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Cultural Anthropology

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Cultural Anthropology

Barbara Miller George Washington University

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Miller, Barbara D. Title: Cultural anthropology / Barbara Miller, George Washington University,

George Washington University. Description: Eighth edition. | Boston : Pearson, [2017] | Includes

bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2015038754| ISBN 9780134419077 (alk. paper) | ISBN 0134419073 (alk. paper)

Subjects: LCSH: Ethnology. Classification: LCC GN316 .M49 2013 | DDC 305.8--dc23

LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2015038754

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Student ISBN-10: 0-13-441907-3 ISBN-13: 978-0-13-441907-7

A La Carte ISBN-10: 0-13-441964-2 ISBN-13: 978-0-13-441964-0

v

1 Anthropology and the Study of Culture 1

2 The Evolution of Humanity and Culture 26

3 Researching Culture 53

4 Making a Living 77

5 Consumption and Exchange 101

6 Reproduction and Human Development 126

7 Disease, Illness, and Healing 151

8 Kinship and Domestic Life 176

9 Social Groups and Social Stratification 202

10 Power, Politics, and Social Order 225

11 Communication 250

12 Religion 273

13 Expressive Culture 299

14 People on the Move 323

15 People Defining Development 345

Brief Contents

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vii

Preface xiv Support for Instructors and Students xviii About the Author xix

1 Anthropology and the Study of Culture 1

Learning Objectives 2 Introducing Anthropology’s Four Fields 2

Biological or Physical Anthropology 3 Archaeology 4 Linguistic Anthropology 5 Cultural Anthropology 5

Anthropology Works Delivering Health Care in Rural Haiti 6

Applied Anthropology: Separate Field or Cross-Cutting Focus? 6

Introducing Cultural Anthropology 7 Highlights in the History of Cultural Anthropology 7 Three Debates 9 Changing Perspectives 11 The Concept of Culture 11

Think Like an Anthropologist Power in the Kitchen 14

Multiple Cultural Worlds 18 Culturama San Peoples of Southern Africa 20

Distinctive Features of Cultural Anthropology 22 Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism 22 Valuing and Sustaining Diversity 23 Cultural Anthropology Is Relevant to Careers 23

Learning Objectives Revisited 24

2 The Evolution of Humanity and Culture 26

Learning Objectives 27 Nonhuman Primates and the Roots of Human Culture 27

Primate Characteristics 28 The Great Apes 29 Nonhuman Primate Culture 33

Anthropology Works 34

Hominin Evolution to Modern Humans 35 The Early Hominins 35

Think Like an Anthropologist 38

Eye on the Environment 41

Modern Humans 42 The Neolithic Revolution and the Emergence of Cities

and States 45

The Neolithic Revolution 46 Cities and States 48

Learning Objectives Revisited 51

3 Researching Culture 53 Learning Objectives 54 Changing Research Methods 54

From the Armchair to the Field 54 Participant Observation 55

Culturama of Papua New Guinea 56

Doing Fieldwork in Cultural Anthropology 57 Beginning the Fieldwork Process 57

Anthropology Works 58

Working in the Field 60 Fieldwork Techniques 64 Recording Culture 68

Eye on the Environment 69

Data Analysis 71 Urgent Issues in Cultural Anthropology Research 73

Ethics and Collaborative Research 73 Safety in the Field 74

Learning Objectives Revisited 75

4 Making a Living 77 Learning Objectives 78 Culture and Economic Systems 78

Categorizing Livelihoods 78 Modes of Livelihood and Globalization 80

Making a Living: Five Modes of Livelihood 80 Foraging 81

Think Like an Anthropologist 83 Culturama 84

Horticulture 85 Pastoralism 87 Agriculture 88

Anthropology Works 90

Industrialism and the Digital Age 92 Changing Livelihoods 94

Foragers: The Tiwi of Northern Australia 95 Horticulturalists: The Mundurucu

of the Brazilian Amazon 95

Contents

viii Contents

Socialization During Childhood 139 Adolescence and Identity 140

Think Like an Anthropologist Cultural 143

Adulthood 146 Learning Objectives Revisited 149

7 Disease, Illness, and Healing 151 Learning Objectives 152 Ethnomedicine 152

Perceptions of the Body 153 Defining and Classifying Health Problems 153 Ethno-Etiologies 156 Prevention 157 Healing Ways 158

Eye on the Environment

162 Three Theoretical Approaches 163

The Ecological/Epidemiological Approach 163 The Symbolic/Interpretivist Approach 165 Critical Medical Anthropology 166

