Wave: energy in motion that results from disturbance. The energy that causes this is a disturbance force.
These disturbing forces can be landslides, calving glaciers, seafloor movements like underwater avalanches, volcanic eruptions.
Height, length, period of a wave depends on:
Types of Wave Breakers
Break gradually over considerable distance
Form on shorelines with gentle offshore slopes
Tend to curl over and break with a single crash
Front is concave, back is convex
Form at shorelines with steeper offshore slopes
Peak up but surge onto the back without spilling or plunging
Forms when offshore slopes abruptly and wave energy becomes compressed
Bending of a wave as it propagates over different depths.
Concentrated energy on headlands causes erosion and deposition of sediments.
The periodic rising and falling of the water that results from gravitational pull of the moon and the sun’s action on the rotating earth.
Tidal Cycle includes
Coastal sediment Transport
Net movement of sediment parallel to the shore.
A current that flows parallel to the shore just inside the surf zone.
Also called littoral current
Movement of water back into the ocean through narrow zones through the surf zone
Coastal Sediment Deposition and landforms
accumulation of unconsolidated sediments that covers the shore
they are areas of deposition and are constantly changing
long narrow accumulation of sand that is separated from the mainland by open water (lagoon, estuaries) or by salt marshes.
Emergent and Submergent Coastlines
a coastline that has experienced a fall in sea level due to global sea level change, local uplift, or isostatic rebound.
A coastline hat has experienced a rise in sea level due to global change in sea level or local land subsidence
Coastal land loss by Erosion
Dune and beach recession
Dune and beach breeching and overwash
Barrier island breeching
El Nino effects
Landslides and cliff retreat
Mitigation of coastal erosion