a refresher for you to make sure you are on the right page.

Examine if the unit has a process for goal setting, evaluation, feedback, and accountability that lets team members and subordinates know how they are doing.

Research how to develop clear, challenging, and achievable goals; discuss with unit members. Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Creating and Supporting Challenging Job

Assignments; Creating and Promulgating a Vision of the Future.


Develop expectations for subordinates together. This should not be a management-only task. Develop useful measures for performance expectations agreed upon by the entire team.

Measures should be consistent for all subordinates and teams and should assess capabilities related to the task.

Encourage team members and subordinates to stretch themselves to reach for new goals during their performance review. Ask yourself how you know it is a stretch.

Make sure that definitions of the performance expectations are clear and not open to interpretation. Remember to make them specific and write them down.

Develop a clear rewards and recognition system. Recognition should communicate the expectations from team members and subordinates for behaviors and conduct.

PREPARES SELF 7-50. Leaders ensure they are prepared to execute their leadership responsibilities fully. They are aware of their limitations and strengths and seek to develop themselves. Leaders maintain physical fitness and mental well-being. They continue to improve the domain knowledge required of their leadership roles and their profession. Only through continuous preparation for missions and other challenges, being aware of self and situations, and practicing life-long learning and development can an individual fulfill the responsibilities of leadership. This competency has seven components:

Maintains mental and physical health and well-being. Expands knowledge of technical, technological, and tactical areas. Expands conceptual and interpersonal capabilities. Analyzes and organizes information to create knowledge. Maintains relevant cultural awareness. Maintains relevant geopolitical awareness. Maintains self-awareness: employs self-understanding and recognizes effect on others.

MAINTAINS MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH AND WELL-BEING 7-51. Army leaders cultivate comprehensive fitness through both physical and mental health and make logical and clear-headed decisions (see table 7-34). They inspire confidence in their followers and set the example of how to balance the inherent stresses of both personal and professional life. Reducing stress and improving physical fitness are tactics for avoiding sickness, promoting mental clarity, and encouraging similar outcomes in others.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-39

Table 7-34. Maintains mental and physical health and well-being

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Recognizes imbalance or inappropriateness of

personal actions. Removes emotions from decisionmaking. Seeks work and life balance. Applies logic and reason to make decisions when

interacting with emotionally-charged individuals. Recognizes the sources of stress and maintains

appropriate levels of challenge to motivate self. Takes part in regular exercise, leisure activities, and

time away from routine work. Stays focused on life priorities and values.

Avoids physical activity. Frequently abandons sleep for other activities. Perpetuates a deadline-based environment that

leaves no time for relaxation. Engages in unhealthy eating or drinking habits. Uses tobacco products or misuses legal or illegal

drugs or other substances. Allows personal emotions to drive decisions or guide

responses to emotionally charged situations. Tries to deny, ignore, or push through stress.

Underlying Causes Overwhelmed by workload or responsibility. Poor time management. Keeps emotions contained and does not find opportunities to release them. Lack of experience in new position tasks. Believes that being a Soldier or leader means being able to endure or be immune to high stress levels.


Get periodic health examinations to assess indicators of physical health and stress, as well as lifestyle factors that may affect physical and mental health. Obtain guidance on corrective actions from healthcare and diet professionals.

Ask a trusted leader for feedback on your performance in handling emotionally-charged issues or decisions. Are you able to remain logical and objective, or do emotions drive decisions? How might you handle these situations better?

Use a trusted family member or friend as an advisor for feedback on your perception and interpretation of events as well as your plans and intended actions.


Observe the behaviors of other leaders you admire. How do they handle their stress? Make a list of the methods they use that you would like to try.

Reflect on an incident where stress disrupted your performance. How could you have dealt with the stress better? Consider a high-pressure incident that you handled well. What allowed you to deal effectively with the stress?

Analyze your diet by keeping a dietary journal over a one-week period. Identify unhealthy foods (such as high fat, salt, or calories) and healthier alternatives to adopt.

Reflect on values and priorities to build a clear sense of direction and perspective. Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: The Value of Self-Awareness


Exercise for 30 minutes or more several times per week. Make aerobic exercise or sport a main component of personal exercise to maintain cardiovascular health and reduce stress. Maintain interest by including favorite sports, exercise with friends, and variety.

Make time every day to organize personal activities. Use lists to prioritize what to do, track progress, identify accomplishments, and practice time management.

Socialize with others, and maintain friendships. Find a trusted family member or friend to serve as an advisor, someone with whom you can

discuss concerns and issues. Reduce or eliminate alcohol and tobacco consumption.

EXPANDS KNOWLEDGE OF TECHNICAL, TECHNOLOGICAL, AND TACTICAL AREAS 7-52. Technical knowledge consists of specialized understanding of a particular function or system. Army leaders are responsible for leveraging both individual and collective specialized knowledge to complete the mission. They must expand their skills in technical, technological, and tactical areas. This requires an understanding of how functional components relate as well as the requirements for training and logistical planning to support technical operations. Army leaders capitalize on opportunities to share knowledge across an organization, especially to use their subordinate’s knowledge to educate others on technical and tactical

Chapter 7

7-40 FM 6-22

details (see table 7-35). Army leaders also must maintain awareness of new trends and emerging technologies that are available and their application.

Table 7-35. Expands knowledge of technical, technological, and tactical areas

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Seeks knowledge of systems, equipment,

capabilities, and situations, particularly information technology systems.

Encourages understanding of systems. Considers how systems affect doctrine, tactics,

organizational design, training, related material, personnel, and facilities.

Embraces efforts that share knowledge across and between organizations.

Encourages subordinates to share their specialized skills and knowledge.

Adapts to new technologies, learning capabilities and shortcomings technical systems offer.

Does not locate and attend to information on new trends, developments, ideas, and technologies that are relevant to or provide context for organizational requirements.

Views equipment and technologies in isolation without understanding how they integrate or combine to operate as a system.

Sees no personal need to understand technology and technological developments.

Hinders the exchange of knowledge between personnel in the organization.

Overemphasizes or relies on a single tactic or technical approach that has worked in the past.

Underlying Causes View technologies only as their individual components; not practiced in systems thinking. Tries to avoid time and expense required to share or grow technical or tactical knowledge. Is not comfortable with team changes brought on by knowledge sharing and innovation. Is dubious about piloting new technologies or standards. Comfortable with status quo; hesitant to change a proven process or system.


Seek testing and certification in relevant technologies and apply technological competencies. Practice tactics and technologies to address organizational requirements or mission. After each

significant attempt, capture the lessons of the experience to guide future attempts. Request that technical staff provide their suggestions on operational and planning details. Request that other technical teams provide updates on their progress and challenges to identify

areas that might be able to build collaboration.


Read or engage in technical discussions to understand how components and processes combine to create systems and how to optimally design and employ these systems.

Attend briefings, meetings, or courses that address pertinent technologies including the effective uses and limitations of those technologies.

Capitalize on opportunities to share technical or tactical information with your team. Run a professional development interest group or forum that focuses on exchanging information and keeping up to date on technical and tactical developments.

Engage in a professional reading program that includes books and journals that report on tactical and technological developments and their employment to address operational requirements.


Employ technologies, organization, people, and processes as an integrated system to produce desired outcomes.

List technological knowledge and skills key to individual performance and the functioning of the organization. Implement a method for acquiring and disseminating information about developments in these areas.

Organize a session among technical staff from the organization or across similar organizations to share ideas and knowledge.

List pros and cons of new technologies or tactics to reason out effects of a new system. Look for ways to test new ideas and technologies in organization operations; incorporate

effective innovations into the organization’s business processes. This approach supports the goal of continuous organizational improvement.

EXPANDS CONCEPTUAL AND INTERPERSONAL CAPABILITIES 7-53. Conceptual abilities enable sound judgment; help Army leaders think creatively; and permit leaders to reason analytically, critically, ethically, and with cultural sensitivity. Army leaders consider intended and

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-41

unintended consequences and anticipate the results and consequences of important decisions on people and mission. To expand conceptual and interpersonal capabilities, Army leaders use opportunities to improve reasoning and problem-solving skills and to implement the best solution for the unit (see table 7-36).

Table 7-36. Expands conceptual and interpersonal capabilities

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Applies lessons learned to avoid repeating mistakes

and guide future actions. Filters unnecessary information efficiently. Sets aside time for self-development, reflection, and

personal growth. Understands and appropriately employs critical

thinking, imagination, and problem solving under different task conditions.

Learns new approaches to problem solving.

Uses limited approaches to problem solving. Accepts problem situations at face value; does not

examine them critically or fully; ignores system influences and interactions.

Goes with the first solution that might work even if time permits thorough solution development.

Becomes overwhelmed and frustrated by the number of details of a situation.

Uses a scattered approach to thinking through problems and developing solutions.

Underlying Causes Perceived lack of interest or time to learn or engage in critical and creative thinking and problem solving. Fears the risk of failure when opportunities to be innovative present themselves. Does not see the benefit of personal reflection and thought. Perceives a lack of time for self-development, reflection, and personal growth. Is dubious about piloting new ideas or approaches to solving problems.


As you lead a team in complex problem solving, use a skilled problem solver to observe and provide feedback on the team’s methods, processes, communications, and dynamics.

Seek multiple perspectives and ideas from superiors, peers, subordinates, or others outside the organization to get a holistic view of a problem.

Meet with team members to discuss alternate approaches to solving a problem or issue. Actively brainstorm ideas and encourage divergent thinking to develop creative solutions.

Ask for performance feedback as a member of a planning or problem solving team.


Observe a leader strong at implementing conceptual skills and models. Ask key questions about developing skill at conceptualizing problems and applying critical and creative thinking.

Volunteer to be part of a project team addressing a complex issue requiring a creative solution. While working, observe the methods and processes used by the team and reflect on their effectiveness and possible improvements.

Read references on how to expand conceptual and analytical skills, such as concept mapping, divergent thinking, systems thinking, or the military decisionmaking process.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Leadership Decision Making, The Value of Self-Awareness, or Beyond People Skills: Leveraging Your Understanding of Others.


Use reflective journaling as an aid for developing critical and creative thinking. Purposefully test new approaches and ideas for problem solving as the mission allows. Note

which methods work best for different types of problems and circumstances. Incorporate lessons learned into processes. When providing guidance, identify known areas in

need of improvement and have others determine how to avoid the same mistakes. Identify comprehensive, detailed solutions that account for multiple variables.

ANALYZES AND ORGANIZES INFORMATION TO CREATE KNOWLEDGE 7-54. Army leaders prepare themselves for leadership positions through life-long learning, which involves study and reflection in how best to acquire new knowledge (see table 7-37). Becoming a better learner involves several steps including planning a learning approach, focusing on specific and achievable learning goals, setting aside time to study, organizing new information as it is encountered, and tracking progress.

Chapter 7

7-42 FM 6-22

Table 7-37. Analyzes and organizes information to create knowledge

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Analyzes and synthesizes relevant source

information, sees implications, and draws conclusions.

Reflects on learning; organizes insights for future application.

Identifies reliable sources of data and other resources to acquire knowledge.

Implements strategies to learn new information faster and more thoroughly.

Considers source, quality or relevance, and criticality of information to improve understanding.

Draws conclusions based on limited facts or an incomplete understanding of an issue.

Organizes data for personal use rather than sharing resources.

Does not document information sources. Ignores connections between pieces of information. Accepts information and assertions without critical

review or thought to see if it makes sense.