Globalization and Change 168 Infectious Diseases 168 Diseases of Development 169 Medical Pluralism 169

Culturama 171

Applied Medical Anthropology 172 Anthropology Works

173

Learning Objectives Revisited 174

8 Kinship and Domestic Life 176 Learning Objectives 177 How Cultures Create Kinship 177

Studying Kinship: From Formal Analysis to Kinship in Action 178

Descent 180 Sharing 181

Think Like an Anthropologist 182

Culturama 183

Marriage 184 Households and Domestic Life 190

The Household: Variations on a Theme 191 Intrahousehold Dynamics 193

Anthropology Works 196

Changing Kinship and Household Dynamics 197 Change in Descent 197 Change in Marriage 197

Pastoralists: The Herders of Mongolia 96 Family Farmers: The Maya of Chiapas, Mexico 97 Global Capitalism: Taiwanese Industrialists

in South Africa 98 Learning Objectives Revisited 99

5 Consumption and Exchange 101 Learning Objectives 102 Culture and Consumption 102

What Is Consumption? 103 Modes of Consumption 103 Consumption Funds 106 Theorizing Consumption Inequalities 106 Forbidden Consumption: Food Taboos 111

Culture and Exchange 112 What Is Exchanged? 112

Think Like an Anthropologist of Hospitality 114

Modes of Exchange 116 Unbalanced Exchange 117

Anthropology Works Evaluating the Social 120

Consumption, Exchange, and Global-Local Relations 121 Sugar, Salt, and Steel Tools in the Amazon 121 Global Networks and Ecstasy in the United States 122 Global Demand for Phosphate Eats an Island 122 Alternative Food Movements in Europe and North

America 122 Culturama a a 123

The Enduring Potlatch 124 Learning Objectives Revisited 124

6 Reproduction and Human Development 126

Learning Objectives 127 Modes of Reproduction 127

The Foraging Mode of Reproduction 127 The Agricultural Mode of Reproduction 127 The Industrial/Digital Mode of Reproduction 128

Culturama 129

Culture and Fertility 130 Sexual Intercourse 130

Anthropology Works 132

Fertility Decision Making 133 Fertility Control 135 Infanticide 136

Personality and the Life Cycle 137 Birth, Infancy, and Childhood 137

Contents ix

Learning Objectives Revisited 248

11 Communication 250 Learning Objectives 251 The Varieties of Human Communication 251

Language and Verbal Communication 251 Nonverbal Language 254

Anthropology Works 255

Communicating with Media and Information Technology 258

Language, Diversity, and Inequality 259 Language and Culture: Two Theories 259 Critical Discourse Analysis: Gender and “Race” 260

Language and Communication Change 263 The Origins and History of Language 263 Historical Linguistics 264 Writing Systems 266 Colonialism, Nationalism, and Globalization 266

Culturama 268

Endangered Languages and Language Revitalization 269

Think Like an Anthropologist 270

Learning Objectives Revisited 271

12 Religion 273 Learning Objectives 274 Religion in Comparative Perspective 274

What Is Religion? 274 Varieties of Religious Beliefs 276

Eye on the Environment 278

Ritual Practices 279 Anthropology Works

280

Religious Specialists 283 World Religions and Local Variations 284

Hinduism 285 Buddhism 286 Judaism 287

Think Like an Anthropologist 288

Christianity 290 Islam 291

Culturama 293

African Religions 294 Directions of Religious Change 295

Revitalization Movements 295 Contested Sacred Sites 297 Religious Freedom as a Human Right 297

Changing Households 198 Learning Objectives Revisited 200

9 Social Groups and Social Stratification 202

Learning Objectives 203 Social Groups 203

Friendship 204 Think Like an Anthropologist 205

Clubs and Fraternities/Sororities 207 Cooperatives 210 Self-Help Groups 211

Social Stratification 211 Achieved Status: Class 212 Ascribed Status: “Race,” Ethnicity, Gender,

and Caste 212 Culturama 216

Civil Society 219 Civil Society for the State: The Chinese Women’s

Movement 220 Anthropology Works

221

Activist Groups: CO-MADRES 221 Social Capital, Social Movements,

and Social Media 222 Learning Objectives Revisited 223

10 Power, Politics, and Social Order 225 Learning Objectives 226 Public Power: Political Organization and Leadership 226

Bands 227 Tribes 228 Chiefdoms 231 States 232

Eye on the Environment 233

Social Order and Social Conflict 235 Norms and Laws 236 Systems of Social Control 237 Social Conflict and Violence 240

