animal pysch

Running head: ETHOGRAM 1

Hypothesis:

Wild Chimpanzees exhibit different behaviors as dictated by a range of factors that include biology, ecology and social transmission.

While some of the behaviors exhibited by wild chimpanzees are transferred from their mothers through biology, others become integrated in the culture of a group and define the way of doing things. On the other hand, the environment/ecology dictates they type of behaviors that chimpanzees exhibit. For example, Nishida, Mitani and Watts (2004) investigated social scratching behaviors in two different game reserves (Muhale and Ngongo) he found that while chimpanzees in Ngongo used fingers to poke their counterparts, those in Muhale used Flexed fingers to stroke others.

Operational Definitions:

Sampling method: focal sampling

Data collection method: 2.5 minute intervals; 1-0 time sampling

behaviors

Abbreviations

Definitions

1. Social scratching

SC [1 or 2]

One chimpanzee scratching the body of another.

1= use of fingers to poke the back of another chimpanzee

2= use of flexed fingers to stroke the bodies of other chimpanzees (Nishida, Mitani, & Watts, 2004)

2. Sounds Uttered during grooming

GC [ LS or Tc)

Sound associated with the inspection of the skin of another chimpanzee.

LS= Lip smacking sounds

TC= Teeth clacking sounds

3. Nut cracking behaviors

NC (1 or 2)

Calls made when cracking nuts that are mostly influenced by the vocal culture

1= short, high pitched pants (Vaidyanathan, 2011)

2= long hoots

4. Termite fishing behaviors

TF (1 or2)

Invasion of a termite mould with a tool made from vegetation for the purpose of extracting termites

1= repeated brush straightening to prepare the end for insertion

2= no repeated brush straightening (Sanz & Morgan, 2011)

5. Mating behavior

MB (`1 0r 2)

The use of gestures to initiate mating

1= use of auditory gestures

2= use of tactile gestures (Roberts & Roberts, 2015)

6. Feeding behavior

FB [1 or 2]

The manner in which chimpanzees prioritize feeding habitats

1= prioritize mating instead of feedinf

2= occupy high quality feeding habitats

7. Social play

SP [1 or 2]

The use of playful gestures

1= individual chimpanzee participate in playful activities such as swinging in trees

2= two or more chimpanzee engage in playful activities such as chasing one another

8. Male conflict behavior

MC [1 or 2]

During the mating activity, males are either aggressive or submissive depending on their dominance.

1; moderate aggression that includes physical contact, attacks and chasing another chimpanzee

2= no aggression where the chimpanzee is submissive (Surbeck et. Al, 2017).

9. Communication behaviors

CB [1 or 2]

Refers to the socialization behaviors

1 barking and screaming

2= pants and hoots

10. Parental care

PC [1 or 2]

Refers to the chimpanzee caring behaviors for adolescents and infants

1=Male exhibit more caring behavior

2=Females exhibit more responsible and caring behaviors

Ethogram:

START TIME: 2:00 P.M.

Time

Behavior SC [1 or 2]

Behavior [LS or Tc]

Behavior

[NC 1 or 2]

Behavior

[TF 1 or 2]

Behavior

[MB 1 or 2]

Behavior

FB [1 or 2]

Behavior [SP 1, or 2 ]

Behavior [MC 1 or 2]

Behavior [CB 1 or 2]

Behavior [PC 1 or 2]

2.5

min

5

min

7.5min

10min

12.5 min

15 min

17.5 min

20 min

22.5min

25 min

27.5 min

30 min

32.5 min

35min

37.5 min

40 min

42.5 min

45min

47.5 min

50 min

52.5 min

55 min

57.5 min

60 min

62.5min

65 min

67.5 min

70 min

72.5 min

75 min

77.5 min

80 min

82.5 min

85min

87.5 min

90 min

92.5 min

95min

97.5min

100 min

102.5 min

105 min

107.5 min

110 min

112.5 min

115min

117.5 min

120 min

122.5min

125 min

127.5 min

130 min

132.5 min

135 min

137.5 min

140 min

142.5 min

145min

147.5 min

150 min

References

Nishida, T., Mitani, J. C., & Watts, D. (2004). Variable Grooming Behaviours in Wild Chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica, 75(1), 31-36. doi:10.1159/000073429

Roberts, A. I., & Roberts, S. G. (2015). Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees. Plos One, 10(11). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139683

Sanz, C. M., & Morgan, D. B. (2011). Elemental variation in the termite fishing of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Biology Letters, 7(4), 634-637. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2011.0088

Surbeck, M., Boesch, C., Girard-Buttoz, C., Crockford, C., Hohmann, G., & Wittig, R. M. (2017). Comparison of male conflict behavior in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus), with specific regard to coalition and post-conflict behavior. American Journal of Primatology, 79(6). doi:10.1002/ajp.22641

Vaidyanathan, G. (2011). Apes in Africa: The cultured chimpanzees. Nature, 476(7360), 266-269. doi:10.1038/476266a