The Quantitative Analysis Approach & Ex. of Quantitative Analysis in Research


Statistical Techniques in Business & Economics




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Statistical Techniques in


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Statistical Techniques in



DOUGLAS A. LIND Coastal Carolina University and The University of Toledo

WILLIAM G. MARCHAL The University of Toledo

SAMUEL A. WATHEN Coastal Carolina University

STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, SEVENTEENTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2015, 2012, and 2010. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw- Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LWI 21 20 19 18 17 16

ISBN 978-1-259-66636-0 MHID 1-259-66636-0

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All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Lind, Douglas A., author. | Marchal, William G., author. | Wathen, Samuel Adam. author. Title: Statistical techniques in business & economics/Douglas A. Lind, Coastal Carolina University and The University of Toledo, William G. Marchal, The University of Toledo, Samuel A. Wathen, Coastal Carolina University. Other titles: Statistical techniques in business and economics Description: Seventeenth Edition. | Dubuque, IA : McGraw-Hill Education, [2017] | Revised edition of the authors’ Statistical techniques in business & economics, [2015] Identifiers: LCCN 2016054310| ISBN 9781259666360 (alk. paper) | ISBN 1259666360 (alk. paper) Subjects: LCSH: Social sciences—Statistical methods. | Economics—Statistical methods. | Commercial statistics. Classification: LCC HA29 .M268 2017 | DDC 519.5—dc23 LC record available at

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.


To Jane, my wife and best friend, and our sons, their wives, and our grandchildren: Mike and Sue (Steve and Courtney), Steve and Kathryn (Kennedy, Jake, and Brady), and Mark and Sarah (Jared, Drew, and Nate).

Douglas A. Lind

To Oscar Sambath Marchal, Julian Irving Horowitz, Cecilia Marchal Nicholson and Andrea.

William G. Marchal

To my wonderful family: Barb, Hannah, and Isaac.

Samuel A. Wathen


Over the years, we received many compliments on this text and understand that it’s a favorite among students. We accept that as the highest compliment and continue to work very hard to maintain that status.

The objective of Statistical Techniques in Business and Economics is to provide students majoring in management, marketing, finance, accounting, economics, and other fields of business administration with an introductory survey of descriptive and infer- ential statistics. To illustrate the application of statistics, we use many examples and exercises that focus on business applications, but also relate to the current world of the college student. A previous course in statistics is not necessary, and the mathematical requirement is first-year algebra.

In this text, we show beginning students every step needed to be successful in a basic statistics course. This step-by-step approach enhances performance, accel- erates preparedness, and significantly improves motivation. Understanding the concepts, seeing and doing plenty of examples and exercises, and comprehending the application of statistical methods in business and economics are the focus of this book.

The first edition of this text was published in 1967. At that time, locating relevant business data was difficult. That has changed! Today, locating data is not a problem. The number of items you purchase at the grocery store is automatically recorded at the checkout counter. Phone companies track the time of our calls, the length of calls, and the identity of the person called. Credit card companies maintain information on the number, time and date, and amount of our purchases. Medical devices automati- cally monitor our heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature from remote locations. A large amount of business information is recorded and reported almost instantly. CNN, USA Today, and MSNBC, for example, all have websites that track stock prices in real time.

Today, the practice of data analytics is widely applied to “big data.” The practice of data analytics requires skills and knowledge in several areas. Computer skills are needed to process large volumes of information. Analytical skills are needed to evaluate, summarize, organize, and analyze the information. Critical thinking skills are needed to interpret and communicate the results of processing the information.

Our text supports the development of basic data analytical skills. In this edition, we added a new section at the end of each chapter called Data Analytics. As you work through the text, this section provides the instructor and student with opportu- nities to apply statistical knowledge and statistical software to explore several busi- ness environments. Interpretation of the analytical results is an integral part of these exercises.

A variety of statistical software is available to complement our text. Microsoft Excel includes an add-in with many statistical analyses. Megastat is an add-in available for Microsoft Excel. Minitab and JMP are stand-alone statistical software available to down- load for either PC or MAC computers. In our text, Microsoft Excel, Minitab, and Megastat are used to illustrate statistical software analyses. When a software application is pre- sented, the software commands for the application are available in Appendix C. We use screen captures within the chapters, so the student becomes familiar with the nature of the software output.

Because of the availability of computers and software, it is no longer necessary to dwell on calculations. We have replaced many of the calculation examples with interpre- tative ones, to assist the student in understanding and interpreting the statistical results. In addition, we place more emphasis on the conceptual nature of the statistical topics. While making these changes, we still continue to present, as best we can, the key con- cepts, along with supporting interesting and relevant examples.