Think Like an Anthropologist 242

Changing Public Power and Social Control 244 Nations and Transnational Nations 244

Anthropology Works 245

Culturama 246

Democratization 247 The United Nations and International

Peacekeeping 247

x x Contents

Learning Objectives Revisited 298

13 Expressive Culture 299 Learning Objectives 300 Art and Culture 300 Think Like an Anthropologist

the Categories of Art 301

What Is Art? 301 Studying Art in Society 302 Performance Arts 305 Architecture and Decorative Arts 307 Museums and Culture 310

Play, Leisure, and Culture 311 Games and Sports as a Cultural Microcosm 312 Leisure Travel 313

Culturama 315

Change in Expressive Culture 316 Colonialism and Syncretism 316 Tourism’s Complex Effects 317

Anthropology Works A Strategy on Cultural 318

Cultural Heritage as a Contested Resource 319 Art for Good 320

Learning Objectives Revisited 321

14 People on the Move 323 Learning Objectives 324 Categories of Migration 325

Categories Based on Spatial Boundaries 325 Think Like an Anthropologist Haitian Cane Cutters

327

Categories Based on Reason for Moving 329 Culturama 332

The New Immigrants to the United States and Canada 333 Think Like an Anthropologist Stress

334

The New Immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean 335

The New Immigrants from Asia 338

The New Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union 340

Migration Policies and Programs in a Globalizing World 340 Protecting Migrants’ Health 340 Inclusion and Exclusion 340 Migration and Human Rights 341

Anthropology Works

342

Learning Objectives Revisited 343

15 People Defining Development 345 Learning Objectives 346 Defining Development and Approaches to It 346

Two Processes of Social Change 347 Theories and Models of Development 348

Anthropology Works 349

Institutional Approaches to Development 352 Culturama 354

The Development Project 355 Development, Indigenous People, and Women 357

Indigenous People and Development 358 Women and Development 363

Urgent Issues in Development 365 Eye on the Environment

366

Life Projects and Human Rights 366 Cultural Heritage, Human Rights,

and Development: Linking the Past and Present to the Future 368

Cultural Anthropology and the Future 369 Learning Objectives Revisited 370

Photo Credits 373

Glossary 379

Reference 385

Index 404

xi

Features

Anthropology Works Delivering Health Care in Rural Haiti 6 Saving Orangutans 34 What’s for Breakfast in California? 58 Something Old, Something New in Bolivian Farming 90 Evaluating the Social Effects of Indian Gaming 120 Studying Sexual Behavior among MSM in New York

City 132 Promoting Vaccination Programs in Developing Countries 173 Preventing Wife Abuse in Rural Kentucky 196 Forensic Anthropology for the Maya of Guatemala 221 Advocacy Anthropology and Community Activism in

Papua New Guinea 245 Narrating Troubles 255 Aboriginal Women’s Culture and Sacred Site Protection 280 A Strategy on Cultural Heritage for the World Bank 318 Mapping African Pastoralists’ Movements for Risk Assess-

ment and Service Delivery 342 The Saami, Snowmobiles, and Social Impact Analysis 349

Think Like an Anthropologist Power in the Kitchen 14 What Is Really in the Toolbox? 38 The Importance of Dogs 83 The Rules of Hospitality 114 Cultural Relativism and Female Genital Cutting 143 What’s in a Name? 182 Making Friends 205 Yanomami, The “Fierce People”? 242 Should Dying Languages Be Revived? 270 Tattoos and Sacred Power 288

Probing the Categories of Art 301 Haitian Cane Cutters in the Dominican Republic: Structure

or Agency? 327 Stress among Boarding School Girls in Madagascar 334

Culturama San Peoples of Southern Africa 20 The Trobriand Islanders of Papua New Guinea 56 The Andaman Islanders of India 84 The Kwakwaka’wakw of Canada 123 The Old Order Amish of the United States and Canada 129 The Sherpa of Nepal 171 The Minangkabau of Indonesia 183 The Roma of Eastern Europe 216 The Kurds of the Middle East 246 The Saami of Sápmi, or Lapland 268 Hui Muslims of Xi’an, China 293 The Gullah of South Carolina 315 The Maya of Guatemala 332 Peyizan Yo of Haiti 354