Underlying Causes Lacks a mental structure or frame of reference to organize, connect, and make sense of information. Assumes that sources are reliable without cross-referencing or checking them. Does not have the time to review newly learned information and organize it for future application. Applies past approaches and current knowledge rather than gain new knowledge and expanded perspectives. Does not understand how to determine or implement a plan or strategy for knowledge acquisition and sharing.


Describe your understanding (such as facts, relationships, or mental models) of an important topic with a topical expert. Seek feedback on the completeness and accuracy of your understanding and advice on how to improve it further.

Apply your understanding of a topic to predict emerging or anticipated events and their outcomes. Later compare predictions to actual outcomes and reflect on incorrect predictions: what information was misinterpreted or misapplied, what information was lacking, how to become better informed, and how to modify your mental models?

Talk with experts in an area of interest who can provide recommendations on new resources or sources of knowledge relevant to the topic. Have them discuss how they used that information and translated it into practice.


Read about methods of studying and reading to build understanding and insight. Investigate methods of categorizing and relating information to build mental models and systems

understanding. Get instruction on how to conduct library and internet research to find relevant information Discuss, with an expert in an area of interest, methods, and criteria for evaluating the validity and

usefulness of information. Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Leadership Decision Making; The Value of



Develop a personal action plan that identifies personal information needs, how to obtain the information, and how you will study and synthesize it to produce needed knowledge and insights.

Organize information and data as it is obtained. Do this by consciously looking for themes, principles, and connections. Make a concept map showing these elements and connections, then use this map as a way of organizing and making sense of newly acquired information.

Develop a system for organizing, categorizing, integrating, and retrieving information that you need and use. This may involve filing, note taking, or databases. To organize and share information with others, consider online collaboration tools or interest groups.

Use reviews to gather and make sense of important information from organizational events.

MAINTAINS RELEVANT CULTURAL AWARENESS 7-55. In today’s contemporary operational environment, it is critical for Army leaders to understand the culture in which they operate including awareness of partners, neutral parties, and adversaries. Army leaders must be mindful of cultural factors that may influence members of their unit, multinational partners, host nations and the local populace. Culturally astute leaders are able to more effectively utilize resources and complete the mission (see table 7-38).

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-43

Table 7-38. Maintains relevant cultural awareness

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Studies issues such as language, values, customs,

ideas, beliefs, and patterns of thinking that influence self and others.

Takes advantage of opportunities to expand knowledge of different cultures and languages.

Stays current on cultural issues that contribute to successes or shortcomings in working with multinational partners and host nation citizens.

Stays aware of current events, particularly those of international interest.

Fails to maintain an awareness of the effect culture factors can have on outcomes.

Relies on tactical solutions without consideration of cultural influences.

Views other cultures as inferior to own culture. Makes little or no attempt to learn about the cultures

of adversaries and allies.

Underlying Causes Underestimates, or fails to recognize, the influence that culture can play in shaping a person's values,

behavior, ideas, beliefs, and patterns of thinking. Too busy to learn from previous encounters when cultural issues helped shape events. Personal way of thinking about culture and its influence on mission success is not aligned with Army doctrine. Believes that forces from partner nations will think and act like U.S. forces.


Connect with an individual with whom you are comfortable from a different culture and discuss the social norms, mores, and expectations of their culture. Have the individual provide you with feedback on the degree of your cultural knowledge and sensitivity.

Share what you have learned about other cultures with peers and subordinates. Encourage them to ask questions and provide insights related to your experiences.

Take knowledge and skill tests as part of a formal language or culture-related course.


Read about cultural awareness and the role that cross-cultural proficiency plays in influence and work across cultures, especially related to military operations.

Read novels or short stories placed in and written by authors from cultures of interest. Join a club or professional association that fosters and encourages cross-cultural contact and

understanding. Study a foreign language through a college, professional association, or computer-based

learning opportunities. Seek information on the accompanying cultural norms and expectations.

Take courses or engage in independent study of cultural anthropology, comparative religion, and other similar culture-spanning topics.

Set aside a few hours each week dedicated to reading the news, paying particular attention to areas where America has national interests.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Seeking and Incorporating Diverse Ideas.


Consider subordinates’ cultural backgrounds. Think about using a subordinate’s particular background or experiences to increase the understanding and awareness of others and to accomplish the mission.

Take advantage of cultural and language training courses and other learning opportunities. Discuss current cultural issues with subordinates and with other leaders. What effects do

current issues have on unit effectiveness? What effect could they have in the future? Consider the historical evolution of other cultures and the functions that different elements of the

culture serve in preserving the society. Make a personal inventory of your own opinions and create actionable steps to eliminate any

obstacles you face that impede greater understanding of different people.

MAINTAINS RELEVANT GEOPOLITICAL AWARENESS 7-56. Today’s military leaders are expected to operate in a variety of physical and cultural environments worldwide. To be prepared for worldwide deployment, military leaders must stay current on events and national policies around the world that may affect national interests or potentially lead to military intervention. This requires an understanding of American interests; an appreciation of international, political, and military processes; and study of relevant news from around the world (see table 7-39 on page 7-44).

Chapter 7

7-44 FM 6-22

Table 7-39. Maintains relevant geopolitical awareness

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Learns about societies, news, and events outside

America through self-study. Can describe America’s effects on other countries. Applies understanding of Army influences on other

countries, multinational partners, and opposing forces in support of the mission.

Understands factors that influence conflict and peacekeeping, peace enforcing, and peacemaking missions.

Explains the implications and possible outcomes of geopolitical events to team members.

Demonstrates lack of awareness or concern for geopolitical issues and their relevance to military operations.

Views military solutions as involving only the application of military power.

Unaware of other American government agencies’ contributions to planning and operations.

Views countries as disconnected rather than mutually influencing components of a global system.

Underlying Causes Unwilling or unskilled in using influence and negotiation to achieve mission objectives. Embraces a limited and simplistic view of the scope of military objectives and methods. Unaware of the influence and intricacies of the global political network. Has trouble relating to other cultures or believes that personal culture is superior. Views political issues, considerations, and behaviors as unsavory.


Discuss geopolitical events with knowledgeable individuals to test personal perceptions and understanding of related facts and implications.

When reviewing the effectiveness of mission performance or training events related to peacekeeping, peace enforcing, and peacemaking, examine the actual or likely political outcomes of decisions and unit’s actions.

Meet with the team to brainstorm creative solutions to any challenges the unit is facing or likely to face because of geopolitical events.


Get in the habit of reading newspapers, news magazines, or online news sources. Make a point to seek out news on societal and political issues around the world.

Research the cultures, physical resources, geography, histories, aspirations, policies, and geopolitical climates of the countries likely to affect national interests.

Consider how other nations and cultures are reacting to current geopolitical events. How are other militaries acting or reacting?

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Seeking and Incorporating Diverse Ideas


Lead group discussions on current geopolitical events. Consider questions such as: What driving factors are causing international conflicts? What cultures are involved? What role might the Army play in mitigating or resolving these conflicts?

When making military decisions or planning military operations, consider how the methods and outcomes may affect American interests and international perceptions.

MAINTAINS SELF-AWARENESS 7-57. Self-aware leaders know themselves, including their traits, feelings, and behaviors. They employ self- understanding and recognize their effect on others. Self-aware leaders recognize their strengths and developmental needs across a range of environments and progressively use this knowledge to develop a clear, honest picture of capabilities and limitations (see table 7-40). Leaders must be flexible and adaptable by constantly assessing abilities and limitations in the context of mission requirements.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-45

Table 7-40. Maintains self-awareness

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Actively evaluates one’s strengths and

developmental needs. Learns from mistakes and makes corrections; learns

from experience. Considers feedback on performance, outcomes

associated with actions, and actions taken by others to achieve similar goals.

Determines personal goals and creates a path to achieve those goals.

Develops capabilities and seeks opportunities to improve in areas in need of development.

Understands self-motivation under various conditions.

Unclear on personal and professional values, priorities, and objectives.

Is uncomfortable with the status quo; has no developmental direction or goals.

Not attentive to the reaction of others. Completes tasks and moves on without reflecting on

what went well and what could go better next time.

Rejects or lacks interest in feedback.

Underlying Causes Fearful of identifying personal developmental needs or the effort required to resolve them. Does not think personal improvement is necessary. Disconnected or aloof from team members and subordinates. Not practiced or in the habit of self-observation, analysis, and reflection. Has personal blind spots or biases that block or distort self-observation, analysis, and reflection.


Seek feedback openly and actively by sitting down and informally talking with the team members and subordinates.

Take a multi-source (360-degree) assessment, such as the Army’s Multi-Source Assessment and Feedback instrument.

Discuss one of your recent accomplishments or setbacks with a coach, friend, or other trusted individual who can provide you with honest feedback and encouragement.

Analyze personal behaviors, performance, and interests to identify strengths and developmental needs. Share them with a trusted family member or associate and ask for their feedback.


Keep an experience journal. Reflect on successful and unsuccessful situations. Write about events and describe what happened, how you reacted, how others reacted, and why. What can you learn about yourself based on what you did and how you felt?

Self-analyze the gaps between your actual and desired self. Investigate ways that you can close those gaps using training, coaching, mentoring, books, and other learning materials.

Analyze the actions of others in a variety of events. Think about the situations leading to the events, behaviors, and apparent motives during the events, and consequences or outcomes.

Take time for personal reflection during your daily routine. Consider your recent thoughts and behaviors and how they relate to your values, priorities, and goals.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Seeking and Incorporating Diverse Ideas; Achieving Shared Understanding; The Art of Asking Questions; Building Working Relationships Across Boundaries; The Value of Self-Awareness; Seeking and Delivering Face-to-Face Feedback; Building Trust; Navigating Contentious Conversations; Beyond People Skills: Leveraging Your Understanding of Others.


Take a multi-source (360-degree) assessment, such as the Army’s Multi-Source Assessment and Feedback instrument. Multi-source assessments collect data from peers, subordinates, superiors, and you to provide information on strengths and developmental needs.

Create an individual development plan that identifies strengths and developmental needs and the activities to practice to achieve objectives.

After important meetings or encounters, reflect on your statements and behaviors and their apparent effect on others. Reflect on your reactions to statements and behaviors.

Find a coach to guide you through self-improvement. Good coaches know how to effectively collect and digest feedback and make it relevant and specific to you.

Chapter 7

7-46 FM 6-22

DEVELOPS OTHERS 7-58. Leaders encourage and support others to grow as individuals and teams. They facilitate the achievement of organizational goals through assisting others to develop. They prepare others to assume new positions elsewhere in the organization, making the organization more versatile and productive. This competency has four components:

Assesses developmental needs of others. Counsels, coaches, and mentors. Facilitates ongoing development. Builds team skills and processes.

ASSESSES DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS OF OTHERS 7-59. Regular counseling and evaluation of subordinates allows leaders to have a greater knowledge of their capabilities—including their strengths and limitations. This knowledge can help optimize Soldier and unit performance (via improved staffing decisions)—it demonstrates to Soldiers that leaders care about their performance and their development. Investing time and resources into team members’ and subordinates’ developmental needs fosters enhanced well-being for the individual and leads to improved unit and Army performance as a whole (see table 7-41).

Table 7-41. Assesses developmental needs of others

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Identifies subordinate internal drivers and uses those

motivators to analyze developmental needs. Gathers information about a subordinate’s

development needs from multiple sources. Reviews assessments or reports about a

subordinate’s interests or capabilities. Observes and monitors subordinates under different

conditions. Helps subordinates develop individual development


Gathers information about a subordinate’s performance from only one source or only a few points in time.

Assesses Soldiers on a small number of performance dimensions or competencies.