WHAT’S NEW IN THE SEVENTEENTH EDITION? We have made many changes to examples and exercises throughout the text. The sec- tion on “Enhancements” to our text details them. The major change to the text is in response to user interest in the area of data analytics. Our approach is to provide in- structors and students with the opportunity to combine statistical knowledge, computer and statistical software skills, and interpretative and critical thinking skills. A set of new and revised exercises is included at the end of chapters 1 through 18 in a section titled “Data Analytics.”

In these sections, exercises refer to three data sets. The North Valley Real Estate sales data set lists 105 homes currently on the market. The Lincolnville School District bus data lists information on 80 buses in the school district’s bus fleet. The authors de- signed these data so that students will be able to use statistical software to explore the data and find realistic relationships in the variables. The Baseball Statistics for the 2016 season is updated from the previous edition.

The intent of the exercises is to provide the basis of a continuing case analysis. We suggest that instructors select one of the data sets and assign the corresponding exer- cises as each chapter is completed. Instructor feedback regarding student performance is important. Students should retain a copy of each chapter’s results and interpretations to develop a portfolio of discoveries and findings. These will be helpful as students progress through the course and use new statistical techniques to further explore the data. The ideal ending for these continuing data analytics exercises is a comprehensive report based on the analytical findings.

We know that working with a statistics class to develop a very basic competence in data analytics is challenging. Instructors will be teaching statistics. In addition, instruc- tors will be faced with choosing statistical software and supporting students in develop- ing or enhancing their computer skills. Finally, instructors will need to assess student performance based on assignments that include both statistical and written compo- nents. Using a mentoring approach may be helpful.

We hope that you and your students find this new feature interesting and engaging.


Chapter Learning Objectives Each chapter begins with a set of learning objectives designed to pro- vide focus for the chapter and motivate student learning. These objectives, lo- cated in the margins next to the topic, indicate what the student should be able to do after completing each sec- tion in the chapter.

Chapter Opening Exercise A representative exercise opens the chapter and shows how the chapter content can be applied to a real-world situation.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to:

LO2-1 Summarize qualitative variables with frequency and relative frequency tables.

LO2-2 Display a frequency table using a bar or pie chart.

LO2-3 Summarize quantitative variables with frequency and relative frequency distributions.

LO2-4 Display a frequency distribution using a histogram or frequency polygon.

MERRILL LYNCH recently completed a study of online investment portfolios for a sample of clients. For the 70 participants in the study, organize these data into a frequency distribution. (See Exercise 43 and LO2-3.)



Source: © rido/123RF

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Introduction to the Topic Each chapter starts with a review of the important concepts of the previ- ous chapter and provides a link to the material in the current chapter. This step-by-step approach increases com- prehension by providing continuity across the concepts.


INTRODUCTION The United States automobile retailing industry is highly competitive. It is dominated by megadealerships that own and operate 50 or more franchises, employ over 10,000 people, and generate several billion dollars in annual sales. Many of the top dealerships

are publicly owned with shares traded on the New York Stock Exchange or NASDAQ. In 2014, the largest megadealership was AutoNation (ticker symbol AN), followed by Penske Auto Group (PAG), Group 1 Automotive, Inc. (ticker symbol GPI), and the privately owned Van Tuyl Group.

These large corporations use statistics and analytics to summarize and analyze data and information to support their decisions. As an ex- ample, we will look at the Applewood Auto group. It owns four dealer- ships and sells a wide range of vehicles. These include the popular Korean brands Kia and Hyundai, BMW and Volvo sedans and luxury SUVs, and a full line of Ford and Chevrolet cars and trucks.

Ms. Kathryn Ball is a member of the senior management team at Applewood Auto Group, which has its corporate offices adjacent to Kane Motors. She is responsible for tracking and analyzing vehicle sales and

the profitability of those vehicles. Kathryn would like to summarize the profit earned on the vehicles sold with tables, charts, and graphs that she would review monthly. She wants to know the profit per vehicle sold, as well as the lowest and highest amount of profit. She is also interested in describing the demographics of the buyers. What are their ages? How many vehicles have they previously purchased from one of the Apple- wood dealerships? What type of vehicle did they purchase?

The Applewood Auto Group operates four dealerships:

• Tionesta Ford Lincoln sells Ford and Lincoln cars and trucks. • Olean Automotive Inc. has the Nissan franchise as well as the General Motors

brands of Chevrolet, Cadillac, and GMC Trucks. • Sheffield Motors Inc. sells Buick, GMC trucks, Hyundai, and Kia. • Kane Motors offers the Chrysler, Dodge, and Jeep line as well as BMW and Volvo.