Eye on the Environment Clothing as a Thermal Adaptation 41 Inuit Place Names and Landscape Knowledge 69 Local Botanical Knowledge and Child Health in the Boliv-

ian Amazon 162 Water, Pollution, and International Politics 233 Eagle Protection, National Parks, and the Preservation of

Hopi Culture 278 Oil, Environmental Degradation, and Human Rights in the

Niger Delta 366

Maps Chapter 1 Map 1.1 Weyéwa Region in Indonesia 13 Map 1.2 Papua New Guinea 16 Map 1.3 Ju/wasi Region in Namibia and Botswana 20

Chapter 2 Map 2.1 Where Nonhuman Primates Live Today 29 Map 2.2 Orangutan Regions in Malaysia and Indonesia 30 Map 2.3 Sites of Early Hominins and Archaic Homo in

Africa 36 Map 2.4 Dmanisi, Georgia 39 Map 2.5 Hominin Sites on Islands of Indonesia 39 Map 2.6 Neanderthal Sites and Distribution in the Old

World 40 Map 2.7 Upper Paleolithic Sites in Europe 43 Map 2.8 New World Sites 45 Map 2.9 North American Mid-Atlantic Continental Shelf 45 Map 2.10 Neolithic Sites in the Middle East 46

Chapter 3 Map 3.1 Trobriand Islands of Papua New Guinea 56 Map 3.2 Japan 61 Map 3.3 Syria 62 Map 3.4 Baffin Island in Northeast Canada 69 Map 3.5 Spain 70 Map 3.6 Iceland 71

Chapter 4 Map 4.1 Hare Region Is Near Colville Lake in Northwest

Canada 83 Map 4.2 Andaman Islands of India 84 Map 4.3 Precolonial Iroquois Region 86 Map 4.4 Yanomami Region in Brazil and Venezuela 86 Map 4.5 Iran 88 Map 4.6 Tiwi Region in Northern Australia 96 Map 4.7 Mongolia 97

Chapter 5 Map 5.1 Location of the Kuru Epidemic in Papua New

Guinea 109 Map 5.2 Connecticut, United States 110 Map 5.3 Use of Mobile Money in Africa 112 Map 5.4 Oman 114 Map 5.5 The Balgo Hills (Wirrimanu) Region in Western

Australia 115 Map 5.6 Lese and Efe Region in the Democratic Republic

of Congo 121 Map 5.7 The Kwakwaka’wakw Region in Canada 123

Chapter 6 Map 6.1 Old Order Amish Population of North America 129 Map 6.2 Morocco 133

Map 6.3 Mexico 134 Map 6.4 Maasai Region of Kenya and Tanzania 141 Map 6.5 Sierra Leone 143 Map 6.6 Mainland Southeast Asia 145 Map 6.7 Aka Region of the Central African Republic and

the Democratic Republic of Congo 147

Chapter 7 Map 7.1 Federative Republic of Brazil 154 Map 7.2 The Philippines 155 Map 7.3 Central America 158 Map 7.4 The Republic of Bolivia 162 Map 7.5 Precolonial Distribution of Indian Tribes in the

48 United States 165 Map 7.6 Designated Reservations in the 48 United States 166 Map 7.7 Nepal 171 Map 7.8 Samoa and American Samoa 172

Chapter 8 Map 8.1 Ireland 178 Map 8.2 Hong Kong 182 Map 8.3 Minangkabau Region in Indonesia 183 Map 8.4 South India 187 Map 8.5 Ghana 190 Map 8.6 Kentucky, United States 196 Map 8.7 Kelabit Region in Malaysia 199

Chapter 9 Map 9.1 Bangladesh 204 Map 9.2 Caribbean Countries of South America 207 Map 9.3 The Solomon Islands 208 Map 9.4 Guna Region in Panama 210 Map 9.5 South Africa 214 Map 9.6 Roma Population in Eastern Europe 216

Chapter 10 Map 10.1 Kayapo Region in Brazil 229 Map 10.2 Melanesia 230 Map 10.3 The Danube and Tisza Rivers in Eastern

Europe 233 Map 10.4 Central Asian States 241 Map 10.5 Kurdish Region in the Middle East 246 Map 10.6 Puerto Rico 247

Chapter 11 Map 11.1 Pirahã Reservation in Brazil 252 Map 11.2 Bosnia and Herzegovina 255 Map 11.3 Western Apache Reservation in Arizona 256 Map 11.4 Hungary 259 Map 11.5 Akwesasne Territory in New York State,