Reviews only one completed assessment or report. Takes notice of subordinates only when challenged. Generalizes subordinates’ leadership patterns,

strengths, and developmental needs based on limited observation.

Underlying Causes Does not allocate the necessary time to get to know subordinates and understand their developmental needs. Too busy to actively monitor subordinate performance on the full range of performance competencies. Lacks a clear understanding of the subordinates' position requirements. Uncomfortable delivering constructive feedback. Time pressures hinder ability to provide immediate feedback. Views an individual's continuous development as a low-ranking priority.


Hold development discussions with subordinates at least once every three months. Integrate these discussions into the normal duty hours.

Communicate to people that their work is important, even if it just means simply saying, “Thank you, I appreciate your hard work.”

Be open and tactfully forthright with people when discriminating between the developmental needs of subordinates. Make decisions in the best interest of the Army.

Elicit input and feedback from subordinates on unit developmental needs.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-47

Table 7-41. Assesses developmental needs of others (continued)


Become familiar with personal and career goals of subordinates, as appropriate. Become knowledgeable of the roles, responsibilities, and requirements of subordinates’ duties

with which you are less familiar. This allows you to have a better understanding of what right looks like so you can better evaluate your Soldiers.

During a usual workday, analyze the organization’s overall approach to managing multiple priorities. How does this approach affect subordinates and their developmental needs?

Observe another leader’s behaviors during analysis of a subordinate’s developmental needs. Analyze the communication skills used. Record the types of questions asked, language used, balance between positive and negative feedback, and time spent listening vice delivering feedback.

Read a reference book or learn from listed resources. Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Counseling and Coaching Videos.


Allocate time during the duty day to help subordinates create and implement an individual development plan. Be sure to have subordinates identify only one or two concrete goals at a time to build confidence and decrease frustration with vague, overly ambitious goals.

Set up an office hour each week during which subordinates can freely come to talk with you about their developmental needs.

Spend time each day among your Soldiers to observe their performance first-hand, talk with them about their duties, give immediate feedback, and talk with noncommissioned officers and junior officers in a good position to observe Soldier performance. This demonstrates to Soldiers that their performance is a priority.

COUNSELS, COACHES, AND MENTORS 7-60. Counseling, coaching, and mentoring stand as the principal ways by which leaders provide others with knowledge and feedback. Counseling occurs when leaders review with the subordinate their demonstrated performance and potential; coaching occurs when you guide another’s development in new or existing skills during the practice of those skills; and mentoring occurs when you have greater experience than a mentee and guide and advise the mentee in their professional growth (see table 7-42).

Table 7-42. Counsels, coaches, and mentors

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Sets up regular counseling, coaching, or mentoring

sessions with subordinates. Clearly defines the purpose of a counseling,

coaching, or mentoring session. Encourages subordinates through actions while

guiding them. Helps an individual understand the current level of

performance; Instructs and guides on how to reach the next level of knowledge and skill.

Candidly discusses a subordinate’s strengths, developmental needs, and the courses of action to improve.

Inconsistently or infrequently sets up counseling sessions.

Counsels or mentors only those subordinates considered to have the most potential.

Uses a one-size-fits-all mentality when designing counseling, coaching, and mentoring sessions.

Fails to provide coaching and feedback during the workday—provides feedback only during scheduled sessions.

Avoids providing negative feedback. Talks at subordinates instead of with subordinates. Displays personal biases (such as likes, dislikes, or

prejudices) and judges too rashly. Underlying Causes

Busy with other duties (such as completing the mission) so that coaching, counseling, and mentoring have a lower priority.

Allocates insufficient time for counseling, coaching, and mentoring sessions. Does not see value in spending time and resources on counseling, coaching, or mentoring subordinates

perceived as having little potential. Avoids personal conflict with subordinates; has difficulty telling subordinates things they may not want to hear. Does not want to impose on subordinates' time with frequent follow-up calls or emails.

Chapter 7

7-48 FM 6-22

Table 7-42. Counsels, coaches, and mentors (continued)


Ask peers about helpful training or learning materials they have experienced, whether it is civilian or military. Determine what they specifically found to be beneficial.

Determine subordinates’ attitudes toward counseling, coaching, and mentoring. If viewed negatively or as resources for the weak, set out a plan for changing that perception.

Contact other units and find out how they have instituted and structured their counseling, coaching, or mentoring programs. Document this information and share it with the unit.

Have a discussion with someone you have counseled, coached, or mentored in the past. Ask them to provide feedback on what you did right and what you could improve on.


Identify individuals who served as counselors, coaches, and mentors to you. Document the actions they took to help you develop; identify those actions that were beneficial and analyze why that was the case.

Study and read about counseling, coaching, or mentoring relationships in other, non-Army fields. Identify the qualities that counselors, coaches, and mentors in these fields exhibit and determine how you can best apply them.

Next time you counsel, coach, or mentor a subordinate, take a moment following the session to record what you did and how the subordinate reacted. Reflect on your actions and the subordinate’s responses to identify actions that could have used to improve the session.

Actively observe how other leaders provide effective (or ineffective) coaching and feedback. Determine what could improve the effectiveness of the coaching or feedback.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Supporting the Developing Leader; Every Leader as a Coach; Counseling and Coaching Videos.


Schedule time to contact subordinates you counsel, coach, or mentor to regularly check-in and support their development. Consider sending an email as simple as “How’s everything going? Let’s catch up.”

Seek out on-duty or in-the-moment opportunities to reinforce or coach on specific issues, making links to broader developmental goals for that individual.

Emphasize to subordinates the benefits of taking time to engage in developmental activities. Focus on the benefits it provides to both the unit and to the Army.

Spend time walking around the unit each day. This provides opportunities to observe and providing immediate feedback and coaching to subordinates.

Facilitate a unit culture that values feedback and coaching by evaluating subordinates (such as junior noncommissioned officers or officers) on the feedback and coaching they provide.

FACILITATES ONGOING DEVELOPMENT 7-61. As a learning institution, the Army seeks to continuously shape and develop their leaders to learn and adapt as conditions and operational environments evolve. Leaders must instill in subordinates a thirst for knowledge and continued development and must support them throughout the process (see table 7-43).

Table 7-43. Facilitates ongoing development

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Maintains awareness of existing individual and

organizational development programs. Nominates and encourages subordinates to take

advantage of developmental opportunities. Arranges opportunities to help subordinates improve

self-awareness, and competence. Pushes tasks and decisions down to the lowest

practical level to develop subordinates’ capabilities and decisionmaking confidence.

Identifies and removes obstacles to development. Provides subordinates with (or directs them to) the

necessary resources for development.

Fails to stay up-to-date on individual and organizational development programs.

Displays ambivalence towards opportunities for self- development.

Selects only some subordinates to take advantage of developmental opportunities.

Adopts an “I’ll do it all” mentality—failing to identify tasks for delegation.

Ignores obstacles to development.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-49

Table 7-43. Facilitates ongoing development (continued)

Underlying Causes Unable to devote time to stay up-to-date on individual and organizational development programs. Feels that the organization will suffer if too many members are engaged in developmental activities. Feels that individual development should be left up to the individual. Believes that mission or task effectiveness might suffer through delegation. Is not personally affected by developmental obstacles so treats them as if they do not exist.


Ask unit members to help identify any obstacles to development that exist. Request that they provide recommendations for eliminating the identified obstacles.

Talk with subordinates you counsel, coach, or mentor. Ask what you can do to support their development and what you can do better to support unit development.

Have a conversation with a superior about how well you are supporting development. Then ask them to share successful tips and tricks they have learned.

Talk with a leader from another organization about ways to facilitate ongoing development. Share what you learned with your unit.

Ask trusted unit members how supportive they think you and the organizational leadership are of training and development activities that occur during the workday and self-development that takes place on personal time.


Allocate time to research development programs available to your subordinates. Recommend specific programs to individuals based on their developmental needs.

Investigate the development practices of other organizations (such as sister Services or private sector companies) and incorporate their techniques if possible.

Add leader development indicators to the unit training brief. Have subordinate units track and report on indicators of the health of leader development like other key unit systems (such as training, maintenance, and budget).

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: The Leader's Role in Providing On-the-Job Learning and Support; Supporting the Developing Leader; Creating and Supporting Challenging Job Assignments; Every Leader as a Coach; Enabling Subordinates Using Mission-Focused Delegation; Counseling and Coaching Videos.


Encourage subordinates of the same position to form a community-of-practice group and allocate training time to support them. Provide each group with an opportunity to present recommendations from their group to the leadership team.

Encourage subordinates to hold others accountable for self-development, inquiring after development goals and actions and providing targeted feedback.

Encourage other leaders and subordinates to use reflective journaling. Emphasize how it leads to greater self-awareness and serves as a reference for passing along lessons learned to others during times of transition or promotion.

Hold brown bag lunches about various leadership and leader development topics. Solicit input from other leaders and subordinates regarding topics they would like to learn more about. Ask volunteers to present during the sessions.

Have a subordinate help complete a task or make a decision to build confidence and competence.

Encourage subordinates to support one another (as peers) during the implementation of their individual development plans.

BUILDS TEAM SKILLS AND PROCESSES 7-62. Building team skills and processes means that leaders inspire, motivate, and guide others toward accomplishing a common goal through cooperative efforts (see table 7-44). Effective cooperation and communication in (and between) teams facilitates unit success. Indeed, no single person, squad, platoon, company, battalion, or brigade ever won a war; it was the collaboration and teamwork at and between each level that enabled mission success.

Chapter 7

7-50 FM 6-22

Table 7-44. Builds team skills and processes

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Presents challenging assignments that require team

interaction and cooperation. Sustains and improves the relationships among team

members. Facilitates effective and ongoing communication

between team members. Provides realistic, mission-oriented training. Provides feedback on team processes. Emphasizes the importance of working together to

achieve a “common purpose.”

Presents assignments that do not stretch the team beyond their comfort zones.

Provides minimal resources and support. Fails to spend sufficient time on group dynamics and

relationships. Focuses on the efforts and successes of individual

subordinates. Conducts training exercises, but never provides

teamwork-specific feedback. Fails to prioritize team goals over individual goals.

Underlying Causes Does not have the time or desire to help teams accomplish challenging assignments. More comfortable and experience teaching through lecture than through experiential activities. Unaware of the importance of providing teamwork-specific feedback. Feels that encouraging individual achievement is a more effective motivator than providing feedback and

targeting motivation to groups or teams. Does not communicate the importance of teamwork.


Ask subordinates about activities they engage in outside of the Army that require teamwork. Then compile these examples, and share any best practices with the unit.

Use an open-ended questionnaire to survey the unit and determine how well you are supporting team building and the improvement of group skills and processes. Use the answers to determine what is working well, what is not working, and how to enhance team performance.

Following a training exercise, incorporate feedback specifically related to teamwork and skill building as part of the review.

Whenever you conduct a training exercise, ensure that you reference the teamwork lessons learned when speaking with the unit. Reinforce lessons learned to ensure the unit remembers the role of teamwork in the activities they complete.


Assess how well you interact with other leaders as part of a team. Although the command structure specifies the accountable individual in an Army team, are you soliciting input from lower-ranking team members and making them feel like their input is valued.

Observe another leader engaging in a team-building exercise with their unit. Record the activities they perform and the feedback about what teams did well and what needs improvement.

Study how teamwork and team building is used in other organizations or in other fields (such as sports teams or business organizations). Then document tips and strategies that stand out to you that could be adapted for unit use.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Rapid Team Stand-up: How to Build Your Team ASAP, Building Working Relationships across Boundaries, or Fostering Team Unity.