Every month, Ms. Ball collects data from each of the four dealerships and enters them into an Excel spreadsheet. Last month the Applewood Auto Group sold 180 vehicles at the four dealerships. A copy of the first few observations appears to the left. The variables collected include:

• Age—the age of the buyer at the time of the purchase. • Profit—the amount earned by the dealership on the sale of each

vehicle. • Location—the dealership where the vehicle was purchased. • Vehicle type—SUV, sedan, compact, hybrid, or truck. • Previous—the number of vehicles previously purchased at any of the

four Applewood dealerships by the consumer.

The entire data set is available at the McGraw-Hill website (www.mhhe .com/lind17e) and in Appendix A.4 at the end of the text.

Source: © Justin Sullivan/Getty Images

CONSTRUCTING FREQUENCY TABLES Recall from Chapter 1 that techniques used to describe a set of data are called descrip- tive statistics. Descriptive statistics organize data to show the general pattern of the data, to identify where values tend to concentrate, and to expose extreme or unusual data values. The first technique we discuss is a frequency table.

LO2-1 Summarize qualitative variables with frequency and relative frequency tables.

FREQUENCY TABLE A grouping of qualitative data into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive classes showing the number of observations in each class.

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Example/Solution After important concepts are introduced, a solved example is given. This example provides a how-to illustration and shows a relevant business application that helps students answer the question, “How can I apply this concept?”


INTRODUCTION Chapter 2 began our study of descriptive statistics. In order to transform raw or un- grouped data into a meaningful form, we organize the data into a frequency distribution. We present the frequency distribution in graphic form as a histogram or a frequency polygon. This allows us to visualize where the data tend to cluster, the largest and the smallest values, and the general shape of the data.

In Chapter 3, we first computed several measures of location, such as the mean, median, and mode. These measures of location allow us to report a typical value in the set of observations. We also computed several measures of dispersion, such as the range, variance, and standard deviation. These measures of dispersion allow us to de- scribe the variation or the spread in a set of observations.

We continue our study of descriptive statistics in this chapter. We study (1) dot plots, (2) stem-and-leaf displays, (3) percentiles, and (4) box plots. These charts and statistics give us additional insight into where the values are concentrated as well as the general shape of the data. Then we consider bivariate data. In bivariate data, we observe two variables for each individual or observation. Examples include the number of hours a student studied and the points earned on an examination; if a sampled product meets quality specifications and the shift on which it is manufactured; or the amount of electric- ity used in a month by a homeowner and the mean daily high temperature in the region for the month. These charts and graphs provide useful insights as we use business analytics to enhance our understanding of data.

DOT PLOTS Recall for the Applewood Auto Group data, we summarized the profit earned on the 180 vehicles sold with a frequency distribution using eight classes. When we orga- nized the data into the eight classes, we lost the exact value of the observations. A dot plot, on the other hand, groups the data as little as possible, and we do not lose the identity of an individual observation. To develop a dot plot, we display a dot for each observation along a horizontal number line indicating the possible values of the data. If there are identical observations or the observations are too close to be shown individually, the dots are “piled” on top of each other. This allows us to see the shape of the distribution, the value about which the data tend to cluster, and the largest and smallest observations. Dot plots are most useful for smaller data sets, whereas histo- grams tend to be most useful for large data sets. An example will show how to con- struct and interpret dot plots.

LO4-1 Construct and interpret a dot plot.


The service departments at Tionesta Ford Lincoln and Sheffield Motors Inc., two of the four Applewood Auto Group dealerships, were both open 24 days last month. Listed below is the number of vehicles serviced last month at the two dealerships. Construct dot plots and report summary statistics to compare the two dealerships.

Tionesta Ford Lincoln

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

23 33 27 28 39 26 30 32 28 33 35 32 29 25 36 31 32 27 35 32 35 37 36 30

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Self-Reviews Self-Reviews are interspersed throughout each chapter and follow Example/Solution sec- tions. They help students mon- itor their progress and provide immediate reinforcement for that particular technique. An- swers are in Appendix E.


calculate quartiles. Excel 2013 and Excel 2016 offer both methods. The Excel function, Quartile.exc, will result in the same answer as Equation 4–1. The Excel function, Quar-, will result in the Excel Method answers.  

The Quality Control department of Plainsville Peanut Company is responsible for checking the weight of the 8-ounce jar of peanut butter. The weights of a sample of nine jars pro- duced last hour are:

7.69 7.72 7.8 7.86 7.90 7.94 7.97 8.06 8.09

(a) What is the median weight?  (b) Determine the weights corresponding to the first and third quartiles. 