Ontario Province, and Québec Province. 262 Map 11.6 Two Sites of Proto-Indo-European Origins 265 Map 11.7 The Bantu Migrations in Africa 265 Map 11.8 The Saami of Sápmi, or Lapland 268

xii

xiii

Chapter 12 Map 12.1 Klamath and Modoc Region in Oregon and

California 276 Map 12.2 Hopi Reservation in Arizona 278 Map 12.3 England 279 Map 12.4 Hindmarsh Island in Southeast Australia 280 Map 12.5 Italy 282 Map 12.6 Sacred Sites in the Old City of Jerusalem,

Israel 289 Map 12.7 Samoa and American Samoa 291 Map 12.8 The City of Xi’an in China 293

Chapter 13 Map 13.1 Ukraine 311 Map 13.2 Costa Rica 314 Map 13.3 The Gullah Region 315 Map 13.4 Turkey 317

Chapter 14 Map 14.1 Tonga 328 Map 14.2 Site of Three Gorges Dam in China 331 Map 14.3 Guatemala 332 Map 14.4 Madagascar 334 Map 14.5 El Salvador 337 Map 14.6 Sahel Region 341

Chapter 15 Map 15.1 Walpole Island Reservation in Southern

Ontario, Canada 347 Map 15.2 Kerala, South India 351 Map 15.3 Haiti 354 Map 15.4 Senegal 357 Map 15.5 Nunavut Territory, Canada 361 Map 15.6 Sudan and South Sudan 362 Map 15.7 Nigeria and the Niger Delta 367

Preface

I had no idea all those cultures were out there,” said one of my students after taking my introductory cul-tural anthropology course. Another commented, “I’m a business major, but I am going to keep the books from this course because they will help me in my career. I need to understand people.”

Cultural anthropology opens up whole new worlds. Not just “out there,” but here, there, and everywhere. The subject matter of cultural anthropology may seem distant, exotic, and “other”—jungle drumbeats and painted faces, for example. This book helps students to encounter those faraway cultures and also to realize that their culture has its own versions of jungle drumbeats and painted faces. “Making the strange familiar” is essential learning in a glo- balizing world where cultural diversity may equal cultural survival for all of us. “Making the familiar strange” is a priceless revelation because it reduces the divide between “us” and the “other.” “We” becomes “other” through the insights of cultural anthropology.

To achieve this double goal, Cultural Anthropology, Eighth Edition, delivers exciting and updated information about the world’s cultures and promotes critical thinking and reflective learning. Students will find many points at which they can interact with the material, view their own culture as a culture, and make connections between anthro- pology and their everyday life in, for example, hairstyles, food symbolism, sleep deprivation, doctor–patient dia- logues, racism and sexism, and the meaning of gestures.

The study of the world’s cultures and how they inter- act and change involves learning new words and analytical categories, but the effort will pay off in terms of bringing the world’s peoples and cultures closer to you. If this book achieves my aspirations, anyone who reads it will live a life that is more culturally aware, enriched, and tolerant.

How This Book Is Organized The book’s organization and pedagogical features are de- signed to help ensure student engagement and enhanced learning. The 15 chapters are organized in the following way––but professors will find it easy to assign chapters out of order.

The first chapter describes the discipline of anthropol- ogy as a whole and provides the foundation for the rest of the book. The second chapter covers the evolution of humanity and culture, providing a bridge that spans our

living primate relatives and early human evolution to the emergence of agriculture, cities, and states. The third chap- ter moves to the subject of how cultural anthropologists define research topics, carry out research, and present their findings.

The next four chapters discuss how people make a liv- ing, their patterns of consumption and exchange, how they reproduce and raise children, and how different cultures deal with illness, suffering, and death. While these four chapters address basic questions of how people feed them- selves, reproduce, and stay alive and well, the discussion in each case fans out to include a wide array of cultural in- terpretations and practices that go far beyond sheer basics.

The next three chapters look at people in groups. One chapter addresses kinship and its changing forms. Another looks at social ties that are not based on kinship. The third considers how people organize themselves politically, how they seek to maintain order, and how they deal with conflict.

Although symbolic behavior permeates the entire book, three chapters most directly focus on meaning and sym- bolism. The chapter on communication pulls much of the book together as it considers the origins and evolution of communication and language, with special attention to con- temporary change. The chapter on religion provides cross- cultural categories of religious belief and practice as well as linking “world religions” to specific local transformations. Expressive culture is a wide-ranging subject, and the chap- ter on it embraces expected topics such as art and music and unexpected topics such as sports, leisure, and travel.