ASAP: as soon as possible


Promote unit discussions about teamwork. Encourage subordinates to share their views on teams and the similarities and differences between teamwork and other types of collaboration (such as partnerships).

Conduct frequent problem solving or brainstorming sessions with groups of subordinates (it is beneficial to change the composition of this group depending upon the problems or tasks discussed) to identify unit challenges and tasks, potential courses of action, strengths, developmental needs, and likely consequences associated with each.

Emphasize to squads, platoons, or other teams in the unit that teamwork involves shared responsibility. There can be no blaming a bad team for not accomplishing a goal—each member of a team contributes to the success or failure.

Dedicate time to develop Army-specific, realistic, and mission-oriented team building exercises for the unit.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-51

STEWARDS THE PROFESSION 7-63. In planning, the Army requires its leaders to think beyond their current team, mission, and direct chain of leadership. Leaders steward the profession when they act to improve the organization even when the effects may not be realized until after their tenure. Stewarding the profession is about life-long learning, a commitment to an effective future organization, and developing others. This competency has two components:

Supports professional and personal growth. Improves the organization.

SUPPORTS PROFESSIONAL AND PERSONAL GROWTH 7-64. Supporting institutional-based development means that leaders should focus on personal and subordinate development at both the macro- and micro-levels: leaders are responsible for the development of the Army as an institution (macro-level), and for the development of each individual (micro-level). By supporting the development, leaders strengthen the Army profession and ensure that it produces multi-skilled leaders, capable of adapting and excelling in a constantly changing strategic environment (see table 7-45).

Table 7-45. Supports professional and personal growth

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Encourages subordinates to pursue institutional

learning opportunities and allows time to attend training.

Provides information about institutional training and career progression to subordinates.

Maintains resources related to institutional development.

Participates in discussions across units to see the types of learning opportunities they recommend to their team members and subordinates.

Updates team members and subordinates on learning opportunities that will occur.

Does not allow subordinates to attend institutional training or educational opportunities.

Fails to stay up-to-date on individual and organizational development programs.

Shows little personal interest in helping subordinates pursue institutional development opportunities.

Tells subordinates to go find their own learning opportunities.

Sends an implicit message to subordinates: self- development and organizational development are what Soldiers should focus upon; institutional training and education is a luxury.

Underlying Causes Providing Soldiers time to attend institutional training seems too large of a drain on the unit. Leader is too busy accomplishing the mission or task to be spending time thinking about the long-term

developmental needs of subordinates. Belief that individual development is up to the individual and performed on personal time. Belief that subordinates should "learn by doing" rather than via institutional training.


Ask trusted subordinates to help identify obstacles to development. Request that they provide recommendations for eliminating the identified obstacles.

Have a conversation with a superior about how well you are supporting development. Ask them to share tips and strategies that they have found to be effective.

Talk with a leader from another unit about how to facilitate Soldier participation in professional military education without compromising unit effectiveness.

Talk to subordinates about the benefits of institutional-based development: to meet and network with others outside their chain of command and share ideas and best practices.

Chapter 7

7-52 FM 6-22

Table 7-45. Supports professional and personal growth (continued)


Think back to the last few times you nominated someone to take advantage of a developmental opportunity. Analyze your reasons for nominating them and the opportunities for which you nominated them. Look for patterns or potential biases.

Ensure to set aside an appropriate amount of time to investigate available Army developmental opportunities so you are able talk about development with team members and subordinates.

Remember that development does not equal training. Review opportunities for coaching, conference attendance, and scenario participation to provide a diverse set of activities.

Solicit input from supervisors and peers on effectively managing Soldier attendance in institutional training and development while maintaining unit effectiveness.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: The Leader's Role in Providing On-the-Job Learning and Support; Clarifying Roles; Supporting the Developing Leader; Every Leader as a Coach; Counseling and Coaching Videos.


Identify key leadership positions in the command to conduct and manage succession planning. Chart the timing and sequencing of subordinates into and out of leadership positions and schedule subordinates in institutional training programs accordingly.

Maintain an institutional development resource binder of resources offered by the Army related to development. This could include counseling, coaching, or mentoring programs or opportunities or training courses offered.

Send out periodic reminders to subordinates to enroll in selected training opportunities. Create a calendar of Army-based training opportunities and post it in a central location. Champion learning by encouraging others to attend training opportunities.

IMPROVES THE ORGANIZATION 7-65. Leaders demonstrate stewardship when they act to improve the organization for not only the present but also the future Army (see table 7-46). Acting to improve the organization involves prioritizing and managing people and resources when the effect may not be immediately evident. Leaders who steward the profession have a lasting concern over how their decisions affect the organization’s future.

Table 7-46. Improves the organization

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Demonstrates commitment to the organization and

others by attitude, beliefs, and behaviors. Is future thinking, articulates a future for the

organization. Possesses the leadership characteristics of self-

sacrifice and vision. Prioritizes the future of the organization beyond

immediate, personal goals. Considers the effects of decisions carefully.

Fails to take time to develop others. Takes an apathetic posture to the future of the unit

and the Army. Fails to articulate a vision for the future. Appears overly self-focused. Does not seem concerned about unit morale. Fails to be conscientious in decisionmaking.

Underlying Causes Overly focused on self and personal ambitions. Fear of the unknown, an unwillingness to shape the future. Lack of vision; narrow focus. Impulsive. Impatient to cultivate slow-growing positive effects.


Seek informal feedback constantly from subordinates on the effects of decisions. Understand how personal decisions reverberate down the chain of command.

Seek counsel from mentors and trusted peers. Ask them what they do to ensure the future unit success beyond their tenure. Describe your own actions and get feedback.

Hold informal, periodic meetings with subordinates to discuss unit vision. Get feedback on current policies and practices to implement that vision, and possible obstacles.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-53

Table 7-46. Improves the organization (continued)


Study the actions of leaders you admire. Note their approaches to improve the organization (such as support growth through leader development). Consider applying a similar approach.

Study the nature of the unit in its present state. Consider the major differences between the present and envisioned unit. Improving the organization is about narrowing that gap.

Study Army policy and guidance. Prepare for the future by measuring the gap between the current unit status and future requirements. Then, determine what actions to take.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Clarifying Roles, Creating and Promulgating a Vision of the Future, Building Working Relationships across Boundaries.


Have a vision for the future of the unit. Regularly communicate that future in staff meetings and via other outlets such as newsletters and emails.

Make decisions beneficial to the unit, particularly where the rewards might not immediately available within your tenure as leader.

Invest in people. Support personal and professional growth linked to improving the organization.

GETS RESULTS 7-66. A leader’s ultimate purpose is to get results by accomplishing missions the right way. A leader gets results by providing guidance and managing resources as well as demonstrating the other leader competencies. This competency focuses on consistent and ethical task accomplishment through supervising, managing, monitoring, and guiding the team’s work. Taken together, these components require initiative on the part of the leader to make decisions, take action to solve problems, and accomplish the mission:

Prioritizes, organizes, and coordinates taskings for teams or other organizational groups. Identifies and accounts for individual and group capabilities and commitment to task. Designates, clarifies, and deconflicts duties and responsibilities. Identifies, contends for, allocates, and manages resources. Removes work obstacles. Recognizes and rewards good performance. Seeks, recognizes, and takes advantage of opportunities to improve performance. Makes feedback part of work processes. Executes plans to accomplish the mission. Identifies and adjusts to external influences on the mission and organization.

PRIORITIZES, ORGANIZES, AND COORDINATES TASKINGS 7-67. Leaders are responsible for coordinating all of the simultaneous undertakings of their team and resourcing subordinates to complete the mission properly. Army leaders must be detailed planners who actively organize and communicate priorities to their team to ensure task execution in the right place, at the right time, in the right operational environment (see table 7-47 on page 7-54).

Chapter 7

7-54 FM 6-22

Table 7-47. Prioritizes, organizes, and coordinates taskings

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Breaks down work into process steps or tasks. Accurately scopes out length, sequence, and difficulty

of tasks to achieve desired outcomes. Sets goals and clear objectives that are specific,

measurable, and time bound. Develops schedules, assigns tasks, and organizes

individuals to accomplish tasks. Facilitates subordinate and team task

accomplishment without over-specification and micromanagement.

Operates “in the moment” without deliberate thought of how to complete the task.

Fails to identify road blocks that delay or prevent task accomplishment.

Does not develop a plan of action when coordinating tasks across teams and groups.

Reassigns tasks to different teams without evaluating the effect on existing workload and priorities.

Closely and excessively controls the work of subordinate staff.

Underlying Causes Functions as a part of the reactionary environment; does not seek to be proactive. Does not hold a clear sense of desired outcomes. Procrastinates; manages time ineffectively. Operates in isolation; does not effectively delegate. Does not take time to see how all of the moving pieces fit together as a whole.


Ask trusted peers or superiors for an assessment of your judgment and planning skills. Request a recommendation on ways to improve.

Get a backbrief from subordinates after issuing directions, warning orders, or operations orders. Seek feedback on how you influence others in a way that promotes accomplishment of the

organization’s purpose or mission. Ask others how effective you are at providing purpose, direction, and motivation to team members.

While planning and coordinating, continually ask yourself, “Who else needs to (or should) know about this?” Keep them informed.

After completing a series of tasks, request feedback from individuals and groups on what went well and what to improve.


Review the steps of the military decisionmaking process to plan for an upcoming project or task. Reflect on the mission, goals, and commander’s vision for the organization and the next higher

organization. How do they influence prioritization of tasks? Assess the skills, talents, capabilities, values, personalities, motivations, and needs of team

members. Use this information to make decisions about task assignments, responsibilities, and how much latitude or supervision to give.

Observe leaders who manage multiple tasks effectively. Discuss the practices they use to ensure success. Incorporate these practices to manage multiple tasks and priorities.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Accounting for Differences in Capabilities and Commitment, The Leader's Role in Providing On-the-Job Learning and Support; Removing Work Barriers; Rapid Team Stand-up: How to Build Your Team ASAP; Fostering Team Unity, Enabling Subordinates Using Mission-Focused Delegation; Out of Time: Managing Competing Demands.

ASAP: as soon as possible


When starting a new task, define responsibilities and expectations by providing clear guidance on what to accomplish, the parameters for getting it done, and expectations for the outcome. Then ask for feedback and concerns about task accomplishment. Ensure understanding by asking for a backbrief from key members.

When faced with multiple tasks, develop a project plan that details how to execute tasks. Consider resources available (including time), the level of personnel support, and potential obstacles. Before starting, convey task priority to the team.

Develop the sequence of the tasks that are dependent upon one another. List tasks in the order of an optimal progression to prioritize what to accomplish first.

Set up a process to monitor progress on a task or project against a project plan. Anticipate the potential problems that may arise during the execution of a task. During the

planning phase, determine ways to prevent the problems from occurring or how to resolve them effectively and efficiently should they occur.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-55


7-68. Matching individuals and groups to a task can be a challenging undertaking, particularly when it comes to analyzing the capabilities of a unit or organization. Having a clear understanding of the task is important to identify both individual and group capabilities and developmental needs. It is important for leaders to understand a team’s individual interests to use their knowledge, skills, and abilities effectively as well as work towards their developmental needs (see table 7-48).

Table 7-48. Identifies and accounts for capabilities and commitment to task

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Considers duty positions, capabilities, and

developmental needs when assigning tasks. Assesses skills, capabilities, and developmental

needs when beginning a new task or assuming a new position.

Assigns individuals or groups to tasks so that their skills match the task or project requirements.

Assigns tasks without accounting for individuals’ interests and abilities.

Resources projects without getting a clear commitment that tasks will finish when required.