S E L F - R E V I E W 4–2

11. Determine the median and the first and third quartiles in the following data.

46 47 49 49 51 53 54 54 55 55 59

12. Determine the median and the first and third quartiles in the following data.

5.24 6.02 6.67 7.30 7.59 7.99 8.03 8.35 8.81 9.45 9.61 10.37 10.39 11.86 12.22 12.71 13.07 13.59 13.89 15.42

13. The Thomas Supply Company Inc. is a distributor of gas-powered generators. As with any business, the length of time customers take to pay their invoices is im- portant. Listed below, arranged from smallest to largest, is the time, in days, for a sample of The Thomas Supply Company Inc. invoices.

13 13 13 20 26 27 31 34 34 34 35 35 36 37 38 41 41 41 45 47 47 47 50 51 53 54 56 62 67 82

a. Determine the first and third quartiles.  b. Determine the second decile and the eighth decile.  c. Determine the 67th percentile. 

14. Kevin Horn is the national sales manager for National Textbooks Inc. He has a sales staff of 40 who visit college professors all over the United States. Each Saturday morning he requires his sales staff to send him a report. This re- port includes, among other things, the number of professors visited during the previous week. Listed below, ordered from smallest to largest, are the number of visits last week.

38 40 41 45 48 48 50 50 51 51 52 52 53 54 55 55 55 56 56 57 59 59 59 62 62 62 63 64 65 66 66 67 67 69 69 71 77 78 79 79

a. Determine the median number of calls. b. Determine the first and third quartiles. c. Determine the first decile and the ninth decile. d. Determine the 33rd percentile.


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Statistics in Action Statistics in Action articles are scattered through- out the text, usually about two per chapter. They provide unique, interesting applications and his- torical insights in the field of statistics.


The General Rule of Addition The outcomes of an experiment may not be mutually exclusive. For example, the Florida Tourist Commission selected a sample of 200 tourists who visited the state during the year. The survey revealed that 120 tourists went to Disney World and 100 went to Busch Gardens near Tampa. What is the probability that a person selected visited either Disney World or Busch Gardens? If the special rule of addition is used, the probability of selecting a tourist who went to Disney World is .60, found by 120/200. Similarly, the probability of a tourist going to Busch Gardens is .50. The sum of these probabilities is 1.10. We know, however, that this probability cannot be greater than 1. The explanation is that many tour- ists visited both attractions and are being counted twice! A check of the survey responses revealed that 60 out of 200 sampled did, in fact, visit both attractions.

To answer our question, “What is the probability a selected person visited either Disney World or Busch Gardens?” (1) add the probability that a tourist visited Disney World and the probability he or she visited Busch Gardens, and (2) subtract the proba- bility of visiting both. Thus:

P(Disney or Busch) = P(Disney) + P(Busch) − P(both Disney and Busch) = .60 + .50 − .30 = .80

When two events both occur, the probability is called a joint probability. The prob- ability (.30) that a tourist visits both attractions is an example of a joint probability.

© Rostislav Glinsky/

The following Venn diagram shows two events that are not mutually exclusive. The two events overlap to illustrate the joint event that some people have visited both attractions.

A sample of employees of Worldwide Enterprises is to be surveyed about a new health care plan. The employees are classified as follows:

Classification Event Number of Employees

Supervisors A 120 Maintenance B 50 Production C 1,460 Management D 302 Secretarial E 68

(a) What is the probability that the first person selected is: (i) either in maintenance or a secretary?   (ii) not in management?   (b) Draw a Venn diagram illustrating your answers to part (a).   (c) Are the events in part (a)(i) complementary or mutually exclusive or both?  

S E L F - R E V I E W 5–3


If you wish to get some attention at the next gath- ering you attend, announce that you believe that at least two people present were born on the same date—that is, the same day of the year but not necessarily the same year. If there are 30 people in the room, the probability of a duplicate is .706. If there are 60 people in the room, the probability is .994 that at least two people share the same birthday. With as few as 23 people the chances are even, that is .50, that at least two people share the same birthday. Hint: To compute this, find the probability everyone was born on a different day and use the complement rule. Try this in your class.

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Definitions Definitions of new terms or terms unique to the study of statistics are set apart from the text and highlighted for easy reference and review. They also appear in the Glossary at the end of the book.


P (Disney) = .60 P (Busch) = .50

P (Disney and Busch) = .30

JOINT PROBABILITY A probability that measures the likelihood two or more events will happen concurrently.

So the general rule of addition, which is used to compute the probability of two events that are not mutually exclusive, is:

GENERAL RULE OF ADDITION P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) − P(A and B) [5–4]

For the expression P(A or B), the word or suggests that A may occur or B may occur. This also includes the possibility that A and B may occur. This use of or is sometimes called an inclusive. You could also write P(A or B or both) to emphasize that the union of the events includes the intersection of A and B.

If we compare the general and special rules of addition, the important difference is determining if the events are mutually exclusive. If the events are mutually exclusive, then the joint probability P(A and B) is 0 and we could use the special rule of addition. Other- wise, we must account for the …