The last two chapters consider two of the most impor- tant topics shaping cultural change in our time: migration and international development. These chapters explicitly put culture into motion and show how people are affected by larger structures, such as globalization or violence, and how they exercise agency in attempting to create meaning- ful and secure lives.

Features Several new and continued features make this textbook dis- tinctive and effective.

Learning Objectives Learning Objectives are listed at the beginning of each chapter and below the three major chapter headings. At the end of the chapter, Learning Objectives Revisited provides

xiv

Preface xv

a helpful review of the key points related to the three Learning Objectives.

Anthro Connections Each chapter begins with an attention-getting short piece on an aspect of culture that relates to recent events and con- nects to the chapter opening photo. This feature helps stu- dents see the relevance of anthropology to contemporary issues around the world.

Culturama All chapters include a one-page profile of a cultural group with a mini-panorama of two photographs and a map with captions. These brief summaries provide an enticing glimpse into the culture presented.

Anthropology Works Although students may appreciate the interesting mate- rial that cultural anthropology offers, they are still likely to ask, “Does this knowledge have any practical applica- tions?” Every chapter contains a compelling example of how knowledge and methods in cultural anthropology can prevent or solve social problems. Anthropology Works ex- amples include: Paul Farmer’s role in providing health care in Haiti, Laura Tabac’s applied research on men’s risky sex- ual practices in New York City, and Australian Aboriginal women’s collaboration with an anthropologist to document and preserve their cultural heritage.

Think Like an Anthropologist These examples connect anthropology to everyone’s lives and prompt reflective learning. Others introduce a prob- lem and show how it has been studied or analyzed from different anthropological perspectives, providing links to the major theoretical debates in cultural anthropology pre- sented in Chapter 1, and prompt critical thinking.

Eye on the Environment This feature highlights the important relationship be- tween culture and environment. Along with many in-text references to how culture and the environment interact, students will recognize culture-environment connections through examples from many cultures.

Map Program The maps are carefully chosen and designed to provide the right amount of information to complement the text. Detailed captions lead students on to connect the map with other topics such as livelihood, population, and language.

In-Text Glossary Definitions of the Key Concepts are provided where the concept is first mentioned and defined. A paginated list of the Key Concepts appears at the end of each chapter. The glossary at the end of the book contains a complete list of Key Concepts and their definitions.

Thinking Outside the Box This feature provides two or three thought-provoking questions in each chapter, displayed at the end of the chap- ter. These questions prompt readers to relate a topic to their cultural experiences or provide an avenue for further re- search. They can promote class discussion or serve as a ba- sis for a class project.

What’s New in This Edition Each chapter contains updated material including exam- ples from the latest research, current population statistics, and new and revised Key Concepts.

Chapter 1: the relevance of cultural anthropology in ad- dressing the Ebola epidemic

Chapter 2: drumming among nonhuman primates

Chapter 3: computational anthropology as a new Key Concept; discussion of “diffraction” in commodity stud- ies; updates in the Culturama on the Trobriand Islands; sexual discrimination within the discipline

Chapter 4: example of the ethnographic study of sanita- tion workers in New York City; updates in the Cultura- ma on the Andaman Island peoples; division of labor and subjective well-being are two new Key Concepts

Chapter 5: discussion of hyperconsumerism; example of effects of global consumer demand driving phosphate mining in a small Pacific island and displacement of the in- digenous population; new Key Concept on mobile money

Chapter 6: update on China’s One Child Policy as more flexible; discussion of commercial birth surrogacy as a recent aspect of reproduction that is linked to global and local social inequality; update in the Culturama on the Amish; heteronormativity is a new Key Concept

Chapter 7: discussion of zoonotic diseases as a subtype of infectious diseases; stigma is a new Key Concept

Chapter 8: new example of touch as a way of communi- cating kinship in Central India

Chapter 9: material on emerging social inequality within “racial” categories in South Africa based on life histo- ries; update in the Culturama on the Roma

Chapter 10: revised statistics about incarceration; up- date in the Culturama on the Kurdish people

xvi xvi Preface

Chapter 12: new material about the Ngarrindjeri Wur- ruwarrin and their land claims in Australia; revised Key Concept definition of revitalization movements

Chapter 13: new material on the role of art in post-conflict situations

Chapter 14: updated migration statistics throughout the chapter

Chapter 15: updated statistics on indigenous peoples; material on careers in international development and how students can best pursue such careers