Delegates under the assumption that all staff hold the same level of capability and commitment.

Does not match project needs with individual interests and developmental needs.

Assumes that subordinate lack of commitment to a task means they are disinterested.

Underlying Causes Assumes all individuals possess similar levels of capability and commitment. Too busy to stay apprised of personnel capabilities and commitment levels. Too busy to assess subordinates’ duty and role requirements when assuming a new leadership position. Is unaware of both individual and group interests and developmental needs. Does not see the benefit in following up with staff on their progress toward completing a task.


Talk with others who may know your subordinates and have them provide insight about their skills and interests. Check their perceptions against your own assessment.

Ask peers and subordinates about their commitment to performing a task. Do not assume their level of commitment or interest.

Objectively observe your own behavior managing workloads and leading subordinates. Do you match individuals with tasks and projects that interest them and match their capabilities? Get feedback to compare with your self-assessment.


Develop knowledge and expertise regarding the duty and role requirements of subordinate positions. Document the degree to which current capabilities match requirements.

Observe subordinates at work. Evaluate their capabilities and motivations. Assess the skills, talents, capabilities, motivations, and needs of members of the team. Use this

information to make decisions about task assignments, responsibilities, and how much latitude or supervision to give.

Evaluate the skill sets needed to complete a project and match the skills with the capabilities and level of commitment of team members available to work on the project.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: The Leader's Role in Providing On-the-Job Learning and Support; Accounting for Differences in Capabilities and Commitment; Creating and Supporting Challenging Job Assignments; Rapid Team Stand-up: How to Build Your Team ASAP; Enabling Subordinates Using Mission-Focused Delegation.

ASAP: as soon as possible


The next time routine task requirements occur, rotate subordinates through different roles to identify their skills, capabilities, and developmental needs.

Pair up individuals with greater and lesser skills so team members will have the benefit of teaching and learning from each other.

Match individuals to tasks or projects by assigning team members with complementary skills to work together to ensure all skill requirements are met.

Reallocate resources on a task or assignment to ensure that people do not become complacent. Make work assignments to train team members to be multifunctional.

Chapter 7

7-56 FM 6-22

DESIGNATES, CLARIFIES, AND DECONFLICTS DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES 7-69. Designating, clarifying, and deconflicting duties and responsibilities is an important leadership behavior because it improves a team’s satisfaction and performance by removing ambiguity and confusion related to who is supposed to do what, at what time, and in what location (see table 7-49). Designating, clarifying, and deconflicting duties and responsibilities also improves a team’s motivation and commitment as it ensures that team members know they are expected to contribute to the mission.

Table 7-49. Designates, clarifies, and deconflicts duties and responsibilities

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Explains how subordinate roles support the unit’s goals

and work of others. Establishes procedures for monitoring, coordinating,

and regulating subordinates’ activities. Informs subordinates of work expectations, particularly

when taking on a new role. Successfully resolves subordinate conflicts regarding

duty tasks or roles. Clearly outlines responsibilities and desired outcomes.

Provides subordinates with competing demands or contradictory messages about their role.

Maintains a sink or swim attitude. Does not define or clearly communicate roles,

desired outcomes, and goals to team members. Assigns tasks without determining if work is in the

scope of an individual’s abilities. Refuses to be involved in subordinate conflicts and

disagreements about “who does what.” Underlying Causes

Does not conceptualize how contributions of team members should fit together. Unable to see the benefit of providing a clear message or guidance on role expectations. Over-tasked (or under-tasked) and not able to allocate distinct work roles. Lacks knowledge of position requirements and personnel capabilities when assigning work. Uninterested in managing work or people.


Assess workload across teams and individuals. Do some have too much or too little? Ask subordinates if they are experiencing role conflict. Attempt to identify the causes. Capitalize on existing group communication mechanisms such as staff meetings, weekly status

reports, and informal check-ins. Use these opportunities to assess and gain feedback on role clarity and shared understanding of responsibilities.

After defining roles and duties for a new operation or process, ask for feedback on how well the roles are defined and distinctive before making assignments.


Analyze the working relationships, processes, and outcomes of individuals and teams to identify potential role conflict or stress.

Consider subordinates and their work processes. Are role expectations in line with their abilities? Evaluate a current performance problem with an individual or team and consider whether the

problem relates to unclear or overlapping roles and responsibilities. Examine the goals and desired end states the team is currently pursuing. Are current work

assignments appropriate given the requirements of the broader mission? Study the workload shouldered by team members. Is there a balance in the duties and tasks?

Do some individuals have roles that are responsible for too much work or not enough work? Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Removing Work Barriers, Clarifying Roles,

Managing Conflict, Rapid Team Stand-up: How to Build Your Team ASAP, or Building Working Relationships across Boundaries.

ASAP: as soon as possible


When assigning tasks or projects, make a list of those who will contribute to each defined objective and what specifically they will do to complete the team’s task.

Meet with subordinates who are unclear on their role or expected duties. Discuss and clarify their role, the difference from other roles, and the collective contribution to the desired outcome.

When placing a subordinate in a new role or increasing their level of responsibility, proactively identify role requirements. Help the subordinate create a plan to fulfill expectations.

When tasks transfer from one person or team to another, clarify or redefine the objectives. Ask subordinates or team members to list the duties and responsibilities associated with their

current roles. Review the lists and confirm the accuracy to each subordinate. As needed, redefine or clarify the expectations of each role.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-57

IDENTIFIES, CONTENDS FOR, ALLOCATES, AND MANAGES RESOURCES 7-70. One of a leader’s main responsibilities is to accomplish the mission using the available resources in the most effective and efficient way possible (see table 7-50). Some Army leaders specialize in managing single categories of resources, such as ammunition, food, or finances, but everyone has an interest in seeing teams use all categories of resources wisely. A leader’s resources include labor, money, and time.

Table 7-50. Identifies, contends for, allocates, and manages resources

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Allocates adequate time, money, and personnel for

task completion. Keeps track of people, equipment, material, and other

resources. Gets things done with less; figures out effective and

efficient ways to accomplish work. Allocates resources objectively by evaluating priorities

and needs presented by the situation. Negotiates when it is necessary to allocate resources.

Wastes time, money, material, and individual productivity.

Inconsistently allocates resources; plays favorites. Allocates resources without understanding or

evaluating what and when resources are needed. Does not track resource usage nor communicate

status to superiors, subordinates, or others who have a need or interest to know.

Hesitates to make important resource decisions. Underlying Causes

Relies heavily on managing a single specialty, such as personnel or finance, but does not have a comprehensive understanding of other resources.

Is disorganized and does not have or use good resource tracking systems. Feels pressured or obligated to allocate resources to a certain priority. Does not know how to create alignment among objectives, activities, and outcomes. Is slow in making decisions, even with adequate facts and information.


After task completion, get input on how resources were used. Did the resources advance the mission? Were the resources squandered or used effectively?

Communicate openly with superiors, subordinates or others by holding periodic updates to discuss project status. Include agenda bullets such as budget tracking, personnel constraints, and timeline risks.

Discuss project or task milestones with team members. Determine if they have the necessary resources to deliver on their work.

Hold a review to analyze how the team managed resources on a recent project or task. Identify strengths and areas for improvement for next time.


Study how other units and organizations plan and allocate resources. Decide how you could apply other approaches to your work.

Examine how you handle situations and reactions from individuals who may feel their requests for resources were not handled fairly or effectively. Develop key points on your reasons for allocating resources and prepare to discuss them with individuals.

Identify project milestones and evaluate the status of resources against the milestone and baseline. If resources are not on target, evaluate if they need reallocation.

Study resource allocations (personnel, cost, time, money, and materials) you will need in the planning phase of a mission or tasking. Identify who controls the resources.

Study how you and others spend time. What types of tasks are the biggest time wasters? Are any of lesser importance or criticality, and do they adversely affect the task? Determine how to use time more efficiently.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Rapid Team Stand-up: How to Build Your Team ASAP, Leadership Decision Making, or Out of Time: Managing Competing Demands.

ASAP: as soon as possible


Identify the individuals who will contribute to a project and what they will do. Next, identify required resources (such as time, equipment, or training) to complete the project and how these resources will best be allocated.

Reallocate resources on a task or assignment to balance workload across the team with the goal of developing team members into multifunctional operators.

Practice resource leveling when allocating resources to ensure a steady level of staffing, resource spending, and no crunched deadlines.

Chapter 7

7-58 FM 6-22

REMOVES WORK OBSTACLES 7-71. A work obstacle is anything that stands in the way of getting the task done (see table 7-51). Army leaders must remove or find ways to overcome a variety of obstacles including resource shortages; competing or conflicting tasks; personnel issues; new requirements, regulations, or policies; lack of integration among different branches of an organization; and a failure to synchronize and coordinate efforts.

Table 7-51. Removes work obstacles

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Declines tasking requests that would overburden the

unit or distract it from its primary mission. Is proactive in recognizing and resolving scheduling

conflicts and resource and personnel challenges. Asks for input on effective solutions to overcome work

obstacles. Checks in with trusted subordinates to ensure they

are not overburdened.

Accepts tasking requests from superiors that distract or overburden the unit or organization.

Leaves subordinates to figure out ways to deal with completing or conflicting tasks.

Does not recognize or address work obstacles when they first appear.

Does not maintain close contact with trusted subordinates; loses touch with unit.

Underlying Causes Wants to please, impress, and create a positive impression to superiors; is afraid to say no to requests. Lacks focus. Works on issues as they come up. Is a procrastinator. Puts off addressing a work obstacle until it becomes a crisis. Sees problem situations as insurmountable, not as challenges that to overcome. Is resistant to handle or deal with a work obstacle particularly discussing it with leaders at a higher level. Has a short-term view. Does not see how current problems or obstacles affect long-term results.


After identifying a work obstacle, talk to subordinates and find out more details about how the obstacle affects their role and their ability to complete the mission.

Identify a work obstacle affecting the group. Meet with a superior or peers to discuss potential solutions. Ask for feedback on the how likely each solution is to be successful.

Brainstorm creative ways to mitigate, buffer, and reduce the effect of the obstacle with the team. Have subordinates provide their own ideas and feedback.

Get feedback on the original project or work plan. When encountering an obstacle determine required resources and processes to obtain them.

Get input on your personal effectiveness in removing or reducing an obstacle. What worked well? What could you have done to be more effective?


Document a potential ripple effect of new requirements or taskings on the unit to see if the mission, work, or goals are still achievable.

Identify who will be affected by a new requirement or work obstacle. Document how each entity could be affected and possible solutions to minimize unintended outcomes.

Conduct a broader analysis of a work obstacle to understand who (such as other units or stakeholders) could be affected. Identify individuals or groups from whom you could request support and what they could provide.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Removing Work Barriers; Out of Time: Managing Competing Demands.


Set up a process to monitor progress against plans. Search for new and innovative ways to help reduce, avoid, and overcome obstacles.

Prioritize tasks based on their importance or relation to the mission. Be willing to accept deferring some lower priority tasks to a later date.

Be open to suggestions that offer alternative actions and solutions to address a work obstacle. Actively seek the counsel of senior subordinates to identify current and potential obstacles and

ways to overcome (or remove) them.

RECOGNIZES AND REWARDS GOOD PERFORMANCE 7-72. Leaders usually regard rewards as incentives to influence the behavior of others so they will perform in ways that are desirable and beneficial to the organization (see table 7-52). They serve as a benefit to Army

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-59

leaders and team members who work to achieve more than is normally expected. Often, rewards relate closely to motivation and morale and can make an organization a place where its members strive to achieve results.

Table 7-52. Recognizes and rewards good performance

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Deflects credit or praise to those subordinates most

responsible for unit successes. Recognizes individual and team accomplishment and

provides rewards appropriately. Gives clear, specific performance feedback so staff

understand why they are recognized. Takes into account others’ motivations and

recognition preferences. Knows the Army’s performance systems and

explores other reward systems. Looks for ways to build on team and individual


Takes credit for unit or team accomplishments and successes.

Creates and promulgates an environment that accepts favoritism.

Recognizes only failures or poor performance. Rewards only individuals and does not recognize

team accomplishments. Does not see a relationship between positive

recognition, motivation, and morale.

Underlying Causes Is unaware of the value of recognition and reward for good work as part of leadership. Unable to see the link between reward and recognition and increased performance or productivity. Pays little attention to monitoring or observing subordinates. Does not treat people as individuals or recognize that different types of rewards and recognition motivate

different individuals.


Get feedback from subordinates on their grasp of the performance standards for their work. Recognize that rewards are specific to each individual, so it is important to understand what

specific motivators are particularly “rewarding” for each individual. Self-assess your approach to rewarding and recognizing subordinates. Observe factors like how

often success is recognized, who is recognized, and the types of rewards used. Acknowledge what individuals or teams contribute; relate appropriate rewards.

Before recognizing an individual or team, discuss your justification and rationale for the reward with a trusted leader who is familiar with the situation. Ask for feedback on your justification and rationale.

Ask subordinates to share their reaction upon receiving a reward. Did they understand and agree with the performance standards and rationale for the reward? Did they think the reward was appropriate given the accomplishment?


Observe subordinates to determine what motivates them. Since subordinates are motivated by different things, document what you believe motivates each member. Consider how to reward individuals and teams.

Reward desired behaviors. For example, organizations often stress the importance of teamwork but reward exemplary individuals rather than teams.

Create a matrix that matches members of the team and the reward types they value most. Analyze whether an accomplishment was due to one or several individuals or a team. Identify a unit member that appears to successfully reward and recognize superior performance.

How does their behavior compare to yours in providing rewards and recognition? Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Motivating through Rewards.


Reward high achievement rather than routine work. Devise appropriate rewards for both individuals and teams.

Create rewards or incentives that boost subordinate morale and motivation. Consider granting time off, recognizing birthdays, and planning team events.

Regularly walk around work areas to observe productivity, provide feedback, and praise when appropriate.

Provide on-the-spot praise or awards for work that exceeds expectations. Reward instances where subordinates demonstrate innovative thought or creativity in their

approach, even if unsuccessful. This conveys to others that these attributes are valued.

Chapter 7

7-60 FM 6-22


7-73. The individual who recognizes and takes advantage of opportunities to improve performance is a strong critical thinker who recognizes each completed task as a learning experience to improve upon in the future. Army leaders must simultaneously be proactive and reflective to seize and take advantage of opportunities when they occur (see table 7-53).

Table 7-53. Seeks, recognizes, and takes advantage of opportunities

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Employs skills and approaches fitting the situation. Gains support from individuals outside the unit when

new or different skills are needed. Is open to others’ ideas and sees how new ideas can

improve the unit’s performance. Knows strengths and limitations; uses strengths to

improve performance. Reviews what worked well and what to improve.

Never asks others how processes, conditions, or situations could be improved.

Manages without seeing the bigger picture, relationships among activities, and alignment of objectives and activities with outcomes.

Tries to complete too many tasks at once; does not budget time for planning and reflection.

Underlying Causes Uncomfortable taking risks; does not like to propose alternative solutions for fear of failure. Prefers the current routine or status quo, hesitant to implement change. Does not identify and track the current and future states of projects and tasks. Is too busy to devote time to consider or implement ways to improve performance. Is unaware of the opportunities to improve performance that exist.


After completion of a particular project or task, hold an after action review. Specifically identify and discuss ways to improve performance the next time.

Discuss opportunities to improve performance with team members. Have members identify a problem they think affects performance. Get feedback before recommending improvements.

Self-assess the recent contributions of the team toward the organization’s mission. Ask, “What small change would make the greatest difference? What time is available to make a change? What types of changes can I affect? What will I commit to?”

Discuss with others what you can do to improve performance. Learn about actions taken by others that worked and others that did not work.

If an individual has a performance problem. meet with them to identify the reasons behind the problem. Get feedback on specific steps they will take to correct the problem and improve.


Create a project plan documenting what needs to happen throughout the project lifecycle to anticipate needed actions and how to achieve the desired outcome.

Research the best method for developing strategies to achieve tasks. Discuss possible solutions with peers and senior subordinates.

Write an improvement plan for the organization and outline how to improve certain internal practices. Evaluate the plan with input from others.

Analyze the ideal state of the organization. What should success look like? Develop a visual map for a process. Are steps sequenced appropriately? Are intermediate steps

needed? Look for loopholes or obstacles in the process. Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Fostering Team Unity.


Use communication tools to share available information with group members on opportunities to improve performance.

Provide subordinates with regular and consistent feedback on their strengths, where they meet the standard, and their developmental needs.

Try a new approach to improve the performance of others, and see how it works. Adjust the approach, as needed, after getting feedback.

Remember there are no bad ideas. Ask comprehensive questions to gauge how realistic an idea is and how easy or difficult it will be to implement.

Conduct periodic brainstorming sessions with subordinates to identify common or recurring problems and likely causes. Encourage creative ideas and solutions.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-61

MAKES FEEDBACK PART OF WORK PROCESSES 7-74. Consistent and regular feedback provided through coaching, counseling and mentoring has multiple benefits (see table 7-54). First, feedback helps a person improve at their position by identifying specific areas in which they excel as well as those in need of improvement. Feedback also helps to gauge subordinate engagement, motivation, and morale. The exchange of feedback keeps leaders informed on an organization’s collective strengths and developmental needs.

Table 7-54. Makes feedback part of work processes

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Gives and seeks accurate and timely feedback. Uses feedback to modify duties, tasks, and

procedures where appropriate. Provides regular, ongoing feedback and coaching to

subordinates to increase their awareness of performance.

Uses assessment techniques and evaluation tools, such as after action reviews, to identify lessons learned and facilitate continuous improvement.

Comments on subordinates’ personal characteristics and not their work behaviors.

Provides feedback infrequently or only during official performance reviews.

Tends to provide only positive or only negative feedback.

Does not provide the subordinate with clear feedback on what success looks like.

Provides feedback without considering an appropriate setting or time.

Ignores reviews and other evaluation tools (is not incorporated into modifications of procedures).

Underlying Causes Overworked and unable to find the time to give feedback. Unaware of the relationships between frequent and consistent feedback, subordinate motivation and morale,

and improving performance. Feels uncomfortable providing negative feedback or discussing areas for improvement. Believes feedback should be corrective (such as what is not working) rather than supportive. Lacks knowledge in how to deliver constructive feedback to guide subordinates toward success.


Get feedback from subordinates on the frequency and quality of the performance feedback you provide. Determine if subordinates consider your feedback helpful and timely. Are they using it to modify their behaviors?

Informally gain input from the team after completing a task or project. Collect the input first without offering feedback. Use information in a formal after action review.

Self-assess the frequency and quality of feedback you provide. Notice how often you give feedback, to whom and when, and indications of how it was received. Seek counsel of a trusted senior subordinate to verify and validate your self-assessment.

Ensure that your subordinates understand what you communicate by using a feedback loop or asking a question such as “How will you implement this? What will you take away from our discussion? What changes do you plan to make immediately?”

Observe the actions of someone who provides accurate, effective, and frequent feedback. Watch their actions and feedback methods. Determine if there are aspects of their approach that you may be able to adopt and incorporate.

Observe subordinates’ work to determine their strengths and developmental needs. Document and prioritize needs. Identify candidates for immediate feedback and coaching.


Study the principles and techniques of active listening. Study subordinates’ behaviors when giving feedback. What nonverbal behaviors do they

demonstrate? Determine if they demonstrate openness or reluctance to accept feedback. Consider how to adjust feedback to ensure receipt of the message.

Take a course with situational exercises and role-plays that have participants practice delivering feedback. Learn to give feedback effectively by doing.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: The Leader's Role in Providing On-the-Job Learning and Support; Supporting the Developing Leader; Seeking and Delivering Face-to- Face Feedback.

Chapter 7

7-62 FM 6-22

Table 7-54. Makes feedback part of work processes (continued)


Use the seven pillars of effective feedback. Be constructive, objective, specific, timely, considerate, future-oriented, and make sure that feedback is ongoing.

Create a schedule outlining key project milestones. Provide feedback to the team members and subordinates shortly following each milestone.

Provide feedback that will improve tomorrow’s performance, not fix yesterday’s. Ensure feedback enables subordinates to determine their next steps for development.

Practice giving praise for positive performance. Describe specific positive behaviors, their results, and the effect on work products or team efforts.

Identify unique situations, such as a typically high performing subordinate who is struggling with one aspect of their position and tailor feedback accordingly. Provide feedback and actively listen to the subordinate describe the situation.

EXECUTES PLANS TO ACCOMPLISH THE MISSION 7-75. Proper execution of plans to accomplish the mission involves careful task management to ensure plans are implemented effectively and efficiently through the task lifecycle. This involves managing the scope, schedule, time, cost, quality, risk, communications, human resources, and project integration. Army leaders must be organized and clear in their requests of others, ensuring that all issues are handled proactively and that the project is carefully monitored to ensure alignment with the desired outcomes (see table 7-55).

Table 7-55. Executes plans to accomplish the mission

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Schedules activities to meet all commitments in

critical performance areas. Notifies team members in advance when their

support is required. Keeps track of task assignments and suspenses. Adjusts assignments, if necessary. Evaluates work progress and accomplishments

against plans. Attends to details that affect the plan.

Over-reliance on personal contributions to execute plans; ineffectively involves others.

Unaware of how various activities come together. Provides plans too late for others to provide support. Rushes at the last minute to complete work and

activities to achieve an objective; constantly putting out fires.

Disorganized and unable to see factors that affect plans.

Underlying Causes Lacks experience to track the current and future state of a project or tasking. Is unable or unwilling to plan for second and third order effects. Does not bring the multiple activities together at the right time to achieve objectives. Lacks ability to be creative and resourceful when problems arise. Does not use basic project management tools actively or consistently. Does not effectively delegate or seek assistance before a crisis develops.


Ask trusted peers or superiors for their assessment of your judgment and planning skills and discuss ways to improve.

After subordinates work on a task, get feedback on their progress through observation, asking them directly, or asking others. Adjust roles or assignments as needed.

Monitor progress against objectives, progress against milestones, resource use and costs, and human performance by compiling monthly reports that document each area.

Seek feedback from superiors, peers, and subordinates on how well you notify them when your projects are on target for completion or in need of support.

Learning and Development Activities

FM 6-22 7-63

Table 7-55. Executes plans to accomplish the mission (continued)


Observe other leaders who effectively develop project plans and handle multiple tasks efficiently. What aspects of their approach work well? What can you do to adapt their approach?

Review all projects, missions, and objectives to ensure they have measurable, specific, achievable outcomes. Identify required resources (such as time, personnel, or equipment) to achieve the desired outcome.

Evaluate your ability to be flexible when unplanned events and problems develop. Decide how ready you are to change direction or tactics.

Study historical figures that successfully achieved high profile victories. Read about large-scale failures. What made these leaders successful or unsuccessful in accomplishing the mission? What factors led to effective or ineffective planning and follow-through?

Research various project management tools and software to find resources that help you to plan for and execute missions.

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Leadership Decision Making, Being an Adaptable Leader in Times of Change, Out of Time: Managing Competing Demands.


Use a tracking system or tools to monitor activities and schedules and timetables. Be aware and recognize potential conflicts in the project plan before a problem occurs. Take

preventive action when you foresee complications to the project plan. Manage time more effectively using a calendar, spreadsheet, or Gantt chart. Share successful outcomes with others involved throughout the completion of a task.


7-76. Being able to identify and adjust to external influences on the mission or taskings and organization requires a certain degree of flexibility and adaptability (see table 7-56). Using a logical and methodical mental process to document the changing environment is useful in making necessary adjustments to a plan. It also prevents the excessive expenditure of resources and unwanted changes in project or mission timelines. Although a project or task may completely change course, it is important to analyze how the current plan can be adapted to fit the circumstances.

Table 7-56. Identifies and adjusts to external influences

Strength Indicators Need Indicators Knows unit processes and the purpose of key policies,

practices, and procedures. Gathers and analyzes relevant information about the

changing situation. Determines the causes, effects, and contributing

factors to problems. Considers contingencies and their consequences. Maintains awareness of people and systems that

could present obstacles to work accomplishment. Makes necessary, on-the-spot adjustments.

Jumps to decisions based on the first answer that comes to mind.

Collects information to form decisions until the window of opportunity closes.

Is rigid and inflexible; refuses to be open to alternative ways of thinking.

Rejects the idea that external influences can derail a mission or tasking.

Refuses to give up a course of action when the mission or tasking changes.

Underlying Causes Believes that there is only one viable solution; does not consider multiple solutions to a problem. Believes that leaders must be decisive and tends to make decisions prematurely. Is in search of the correct answers rather than the good enough solution; continues collecting data to inform

decisionmaking well after the time for the required decision. Does not operate well in high-stress situations. Feels wedded to the original plan; is fearful of changing or modifying the plan midstream.

Chapter 7

7-64 FM 6-22

Table 7-56. Identifies and adjusts to external influences (continued)


Brainstorm possible solutions to an external change as a group or team. Use the input to consider alternative ways of adjusting to external influences.

Talk with superiors and peers about external factors that influence unit capabilities. Solicit feedback on factors that influence subordinates’ ability to complete their work.

Gain feedback from superiors, peers, or trusted subordinates on how well you demonstrate flexibility to alternative ways of thinking. Use the feedback to decide how you can become more open to new ideas.

Request feedback from subordinates on how well you intervene and adjust their work. Do you provide appropriate and timely adjustments with clear direction?


Identify new and emerging trends in an area of expertise, and research how the change will affect existing taskings and mission.

Observe a unit that has undergone a major change due to an external factor, and document how they handled it. Use effective approaches or best practices.

Reflect upon times when external influences negatively affected your performance or decisionmaking or team performance. What should you have done? Reflect upon times when you dealt more effectively with external influences. Why were you successful?

Access the Virtual Improvement Center to complete: Removing Work Barriers, Being an Adaptable Leader in Times of Change, Out of Time: Managing Competing Demands.


If a mission or project is not on track, take a different action by devising creative solutions. Be open to the idea that there may be a better way.

Talk with others inside and outside the chain of command to stay current on external influences that could affect the mission. Key opportunities to share information include attendance at conferences, conventions, and institutional training courses.

Develop alternative strategies and solutions to accomplish an existing project or task. This serves as a contingency plan in case unexpected outcomes occur.

Practice maintaining composure and managing frustration when external influences affect work. Remain focused on a positive outcome.

Form or expand partnership with peers or others who get things done. Brainstorm ideas with them on identifying ways to adjust to outside influences that are currently affecting tasks and projects, as well as those that may affect tasks and projects in the future.

FM 6-22 Glossary-1


SECTION I – ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AAR after action review ACT Army Career Tracker

ACTEDS Army Civilian Training Education and Development System ADP Army doctrinal publication

ADRP Army doctrinal reference publication ALDS Army Leader Development Strategy

AR Army regulation ATP Army techniques publication CPT captain

DA Department of the Army DA PAM Department of the Army pamphlet

DOD Department of Defense FM field manual IDP individual development plan

JP joint publication MSAF Multi-Source Assessment and Feedback

NCO noncommissioned officer SOAR situation, observation, associate and assess, and reinforce and

recommend U.S. United States

SECTION II – TERMS Army leader

Anyone who by virtue of assumed role or assigned responsibility inspires and influences people to accomplish organizational goals. Army leaders motivate people both inside and outside the chain of command to pursue actions, focus thinking and shape decisions for the greater good of the organization.(ADP 6-22)

*Army team building A continuous process of enabling a group of people to reach their goals and improve their effectiveness through leadership and various exercises, activities and techniques.

leader development The deliberate, continuous, sequential, and progressive process—founded in Army values—that grows Soldiers and Army Civilians into competent and confident leaders capable of decisive action. Leader development is achieved through the life-long synthesis of the knowledge, skills, and experiences gained through the training and educational opportunities in the institutional, operational, and self- development domains. (AR 350-1)

leadership The process of influencing people by providing purpose, direction, and motivation to accomplish the mission and improve the organization. (ADP 6-22)


Glossary-2 FM 6-22

mentorship The voluntary developmental relationship that exists between a person of greater experience and a person of lesser experience that is characterized by mutual trust and respect. (AR 600-100)

mission command The exercise of authority and direction by the commander using mission orders to enable disciplined initiative within the commander’s intent to empower agile and adaptive leaders in the conduct of unified land operations. (ADP 6-0)

FM 6-22 References-1

References REQUIRED PUBLICATIONS These documents must be available to intended users of this publication. Unless otherwise indicated, these are available on the Army Publishing Directorate (APD) web site (www.apd.army.mil). Most joint publications are available online: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jointpub.htm.

ADRP 1-02. Terms and Military Symbols. 2 February 2015. JP 1-02. Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. 08 November 2010.

RELATED PUBLICATIONS These sources contain relevant supplemental information. Unless otherwise indicated, these are available on the Army Publishing Directorate (APD) web site (www.apd.army.mil).

ADP 5-0. The Operations Process. 17 May 2012. ADP 6-0. Mission Command. 17 May 2012. ADP 6-22. Army Leadership. 1 August 2012. ADRP 1. The Army Profession. 14 June 2013. ADRP 6-0. Mission Command. 17 May 2012. ADRP 6-22. Army Leadership. 1 August 2012. ADRP 7-0. Training Units and Developing Leaders. 23 August 2012. AR 1-201. Army Inspection Policy. 25 February 2015. AR 350-1. Army Training and Leader Development. 19 August 2014. AR 600-20. Army Command Policy. 6 November 2014. AR 600-100. Army Leadership. 8 March 2007. AR 621-7. Army Fellowships & Scholarships. 8 August 1997. AR 623-3. Evaluation Reporting System. 31 March 2014. AR 690-950. Career Management. 31 Dec 2001. Army Leader Development Strategy (ALDS). June 2013. Available at

http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/CAL/repository/ALDS5June%202013Record.pdf. ATP 2-33.4. Intelligence Analysis. 18 August 2014. ATP 6-22.1. The Counseling Process. 1 July 2014. DA PAM 600-3. Commissioned Officer Professional Development and Career Management. 3

December 2014. DA PAM 600-25. U.S. Army Noncommissioned Officer Professional Development Guide. 28 July

2008. DOD Instruction 1430.16. Growing Civilian Leaders. 19 November 2009. Available at

http://dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/ins1.html. FM 27-10. The Law of Land Warfare. 18 July 1956.

PRESCRIBED FORMS Unless otherwise indicated, DA Forms are available on the Army Publishing Directorate (APD) web site (www.apd.army.mil).



References-2 FM 6-22

REFERENCED FORMS Unless otherwise indicated, DA Forms are available on the Army Publishing Directorate (APD) web site (www.apd.army.mil).

DA Form 2028. Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms.

RECOMMENDED READINGS These sources contain relevant supplemental information. All URLs were accessed on 29 April 2015. Some sites may require CAC authentication.

U.S. Center of Military History Professional Reading Lists. Available at www.history.army.mil/reading.html.

RECOMMENDED WEB SITES All URLs were accessed on 29 April 2015. Some sites may require CAC authentication.

All Army Activities (ALARACT) Messages. Available at https://www.us.army.mil/suite/page/550282. Army 360 Multi-Source Assessment and Feedback (MSAF) Program. Available at

https://msaf.army.mil/Home/LeadOn.aspx. Army Career & Alumni Program (ACAP). Available at https://www.acap.army.mil. Army Career Tracker (ACT). Available at https://actnow.army.mil. Army Center for Enhanced Performance (ACEP). Available at:

http://www.acep.army.mil/resources.html. Army Civilian Training, Education & Development System (ACTEDS). Available at

http://cpol.army.mil/library/train/acteds/. Army Civilian Training & Leadership Development. Available at

http://www.civiliantraining.army.mil/Pages/Homepage.aspx. Army Credentialing Opportunities On-Line (COOL). Available at https://www.cool.army.mil. ArmyFit. Available at https://armyfit.army.mil/. Army Learning Management System (ALMS). Available at https://www.lms.army.mil. Army Personnel Testing. Available at https://www.hrc.army.mil/site/education/APT.html. Army Professional Forums. Available at https://www.milsuite.mil/book/community/spaces/apf. Army Ready and Resilient. Available at: http://www.army.mil/readyandresilient. Army Suicide Prevention Program. Available at http://www.armyg1.army.mil/hr/suicide. Army Training and Certification Tracking System (ATCTS). Available at https://atc.us.army.mil. Army Training Network (ATN). Available at https://atn.army.mil. ATRRS Self-Development Center. Available at

https://www.atrrs.army.mil/selfdevctr/eLearningWelcome.aspx. Center for Army Leadership (CAL). Available at https://usacac.army.mil/cac2/CAL. Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL). Available at http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/call/index.asp. Center for Army Profession and Ethic (CAPE). Available at http://cape.army.mil. Central Army Registry (CAR). Available at https://atiam.train.army.mil/catalog/catalog/search.html. Comprehensive Soldier & Family Fitness Program. Available at http://csf2.army.mil. Congressional Medal of Honor Society. Available at http://www.cmohs.org/recipient-archive.php. Digital Army Library Service (DALS). Available at http://www.libraries.army.mil. FORSCOM Leader Development Toolbox. Available at

http://www.forscom.army.mil/leaderdevelopment. GoArmyEd. Available at https://www.goarmyed.com. Human Resources Command (HRC). Available at www.hrc.army.mil.


FM 6-22 References-3

Institute for NCO Professional Development (INCOPD). Available at http://www.tradoc.army.mil/INCOPD/index.html.

MILCONNECT Online Portal. Available at https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/milconnect. Military OneSource. Available at http://www.militaryonesource.mil. Military Personnel (MILPER) Messages. Available at https://www.hrc.army.mil/Milper. Professional Development Toolkit. Available at http://www.army.mil/professional/. Soldier for Life. Available at http://soldierforlife.army.mil. U. S. Army Combat Readiness/Safety Center. Available at https://safety.army.mil/Default.aspx. Virtual Improvement Center (VIC). Available at https://msaf.army.mil/My360/VIC/Default.aspx.

FM 6-22 Index-1


Entries are by paragraph unless specified otherwise.

A-B-C adaptability, 5-30–5-33, table 5-3 application of performance

indicators, 6-4–6-6 Army Civilian training and

development programs, 3-133– 3-135

Army Ethic, table 1-1, 5-2, 5-4–5- 5, 7-24

Army needs and personal choices, 3-131–3-132

assignments, broadening, 1-7, table 2-3, 3-2, 3-125 developmental, 1-7, 1-33, 2-

17, table 2-3, 3-126, 3-135 rotational, 2-17, table 2-3, 3-

126 stretch, table 2-3, table 7-30

attributes, Army Values, table 6-1, table

7-14 bearing, table 6-2 confidence, table 6-2 discipline, table 6-1 empathy, table 6-1, table 7-15 expertise, table 6-3 fitness, table 6-2 innovation, table 6-3 interpersonal tact, table 6-3 judgement, table 6-3 mental agility, table 6-3 resilience, table 6-2 Warrior Ethos/Service Ethos,

table 6-1 capability evaluation, 7-4 capability expansion, 7-5 career development and

management, 3-129–3-130 challenging experiences, 3-118–3-

122 character, 5-2–5-6 climate, 1-20, 1-22, 2-1, 2-11, 2-

17, table 2-2, 2-25, 3-3, 3-31, 3- 101, 3-116, 5-5–5-6, 7-15, 7-18, table 7-11, 7-28, 7-40, 7-42, 7- 44

coaching, 3-105–3-108 core leader competencies,

builds trust, 7-14–7-18

communicates, 7-33–7-39 creates positive

environment/Fosters esprit de corps, 7-40–7-49

develops others, 7-58–7-62 extends influence, 7-19–7-22 gets results, 7-66–7-76 leads by example, 7-23–7-32 leads others, 7-9–7-13 prepares self, 7-50–7-57 stewards the profession, 7-63–

7-65 counseling, 1-8, table 2-2, 2-19, 2-

25,3-2,3-4, 3-18, 3-36, 3-79, 4- 8, 6-3, 6-13. See also developmental activities: develops others.

course corrections, 4-72 creating opportunities, 3-116–3-

117 critical thinking, 4-48. See also

judgement and problem solving. culture, 1-6, 1-10, 1-12, 1-16, 1-

25, 1-36, 2-2, 2-8–2-9, 3-2, 3- 5–3-6, 3-10, 3-15, 3-17, 3-55, 3-72, 3-116, 4-30, 5-6, 5-34

D decisionmaking, 3-9, 3-23, 3-88,

table 5-1, 5-25 deep processing, 4-46–4-47 developing adaptability, 5-34 developmental activities

evaluation model, table 7-3 developmental activities: builds

trust, 7-14–7-15 takes direct actions to build

trust, 7-17, table 7-10 sets personal example for

trust, 7-16, table 7-9 sustains a climate of trust, 7-

18, table 7-11 developmental activities:

communicates, 7-33–7-34 creates shared understanding,

7-36, table 7-23 employs engaging

communication techniques, 7-37, table 7-24

listens actively, 7-35, table 7- 22

sensitive to cultural factors in communication, 7-38–7-39, table 7-25

developmental activities: creates a positive environment/fosters esprit de corps, 7-40 anticipates people’s duty

needs, 7-47, table 7-32 creates a learning

environment, 7-44, table 7- 29

demonstrates care for follower well-being, 7-46, table 7-31

encourages fairness and inclusiveness, 7-42, table 7- 27

encourages open and candid communications, 7-43, table 7-28

encourages subordinates to exercise initiative, accept responsibility, and take ownership, 7-45, table 7-30

fosters teamwork, cohesion, cooperation, and loyalty (esprit de corps, 7-41, table 7-26

sets and maintains high expectations for individuals and teams, 7-48–7-49, table 7-33

developmental activities: develops others, 7-58 assesses developmental

needs of others, 7-59, table 7-41

builds team skills and processes, 7-62, table 7-44

counsels, coaches, and mentors, 7-60, table 7-42

facilitates ongoing development, 7-61, table 7- 43

developmental activities: extends influence, 7-19–7-20 negotiates, builds consensus,

and resolves conflict, 7-22, table 7-13

understands sphere, means, and limits of influence, 7-21, table 7-12


Entries are by paragraph number unless stated otherwise.

Index-2 FM 6-22

developmental activities: gets results, 7-66 designates, clarifies, and

deconflicts duties and responsibilities, 7-69, table 7-49

executes plans to accomplish the mission, 7-75, table 7-55

identifies and accounts for capabilities and commitment to task, 7-68, table 7-48

identifies and adjusts to external influences, 7-76, table 7-56

identifies, contends for, allocates, and manages resources, 7-70, table 7-50

makes feedback part of work processes, 7-74, table 7-54

prioritizes, organizes, and coordinates taskings, 7-67, table 7-47

recognizes and rewards good performance, 7-72, table 7- 52

removes work obstacles, 7-71, table 7-51

seeks, recognizes, and takes advantage of opportunities, 7-73, table 7-53

developmental activities: leads by example, 7-23 applies discipline, 7-28, table

7-17 demonstrates tactical and

technical competence, 7-30, table 7-19

displays Army Values, 7-24, table 7-14

displays empathy, 7-25, table 7-15

exemplifies the Warrior Ethos/Service Ethos, 7-26– 7-27, table 7-16

leads with confidence in adverse situations, 7-29, table 7-18

understands and models conceptual skills, 7-31, table 7-20

seeks diverse ideas and points of view, 7-32, table 7-21

developmental activities: leads others, 7-9 balances mission and welfare

of followers, 7-13, table 7-8 enforces standards, 7-12, table


provides purpose, 7-11, table 7-6

uses appropriate methods of influence to energize others, 7-10, table 7-5

developmental activities: prepares self, 7-50 analyzes and organizes

information to create knowledge, 7-54, table 7-37

expands conceptual and interpersonal capabilities, 7- 53, table 7-36

expands knowledge of technical, technological, and tactical areas, 7-52, table 7- 35

maintains mental and physical health and well-being, 7-51, table 7-34

maintains relevant cultural awareness, 7-55, table 7-38

maintains relevant geopolitical awareness, 7-56, table 7-39

maintains self-awareness, 7- 57, table 7-40

developmental activities: stewards the profession, 7-63 improves the organization, 7-

65, table 7-46 supports professional and

personal growth, 7-64, table 7-45

E-F-G education, 1-2–1-3,1-12, 1-27,

table 2-3, 2-26, 3-1, 3-133, 3- 136

effective learning methods, 4-41 engage leaders, 3-49–3-50 enhancing learning, 3-57–3-58 feedback, 1-8, 1-37, 2-9, table 2-

2, 2-25, 3-3–3-4, 3-6, 3-9, table 3-1, 3-17–3-18, 3-21–3-56, assessment, 3-25–3-26 delivery, 3-35–3-37 making observations

(accurate/descriptive), 3-24– 3-28

planning observation, 3-23 preparation and timing, 3-38–

3-43 recording, 3-32–3-34. See also

SOAR format. feedback delivery, 3-35–3-37 feedback gathering, 4-9–4-15 forward momentum, 4-70

goal setting, 4-24 guided discovery learning, 3-77–

3-81 guided discovery learning

techniques, cause and effect analysis, 3-

91–3-94 multiple perspectives, 3-88–3-

89 non responsive individuals, 3-

99–3-100 open-ended questioning, 3-84–

3-87 positive reinforcement, 3-83 recovery from setbacks, 3-95 scaling questions, 3-90 use experience, 3-96–3-98

H-I-J-K identification of developmental

goal, table 7-1 individual development plan, 3-18,

3-130 information collection, 4-8 information gathering for goals, 4-

25 inspiration sources, 3-19–3-20 judgement and problem solving,

5-7–5-10 ambiguous unfamiliar

situations, 5-23–5-24 creative thinking, 5-15–5-17 critical thinking, 5-13–5-14 critical and creative thinking

development, 5-18–5-22 dominance structuring, 5-25,

page 5-6 thinking about thinking

(metacognition), 5-11–5-12 strategic thinking, 5-26–5-29

knowledge of subordinates, 3-14

L-M-N leader development,

mindset, 1-6, 1-10, 1-36, 2-8, 2-19, 3-2

planning (understand, visualize, plan execute, assess),

program evaluation, 2-28 tenets of, 1-3

leader performance indicators, See performance indicators.

leader selection, 3-123–3-125 leader succession, 3-126–3-128 leadership requirements, 1-13,

table 1-1


Entries are by paragraph number unless stated otherwise.

FM 6-22 Index-3

learning and development activities, table 2-3, 7-1–7-76, table 7-4

learning environment, 3-8–3-9. See also culture, climate, and developmental activities: creates a positive environment.

learning opportunities, 4-38–4-40 learning principles, 3-11–3-13,

table 3-1 lessons from delivering

observations, 3-52–3-54 mentor roles and responsibilities,

3-63–3-65, table 3-2 mentoring benefits, 3-69–3-72

mentor, 3-70 mentee, 3-71 organizational, 3-72

mentoring responsibilities, 3-73–3- 75

mentoring skills, 3-76 mentorship, 3-60–3-62 methods to implement

developmental activities, table 7-2

milestone planning, 4-34–4-35 mission command, 1-15–1-18, 1-

20, table 1-1, page 3-35 motivation, 4-37 Multi-Source Assessment and

Feedback (MSAF) program, 2- 11, 3-2, 4-1, 4-8, 7-8

O-P-Q observations, 3-27–3-28

observation delivery, 3-44–3- 48

planning, 3-23

planned around key events, 3- 29

integration, 3-101–3-104 patterns of behavior, 3-30 performance indicators,

achieve competencies, 6-14, table 6-6

character attributes, 6-8, table 6-1

develop competencies, 6-13, table 6-5

intellect attributes, 6-10, table 6-3

lead competencies, 6-12, table 6-4

presence attributes, 6-9, table 6-2

personal AAR, page 4-12 personal reading, 4-57 principles for specific types of

learning, 4-42–4-45 professional development

programs, 3-136–3-138 professional reading and writing

programs, 3-110–3-115 progress assessment, 4-71

R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z reflective journaling, 4-58–4-60 reflective thinking, 4-49 role models, 3-59 self-analysis, 4-16–4-18 self-development, 1-2–1-3, 1-11,

1-32, 2-5, table 2-3, 2-19, 3-1, 3-69, 3-115, 3-131–3-132, 4-1– 4-73, 7-5

self-development goals, 4-31–4- 33

self-development obstacles, 4-64 internal, 4-65–4-66 external, 4-67–4-68

self-enhanced learning, 4-36 setting conditions, 3-5–3-7 sharing experiences (exercise),

page 3-7 SOAR format, 3-31, figure 3-3 strengths and developmental

needs identification, 4-19–4-23 strengths and developmental

needs determination, 4-6–4-7 study, 3-109 subordinate receptiveness, 3-55–

3-56 talent management, 3-125, table

2-3 team building, 1-21 team trust unit cohesion, 3-15–3-

17 teams, 1-19–1-21, table 1-2 teamwork, 1-22–1-23 techniques for creating conditions

conducive to development, 3-10 training, 1-1–1-3, 1-6–1-7, 1-11–1-

12, 1-27, 1-29–1-30, 1-32, 2-2, 2-5, 2-9, table 2-2, table 2-3, 2- 22, 2-26, 3-4, 3-12, 3-26, 3-38, table 3-2, 3-97, 3-123, 3-128, 3- 133–3-135, 3-136, 3-138–3- 140, 4-68, 5-4, 5-29, 5-32, 5-34, table 7-2, 7-26, 7-28, 7-52

training events, 3-139–3-142 transitions, 1-32–1-37 work efficiently, 4-69

By Order of the Secretary of the Army

RAYMOND T. ODIERNO General, United States Army

Chief of Staff


GERALD B. O’KEEFE Administrative Assistant to the

Secretary of the Army 1

PIN: 083592-000